The aim of this study was to compare the expression of 22 chemokines and cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and periodontally healthy control subjects.
Materials and Methods
Forty subjects with generalized severe chronic periodontitis (20 smokers and 20 non-smokers) and 12 periodontally healthy control subjects participated in this study. Four diseased and 2 healthy sites were selected from each of the periodontitis subjects. GCF samples were collected and cytokines analyzed utilizing a multiplexed immunoassay (Luminex®). Statistical analyses employed non-parametric tests including the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests.
Compared to healthy control subjects, GCF in subjects with chronic periodontitis contained significantly higher amounts of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p40) (pro-inflammatory cytokines); IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES (chemokines); IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-4 (Th1/Th2 cytokines); IL-15 (regulator of T-cells and NK cells). Smokers displayed decreased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12 (p40)), chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES) and regulators of T-cells and NK cells (IL-7, IL-15).
Periodontitis subjects had significantly elevated cytokine and chemokine profiles. Smokers exhibited a decrease in several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and certain regulators of T-cells and NK-cells. This reflects the immunosuppressant effects of smoking which may contribute to an enhanced susceptibility to periodontitis.