Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-8 (8)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  The impact of oral health literacy on periodontal health status 
The objective of this study was to describe oral health literacy (OHL) among periodontal patients and to examine its association with periodontal health status.
This cross-sectional study included new and referred patients presenting to the University of North Carolina Graduate Periodontology Clinic. Sociodemographic and dental history information were collected. OHL was measured using a dental word recognition instrument, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy-30 (REALD-30). Clinical periodontal examinations were completed.
One hundred and twenty-eight participants enrolled and 121 completed all study examinations and instruments. Despite a high level of education among participants in our study, low levels of OHL were found in one-third (33 percent) of the study population. Thirty-one percent had moderate OHL (score of 22–25), 37 percent had high OHL (score ≥ 26). The mean REALD-30 score was 23. Fifty-three percent of participants had severe periodontitis, 29 percent had moderate periodontitis, and 18 percent had mild or no periodontitis. Bivariate analysis showed a significant association between OHL and periodontal status (P < 0.05). The effect of OHL on periodontal health status remained statistically significant (P < 0.002) even after controlling for smoking, race, and dental insurance.
Lower OHL was associated with more severe periodontal disease among new and referred patients presenting to the University of North Carolina Graduate Periodontology Clinics.
PMCID: PMC3800213  PMID: 23121152
oral health; literacy; health literacy; periodontitis; periodontal disease
2.  Differential cytotoxicity of long-chain bases for human oral gingival epithelial keratinocytes, oral fibroblasts, and dendritic cells 
Data in Brief  2015;5:285-291.
Long-chain bases, found in the oral cavity, have potent antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. In an article associated with this dataset, Poulson and colleagues determined the cytotoxicities of long-chain bases (sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and phytosphingosine) for human oral gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes, oral gingival fibroblasts (GF), dendritic cells (DC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines [1]. Poulson and colleagues found that GE keratinocytes were more resistant to long-chain bases as compared to GF, DC, and SCC cell lines [1]. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of DC to lower concentrations of long chain bases. 0.2–10.0 µM long-chain bases and GML were not cytotoxic to DC; 40.0–80.0 µM long-chain bases, but not GML, were cytotoxic for DC; and 80.0 µM long-chain bases were cytotoxic to DC and induced cellular damage and death in less than 20 mins. Overall, the LD50 of long-chain bases for GE keratinocytes, GF, and DC were considerably higher than their minimal inhibitory concentrations for oral pathogens, a finding important to pursuing their future potential in treating periodontal and oral infections.
PMCID: PMC4596918  PMID: 26550599
Cytotoxicity; Human oral gingival epithelial keratinocytes; Oral gingival fibroblasts; Dendritic cells; Oral squamous cell carcinoma cells; Sphingosine; Dihydrosphingosine; Phytosphingosine; Glycerol monolaurate
3.  Quantitation of SPLUNC1 in saliva with an xMAP particle-based antibody capture and detection immunoassay 
Archives of Oral Biology  2011;57(2):197-204.
The short palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein may be differentially expressed in oral infections, oral inflammatory disorders, or oral malignancies and may be involved in innate immune responses in the oral cavity. However, the actual concentration of SPLUNC1 in saliva has not previously been determined. In this study, we determined the concentrations of SPLUNC1 in saliva using a particle-based antibody capture and detection immunoassay. A commercial goat anti-rhSPLUNC1 polyclonal antibody (AF1897) was linked to fluorescent polystyrene microspheres and used as the capture antibody. A commercial mouse IgG2b anti-rhSPLUNC1 monoclonal antibody (MAB1897) was biotinylated and used as the detection antibody. Western blot and 2-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) analysis of immunoprecipitated rhSPLUNC1 and SPLUNC1 from saliva were used to show that the capture AF1897 and detection MAB1897 antibodies both recognized SPLUNC1. Protein concentrations in saliva from 20 subjects ranged from 0.9 to 23.9 mg/ml; SPLUNC1 concentrations ranged from 34.7 ng/ml to 13.8 μg/ml; and SPLUNC concentrations normalized per mg of total salivary protein ranged from 4.7 ng/ml to 5.3 μg/ml. These results show that SPLUNC1 is detected in saliva in a variety of concentrations. This immunoassay may prove to be useful in determining the concentration of SPLUNC1 in saliva for assessing its role in the pathogenesis of oral infections, oral inflammatory disorders, or oral malignancies.
PMCID: PMC3260398  PMID: 21925642
SPLUNC; SPLUNC1; Luminex; xMAP; saliva; innate immunity
4.  Influence of smoking on gingival crevicular fluid cytokines in severe chronic periodontitis 
The aim of this study was to compare the expression of 22 chemokines and cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and periodontally healthy control subjects.
Materials and Methods
Forty subjects with generalized severe chronic periodontitis (20 smokers and 20 non-smokers) and 12 periodontally healthy control subjects participated in this study. Four diseased and 2 healthy sites were selected from each of the periodontitis subjects. GCF samples were collected and cytokines analyzed utilizing a multiplexed immunoassay (Luminex®). Statistical analyses employed non-parametric tests including the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests.
Compared to healthy control subjects, GCF in subjects with chronic periodontitis contained significantly higher amounts of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p40) (pro-inflammatory cytokines); IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES (chemokines); IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-4 (Th1/Th2 cytokines); IL-15 (regulator of T-cells and NK cells). Smokers displayed decreased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12 (p40)), chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES) and regulators of T-cells and NK cells (IL-7, IL-15).
Periodontitis subjects had significantly elevated cytokine and chemokine profiles. Smokers exhibited a decrease in several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and certain regulators of T-cells and NK-cells. This reflects the immunosuppressant effects of smoking which may contribute to an enhanced susceptibility to periodontitis.
PMCID: PMC3038432  PMID: 21198766
Smoking; periodontal disease; immune response; periodontitis/etiology; chronic periodontitis; gingival crevicular fluid
5.  Targeted antimicrobial activity of a specific IgG–SMAP28 conjugate against Porphyromonas gingivalis in a mixed culture 
Antimicrobial peptides coupled to a ligand, receptor or antibody for a specific pathogenic bacteria could be used to develop narrow-spectrum pharmaceuticals with ‘targeted’ antimicrobial activity void of adverse reactions often associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. To assess the feasibility of this approach, in this study sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide (SMAP) 28 was linked to affinity- and protein G-purified rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific to the outer surface of Porphyromonas gingivalis strain 381. The selective activity of the P. gingivalis IgG–SMAP28 conjugate was then assessed by adding it to an artificially generated microbial community containing P. gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Peptostreptococcus micros. The specificity of the P. gingivalis IgG–SMAP28 conjugate in this mixed culture was concentration-dependent. The conjugate at 50 μg protein/mL lacked specificity and killed P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. micros. The conjugate at 20 μg protein/mL was more specific and killed P. gingivalis. This is an initial step to develop a selective antimicrobial agent that can eliminate a specific periodontal pathogen, such as P. gingivalis, from patients with periodontal disease without harming the normal commensal flora.
PMCID: PMC3169388  PMID: 18778918
Porphyromonas gingivalis; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Peptostreptococcus micros; Cathelicidins; Targeted antimicrobial activity; SMAP28
6.  Human β-Defensins 2 and 3 Demonstrate Strain-Selective Activity against Oral Microorganisms 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(3):1024-1029.
Human β-defensins 2 and 3 (HBD-2 and HBD-3) are inducible peptides present at sites of infection in the oral cavity. A few studies have reported broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity for both peptides. However, no comprehensive study has thoroughly investigated their potential against oral pathogens. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of HBD-2 and HBD-3 against a collection of oral organisms (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Peptostreptococcus micros, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, and Candida albicans). Radial diffusion assays were used to test HBD-2 and HBD-3 activities against at least three strains of each species. There was significant variability in MICs, which was strain specific rather than species specific. MICs ranged from 3.9 to >250 μg/ml for HBD-2 and from 1.4 to >250 μg/ml for HBD-3. HBD-3 demonstrated greater antimicrobial activity and was effective against a broader array of organisms. Overall, aerobes were 100% susceptible to HBD-2 and HBD-3, whereas only 21.4 and 50% of the anaerobes were susceptible to HBD-2 and HBD-3, respectively. HBD-2 and HBD-3 also demonstrated strain-specific activity against the Candida species evaluated. Interestingly, an association between HBD-2 and HBD-3 activities was noted. This suggests that the two peptides may have similar mechanisms yet utilize distinct pathways. The lack of activity against specific anaerobic strains and Candida warrants further investigation of the potential resistance mechanisms of these organisms. Finally, the significant variability between strains underlies the importance of testing multiple strains when evaluating activities of antimicrobial peptides.
PMCID: PMC356847  PMID: 15004048
7.  Susceptibilities of Oral Bacteria and Yeast to Mammalian Cathelicidins 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2001;45(11):3216-3219.
The effects of cathelicidins against oral bacteria and clinically important oral yeasts are not known. We tested the susceptibilities of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis and Candida albicans to the following cathelicidins: FALL39, SMAP29, and CAP18. SMAP29 and CAP18 were antimicrobial, whereas FALL39 did not exhibit antimicrobial activity. Future studies are needed to determine the potential use of these antimicrobial peptides in prevention and treatment of oral infections.
PMCID: PMC90809  PMID: 11600383
8.  Production of β-Defensin Antimicrobial Peptides by the Oral Mucosa and Salivary Glands 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(6):2740-2745.
β-Defensins are cationic peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that are produced by epithelia at mucosal surfaces. Two human β-defensins, HBD-1 and HBD-2, were discovered in 1995 and 1997, respectively. However, little is known about the expression of HBD-1 or HBD-2 in tissues of the oral cavity and whether these proteins are secreted. In this study, we characterized the expression of HBD-1 and HBD-2 mRNAs within the major salivary glands, tongue, gingiva, and buccal mucosa and detected β-defensin peptides in salivary secretions. Defensin mRNA expression was quantitated by RNase protection assays. HBD-1 mRNA expression was detected in the gingiva, parotid gland, buccal mucosa, and tongue. Expression of HBD-2 mRNA was detected only in the gingival mucosa and was most abundant in tissues with associated inflammation. To test whether β-defensin expression was inducible, gingival keratinocyte cell cultures were treated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. HBD-2 expression increased ∼16-fold with IL-1β treatment and ∼5-fold in the presence of LPS. Western immunoblotting, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry were used to identify the HBD-1 and HBD-2 peptides in human saliva. Human β-defensins are expressed in oral tissues, and the proteins are secreted in saliva; HBD-1 expression was constitutive, while HBD-2 expression was induced by IL-1β and LPS. Human β-defensins may play an important role in the innate defenses against oral microorganisms.
PMCID: PMC96577  PMID: 10338476

Results 1-8 (8)