Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. Megalocytiviruses have been implicated in more than 50 fish species infections and currently threaten the aquaculture industry, causing great economic losses in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. However, the cellular entry mechanisms of megalocytiviruses remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, the main internalization mechanism of ISKNV was investigated by using mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) cells. The progression of ISKNV infection is slow, and infection is not inhibited when the cells are treated with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), chloroquine, sucrose, and chlorpromazine, which are inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The depletion of cellular cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin results in the significant inhibition of ISKNV infection; however, the infection is resumed with cholesterol replenishment. Inhibitors of caveolin-1-involved signaling events, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), genistein, and wortmannin, impair ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells. Moreover, ISKNV entry is dependent on dynamin and the microtubule cytoskeleton. Cofraction analysis of ISKNV and caveolin-1 showed that ISKNV colocates with caveolin-1 during virus infection. These results indicate that ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells proceeds via classical caveola-mediated endocytosis and is dependent on the microtubules that serve as tracks along which motile cavicles may move via a caveola-caveosome-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway. As a fish iridovirus, ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells is different from the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of frog virus 3 entry into mammalian cells (BHK-21) at 28°C, which has been recognized as a model for iridoviruses. Thus, our work may help further the understanding of the initial steps of iridovirus infection.
Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) belongs to the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. Megalocytivirus causes severe economic losses to tropical freshwater and marine culture industry in Asian countries and is devastating to the mandarin fish farm industry in China particularly.
We investigated the involvement of microfilaments in the early and late stages of ISKNV infection in MFF-1 cells by selectively perturbing their architecture using well-characterized inhibitors of actin dynamics. The effect of disruption of actin cytoskeleton on ISKNV infection was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence analysis or real-time quantitative PCR.
The depolymerization of the actin filaments with cytochalasin D, cytochalasin B, or latrunculin A reduced ISKNV infection. Furthermore, depolymerization of filamentous actin by inhibitors did not inhibit binding of the virus but affected virus internalization in the early stages of infection. In addition, the depolymerization of actin filaments reduced total ISKNV production in the late stages of ISKNV.
This study demonstrated that ISKNV required an intact actin network during infection. The findings will help us to better understand how iridoviruses exploit the cytoskeleton to facilitate their infection and subsequent disease.
Iridovirus; Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus; Microfilaments
Leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2) is a myeloid differentiation factor 88-interacting protein with a positive regulatory function in toll-like receptor signaling. In this study, seven LRRFIP2 protein variants (LvLRRFIP2A-G) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. All the seven LvLRRFIP2 protein variants encode proteins with a DUF2051 domain. LvLRRFIP2s were upregulated in hemocytes after challenged with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvLRRFIP2 activates the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp AMP genes. The knockdown of LvLRRFIP2 by RNA interference resulted in higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. parahaemolyticus but not S. aureus and WSSV infections. The expression of L. vannamei AMP genes were reduced by dsLvLRRFIP2 interference. These results indicate that LvLRRFIP2 has an important function in antibacterials via the regulation of AMP gene expression.
The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.
The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents.
The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for DSM-IV lifetime anxiety disorders. Adolescents ranged in age from 13-18 years (M = 15.2 years, SE = 0.08 years) and were 39% non-White. Multiple-group latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted by adolescent sex and age to identify subgroups of adolescents with similar anxiety disorder profiles. Developmental and clinical correlates of empirically-derived classes were also examined to assess the nomological validity of identified subgroups.
A seven-class solution provided the best fit to the data, with classes defined primarily by one rather than multiple anxiety disorders. Results also indicated that classes displayed similar diagnostic profiles across age, but varied by sex. Classes characterized by multiple anxiety disorders were consistently associated with a greater degree of persistence, clinical severity, impairment, and comorbidity with other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders.
The presentation of lifetime anxiety disorders among adolescents and the observation of unique correlates of specific classes provide initial evidence for the utility of individual DSM-IV anxiety disorder categories. Although findings of the present study should be considered preliminary, results emphasize the potential value of early intervention and gender-specific conceptualization and treatment of anxiety disorders.
anxiety disorders; lifetime comorbidity; epidemiology; adolescents; National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A); latent class analysis
To analyze the characteristics and technical difficulties of complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (c-VATS) for treatment of pulmonary sequestration operation.
25 cases of c-VATS lobectomy for intrapulmonary sequestration performed between January 2009 and May 2012 were reviewed. The 25 patients included 13 (52%) males and 12 (48%) females, with a mean age of 34.7 years (range, 16-62 years). Preoperative imaging by CT scan and three-dimensional reconstruction of abnormal blood vessels diagnosed 19 cases as pulmonary sequestration, misdiagnosed 1 case as pulmonary cyst syndrome, 4 cases as bronchiectasis and 1 case as benign tumor.
All the patients underwent c-VATS excision, 16 in the left lower lobe, 7 in the right lower lobe, 1 in right middle lobe and 1 extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Vascular abnormality was observed intraoperative including the thoracic aorta in 20 cases, abdominal aorta in 2 cases, phrenic arteries and intercostal artery in 1 cases and thoracic aorta combined with abdominal aorta in 1 case. No conversion to open was achieved in all cases. The mean operating time was 114.2 mins (range, 78-156 mins), the mean blood loss was 228 mL (range, 50-3,000 mL), the mean duration of chest drainage was 3.2 days (range, 2-7 days) and the mean length of post-operative hospital stay was 6.6 days (range, 3-13 days). There was no mortality, without significant postoperative complications, were cured and discharged. Patients were followed up for 2-32 months, mean 21.4 months, with no recurrence.
c-VATS is feasible, effective, and safe in treatment of pulmonary sequestration. It is worthy of clinical application.
Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (c-VATS); pulmonary sequestration; treatment
The bacterial isolate Paracoccus sp. strain FLN-7 hydrolyzes amide pesticides such as diflubenzuron, propanil, chlorpropham, and dimethoate through amide bond cleavage. A gene, ampA, encoding a novel arylamidase that catalyzes the amide bond cleavage in the amide pesticides was cloned from the strain. ampA contains a 1,395-bp open reading frame that encodes a 465-amino-acid protein. AmpA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and homogenously purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. AmpA is a homodimer with an isoelectric point of 5.4. AmpA displays maximum enzymatic activity at 40°C and a pH of between 7.5 and 8.0, and it is very stable at pHs ranging from 5.5 to 10.0 and at temperatures up to 50°C. AmpA efficiently hydrolyzes a variety of secondary amine compounds such as propanil, 4-acetaminophenol, propham, chlorpropham, dimethoate, and omethoate. The most suitable substrate is propanil, with Km and kcat values of 29.5 μM and 49.2 s−1, respectively. The benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron and hexaflumuron) are also hydrolyzed but at low efficiencies. No cofactor is needed for the hydrolysis activity. AmpA shares low identities with reported arylamidases (less than 23%), forms a distinct lineage from closely related arylamidases in the phylogenetic tree, and has different biochemical characteristics and catalytic kinetics with related arylamidases. The results in the present study suggest that AmpA is a good candidate for the study of the mechanism for amide pesticide hydrolysis, genetic engineering of amide herbicide-resistant crops, and bioremediation of amide pesticide-contaminated environments.
Angiotensin II (AngII) induces cardiac hypertrophy and increases the expression of TR3. To determine whether TR3 is involved in the regulation of the pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced by AngII, we established mouse and rat hypertrophy models using chronic AngII administration. Our results reveal that a deficiency of TR3 in mice or the knockdown of TR3 in the left ventricle of rats attenuated AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy compared with the respective controls. A mechanistic analysis demonstrates that the TR3-mediated activation of mTORC1 is associated with AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy. TR3 was shown to form a trimer with the TSC1/TSC2 complex that specifically promoted TSC2 degradation via a proteasome/ubiquitination pathway. As a result, mTORC1, but not mTORC2, was activated; this was accompanied by increased protein synthesis, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and enlarged cell size, thereby resulting in cardiac hypertrophy. This study demonstrates that TR3 positively regulates cardiac hypertrophy by influencing the effect of AngII on the mTOR pathway. The elimination or reduction of TR3 may reduce cardiac hypertrophy; therefore, TR3 is a potential target for clinical therapy.
angiotensin II; cardiac hypertrophy; mammalian target of rapamycin; orphan receptor TR3; tuberous sclerosis complex
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) mRNA expression could predict treatment response of patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (LACSCC) who underwent cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCCRT).
A total of sixty LACSCC patients, treated with radical CCCRT from a single institution were evaluated. ERCC1 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in pre-treatment tumor tissues. The association of ERCC1 status with clinicopathological characteristics (age, histological grade, tumor size, parametrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and FIGO stage) and treatment response were analyzed.
No significant association between ERCC1 mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics were observed. Patients with low ERCC1 mRNA level had a significantly higher rate of complete response (86.21%) than patients with high level of ERCC1 expression (19.36%; p < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, low ERCC1 mRNA level retained an independent role in predicting complete response to CCCRT (P < 0.001). An ERCC1 expression level of 0.0901 was determined as an optimal cutoff value to identify complete response patients to CCCRT treatment. The sensitivity for detection of a complete response was 81.48% with a specificity of 96.97% (area under the curve, 0.893; 95% confidence interval, 0.804–0.983).
This is the first analysis of the association between ERCC1 mRNA levels and treatment response in patients with LACSCC. Low ERCC1 mRNA level appears to be a highly specific predictor of response to CCCRT in LACSCC.
Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1); Cervical squamous cell carcinoma; Chemoradiotherapy; Response prediction
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miR) have been integrated into tumorigenic programs as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. The miR-124 was reported to be attenuated in several tumors, such as glioma, medulloblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, its role in cancer remains greatly elusive. In this study, we show that the miR-124 expression is significantly suppressed in human breast cancer specimens, which is reversely correlated to histological grade of the cancer. More intriguingly, ectopic expression of miR-124 in aggressive breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 strongly inhibits cell motility and invasive capacity, as well as the epithelial–mesenchymal transition process. Also, lentivirus-delivered miR-124 endows MDA-MB-231 cells with the ability to suppress cell colony formation in vitro and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Further studies have identified the E-cadherin transcription repressor Slug as a direct target gene of miR-124; its downregulation by miR-124 increases the expression of E-cadherin, a hallmark of epithelial cells and a repressor of cell invasion and metastasis. Moreover, knockdown of Slug notably impairs the motility of MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas re-expression of Slug abrogates the reduction of motility and invasion ability induced by miR-124 in MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings highlight an important role for miR-124 in the regulation of invasive and metastatic potential of breast cancer and suggest a potential application of miR-124 in cancer treatment.
Most western red cedar asthmatics (WRCA) continue to have symptoms even after removal from exposure. Consequently, health-related quality of life (HRQL) is often impaired. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two measures of AHR and HRQL scores in those with WRCA.
HRQL was determined by the short form 36 (SF-36) in 46 male, non-smoking individuals with WRCA removed from exposure to western red cedar, on average, 15 years earlier. The relationships between the SF-36 total score and its eight domains with 2 indices from methacholine-stimulated airway hyperresponsiveness (the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 [PC20] and bronchial reactivity index [BRI]) were analyzed by the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression.
PC20 was significantly correlated with the SF-36 total score and its two domains of bodily pain and general health (r = 0.34, 0.40, 0.40, p = 0.023, 0.006, 0.006, respectively). BRI was significantly correlated with bodily pain and general health (r = −0.35, −0.42, p = 0.017, 0.004, respectively); correlations remain significant after adjusting for age, ethnicity, years since diagnosis, years since last exposure and use of inhaled corticosteroid. BRI and other measures of airway responsiveness were not associated with inhaled corticosteroids use.
In Western red cedar asthmatics removed from exposure, measures of airway responsiveness are associated with HRQL.
Increasing interest has been devoted to the expression and possible role of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer, but most of these findings are controversial. In the present study, the expression profile of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer and their clinicopathological and prognostic value were determined in a large Chinese cohort.
The mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), and androgen receptor (AR) in primary gastric tumors and corresponding adjacent normal tissues from 60 and 866 Chinese gastric cancer patients was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry method, respectively. The expression profile of the four receptors was compared and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics were assessed by using Chi-square test. The prognostic value of the four receptors in gastric cancer was evaluated by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis.
The presence of ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR in both gastric tumors and normal tissues was confirmed but their expression levels were extremely low except for the predominance of ERβ. The four receptors were expressed independently and showed a decreased expression pattern in gastric tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues. The positive expression of the four receptors all correlated with high tumor grade and intestinal type, and ERα and AR were also associated with early TNM stage and thereby a favorable outcome. However, ERα and AR were not independent prognostic factors for gastric cancer when multivariate survival analysis was performed.
Our findings indicate that the sex hormone receptors may be partly involved in gastric carcinogenesis but their clinicopathological and prognostic significance in gastric cancer appears to be limited.
Gastric cancer; Estrogen receptor alpha; Estrogen receptor beta; Progesterone receptor; Androgen receptor; Prognosis
As part of the human gastrointestinal tract, the oral cavity represents a complex biological system and harbors diverse bacterial species. Unlike the gut microbiota which is often considered a health asset, studies of the oral commensal microbial flora have been largely limited to their implication in oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontal diseases; Little emphasis has been given to their potential beneficial roles, especially the protective effects against oral colonization by foreign/pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we used the salivary microbiota derived from healthy human subjects to investigate protective effects against the colonization and integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, into developing and pre-formed salivary biofilms. When co-cultivated in saliva medium, P. aeruginosa persisted in the planktonic phase, but failed to integrate into salivary microbial community during biofilm formation. Furthermore, in the saliva medium supplemented with 0.05% (w/v) sucrose, the oral flora inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa by producing lactic acid. More interestingly, while pre-formed salivary biofilms were able to prevent P. aeruginosa colonization, the same biofilms recovered from mild chlorhexidine gluconate treatment displayed a shift in microbial composition and showed a drastic reduction in protection. Our study indicates that normal oral communities with balanced microbial compositions could be important in effectively preventing the integration of foreign/pathogenic bacterial species, such as P. aeruginosa.
bacterial interference; microbial flora; oral cavity; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; salivary biofilm
There is limited information on the prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in international population-based studies using common methodology.
To describe the prevalence, impact, patterns of comorbidity, and patterns of service utilization for bipolar spectrum disorder in the WHO World Mental Health survey (WMH) initiative.
Cross-sectional face-to-face household surveys
61,392 community adults in 11 countries in the Americas, Europe, and Asia
Main Outcome Measure
DSM-IV disorders, severity, and treatment assessed with the World Mental Health version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH CIDI 3.0), a fully-structured lay-administered psychiatric diagnostic interview.
The aggregate lifetime prevalence of BP-I disorder was 0.6%, BP-II was 0.4%, subthreshold BP was 1.4%, and Bipolar Spectrum (BPS) was 2.4%. Twelve-month prevalence of BP-I disorder was 0.4%, BP-II was 0.3%, subthreshold BP was 0.8%, and BPS was 1.5%. Severity of both manic and depressive symptoms, and suicidal behavior increased monotonically from subthreshold BP to BP-I. By contrast, role impairment was similar across bipolar subtypes. Symptom severity was greater for depressive than manic episodes, with approximately 75% of respondents with depression and 50% of respondents with mania reporting severe role impairment. Three-quarters of those with BPS met criteria for at least one other disorder, with anxiety disorders, particularly panic attacks, being the most common comorbid condition. Less than half of those with lifetime BPS received mental health treatment, particularly in low-income countries where only 25% reported contact with the mental health system.
Despite cross-site variation in the prevalence rates of bipolar spectrum disorder, the severity, impact, and patterns of comorbidity were remarkably similar internationally. The uniform increases in clinical correlates, suicidal behavior and comorbidity across each diagnostic category provide evidence for the validity of the concept of a bipolar spectrum. BPS treatment needs are often unmet, particularly in low-income countries.
autism; Chinese; amino Acids profiles; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
The aim of this study was to detect the differences in 90K/Mac-2BP expression in prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate tissues, as well as to study the significance of 90K/Mac-2BP in the early diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. Comparative proteomic technologies were used in the present study. Total protein from 10 cases of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate tissue was extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Proteins expressed differentially by more than 2-fold were selected for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) and biological information analysis. The 2-DE patterns of the proteins from the normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer tissues were successfully identified. The average numbers of protein spots were 3,066, 3,289 and 2,986, respectively. There were 31 spots with a difference of more than 2-fold. A total of 18 proteins were identified by MS and database searches. Of these 18 proteins, the most significant differential expression was that of 90K/Mac-2BP. Functional analysis demonstrated that 90K/Mac-2BP (Mac-2 binding protein) overexpression is correlated with the occurrence, proliferation, differentiation and metastasis of cancer cells. The proteomic approach used in the present study was effective and is feasible for identifying differentially expressed proteins in prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate tissues. 90K/Mac-2BP may be important for the early diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer and may also be associated with the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer development.
prostate cancer; 90K; Mac-2BP; 2-DE patterns proteomics
No optimal housekeeping genes (HKGs) have been identified for CD4+ T cells from non-depressive asthmatic and depressive asthmatic adults for normalizing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. The aim of present study was to select appropriate HKGs for gene expression analysis in purified CD4+ T cells from these asthmatics.
Three groups of subjects (Non-depressive asthmatic, NDA, n = 10, Depressive asthmatic, DA, n = 11, and Healthy control, HC, n = 10 respectively) were studied. qPCR for 9 potential HKGs, namely RNA, 28S ribosomal 1 (RN28S1), ribosomal protein, large, P0 (RPLP0), actin, beta (ACTB), cyclophilin A (PPIA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glucuronidase, beta (GUSB) and ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), was performed. Then the data were analyzed with three different applications namely BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder.
The analysis of gene expression data identified B2M and RPLP0 as the most stable reference genes and showed that the level of PPIA was significantly different among subjects of three groups when the two best HKGs identified were applied. Post-hoc analysis by Student-Newman-Keuls correction shows that depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics exhibited lower expression level of PPIA than healthy controls (p<0.05).
B2M and RPLP0 were identified as the most optimal HKGs in gene expression studies involving human blood CD4+ T cells derived from normal, depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics. The suitability of using the PPIA gene as the HKG for such studies was questioned due to its low expression in asthmatics.
In recent years, investigations of Toxoplasma gondii infection in poultry (chickens, ducks, and geese) have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii infection in poultry in northeastern China. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China.
In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in 502 adult chickens, 268 adult ducks, and 128 adult geese was surveyed using the modified agglutination test (MAT).
The seroprevalences of T. gondii were 5.8%, 7.8%, and 4.7% in chickens, ducks, and geese, respectively. Prevalence was higher in free-range groups (11.2%, 12.3%, and 8.9%) than caged groups (4.7%, 7.5%, and 6.0%), and there was a statistically significant difference only between free-range chickens and caged chickens, but no significant difference was found between free-range ducks, geese and caged ducks, geese.
The present study shows the prescence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China, which suggests that consumption of poultry meat in Shenyang may pose a potential threat to human health and should be given attention.
Toxoplasma gondii; Seroprevalence; Chicken; Duck; Goose; MAT
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a universal and essential signaling protein in Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. In this study, two MyD88 protein variants (LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvMyD88 cDNA is 1,848 bp in length and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,428 bp, whereas the LvMyD88-1 cDNA is 1,719 bp in length and has an ORF of 1,299 bp. Both variants encode proteins with death and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains and share 91% sequence identity. In healthy L. vannamei, the LvMyD88 genes were highly expressed in hemocytes but at a low level in the hepatopancreas. The LvMyD88s expression was induced in hemocytes after challenge with lipopolysaccharide, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphyloccocus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus, but not by poly I∶C. Overexpression of LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1 in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to activation of antimicrobial peptide genes and wsv069 (ie1), wsv303, and wsv371. These results suggested that LvMyD88 may play a role in antibacterial and antiviral response in L. vannamei. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MyD88 in shrimp and a variant of MyD88 gene in invertebrates.
The purpose of this study was to explore the factors associated with the recurrence of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs). We examined the recurrence values of clinicopathological variables and GLUT-1, p-Akt and PI3K expression in 42 patients with ACC. Of the 42 patients, 17 developed recurrence following initial surgery. The positive rates of GLUT-1, PI3K and p-Akt protein expression in ACC were 38.1, 38.1 and 50.0%, respectively. The expression of GLUT-1, p-Akt or PI3K protein in ACC was higher than that in inflammatory lesions or benign tumors. Our study demonstrated that T stage, a positive resection margin, perineural invasion, surgery without postoperative radiotherapy and the expression of GLUT-1, PI3K and p-Akt were factors predictive of recurrence by univariate analyses. In multivariate analyses, perineural invasion, a positive resection margin and p-Akt were significant predictors of recurrence. Initial surgery is very significant in the recurrence of ACC. Overexpression of GLUT-1, PI3K and p-Akt may also play a role in its development and recurrence.
adenoid cystic carcinomas; recurrence; immunohistochemistry; glucose transporter-1; PI3K/Akt pathway
Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation are to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and comorbidity of social phobia in a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents; (2) examine differences in the rates and features of social phobia across the proposed DSM-5 social phobia subtypes.
The National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13–18 years in the continental U.S.
Approximately 9% of adolescents met criteria for any social phobia in their lifetime. Of these adolescents, 55.8% were affected with the generalized subtype and 44.2% exhibited non-generalized social phobia. Only 0.7% met criteria for the proposed DSM-5 performance only subtype. Generalized social phobia was more common among female adolescents and risk for this subtype increased with age. Adolescents with generalized social phobia also experienced an earlier age of onset, higher levels of disability and clinical severity, and a greater degree of comorbidity relative to adolescents with non-generalized forms of the disorder.
This study indicates that social phobia is a highly prevalent, persistent, and impairing psychiatric disorder among adolescent youth. Results of this study also provide evidence for the clinical utility of the generalized subtype and highlight the importance of considering the heterogeneity of social phobia in this age group.
Epidemiology; adolescents; social phobia; subtypes; National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement
De-esterification is an important degradation or detoxification mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide in microbes and plants. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of sulfonylurea herbicide de-esterification are still unknown. In this study, a novel esterase gene, sulE, responsible for sulfonylurea herbicide de-esterification, was cloned from Hansschlegelia zhihuaiae S113. The gene contained an open reading frame of 1,194 bp, and a putative signal peptide at the N terminal was identified with a predicted cleavage site between Ala37 and Glu38, resulting in a 361-residue mature protein. SulE minus the signal peptide was synthesized in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified to homogeneity. SulE catalyzed the de-esterification of a variety of sulfonylurea herbicides that gave rise to the corresponding herbicidally inactive parent acid and exhibited the highest catalytic efficiency toward thifensulfuron-methyl. SulE was a dimer without the requirement of a cofactor. The activity of the enzyme was completely inhibited by Ag+, Cd2+, Zn2+, methamidophos, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. A sulE-disrupted mutant strain, ΔsulE, was constructed by insertion mutation. ΔsulE lost the de-esterification ability and was more sensitive to the herbicides than the wild type of strain S113, suggesting that sulE played a vital role in the sulfonylurea herbicide resistance of the strain. The transfer of sulE into Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 conferred on it the ability to de-esterify sulfonylurea herbicides and increased its resistance to the herbicides. This study has provided an excellent candidate for the mechanistic study of sulfonylurea herbicide metabolism and detoxification through de-esterification, construction of sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant transgenic crops, and bioremediation of sulfonylurea herbicide-contaminated environments.
To understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families.
A hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 2008–2009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The incidence of outpatient influenza cases in Zhuhai was estimated on the basis of the number of influenza patients detected by the sentinel sites. A telephone survey on the direct costs associated with illness was conducted as a follow-up.
The incidence of influenza was estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 19.2 per 1,000 population in 2009. Children aged <5 years were the most-affected population, suffering from influenza at the highest rates (34.3 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 95.3 per 1,000 population in 2009). A high incidence of 29.2–40.9 per 1000 population was also seen in young people aged 5–24 years in 2009. ILI activity and influenza virus isolations adopted a consistent seasonal pattern, with a summer peak in July 2008 and the longest epidemic period lasting from July–December 2009. The medical costs per episode of influenza among urban patients were higher than those for rural patients. A total of $1.1 million in direct economic losses were estimated to be associated with outpatient influenza during 2008–2009 in Zhuhai community.
Influenza attacks children aged <5 years in greater proportions than children in other age groups. Seasonal influenza 2008 and Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 had different epidemiological and etiological characteristics. Direct costs (mostly medical costs) impose an enormous burden on the patient family. Vaccination strategies for high-risk groups need to be further strengthened.
Whether or not variations in gene and protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma present at the time of surgery can enable the identification of patients at high risk for developing bone metastasis was examined.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most commonly develops in patients who have a viral infection, especially in the case of hepatitis B virus (HBV), and in patients with a chronic liver disease. HCC patients with bone metastasis (BM) suffer from pain and other symptoms that significantly reduce their quality of life. Identification of patients who are at high risk for BM after undergoing potentially curative treatment for HCC remains challenging. Here, we aimed to identify HCC BM-related genes and proteins to establish prediction biomarkers.
RNA was extracted from 48 pairs of intratumoral and peritumoral formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from HCC patients with and without BM. A cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation assay containing 502 cancer-related genes was used to identify novel BM-associated genes. An additional independent study with 350 HCC patients who had undergone hepatectomy was conducted to evaluate the expression of candidate genes at the protein level using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (TMAs). Of the 350 patients, 273 (78.0%) were infected with HBV.
Seven intratumoral genes and 17 peritumoral genes were overexpressed in patients with BM, whereas 15 intratumoral genes and 28 peritumoral genes were underexpressed in patients with BM. We selected the following four genes for further analysis because they were differentially expressed in the cancer gene-specific microarray and were previously reported to be associated with BM: connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and interleukin-11 (IL-11). We assessed the protein expression of these selected genes using immunohistochemistry on TMAs including 350 HCC patient specimens. We determined that expression of intratumoral CTGF, intratumoral IL-11, and peritumoral MMP-1 were independent prognostic factors for developing BM in HCC patients. Combining intratumoral CTGF and IL-11 expression was also an independent risk factor for BM development.
Sixty-seven genes were differentially expressed in HCC patients with and without BM. High intratumoral CTGF, positive IL-11, and high peritumoral MMP-1 expression were associated with BM after hepatectomy. Intratumoral CTGF expression combined with IL-11 expression may serve as a useful predictive biomarker for HCC BM.
Gene expression; Tissue microarray; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Bone metastases