The ability to measure the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines from intestinal biopsies in patients with Crohn’s disease in an accurate and reproducible way is critical for proof-of-concept and mechanism-of-action trials; however, the number of biopsies from a segment of the ileum or colon required to yield reproducible results has not been rigorously evaluated. We examined intestinal biopsies from patients with Crohn’s disease to validate methods for detecting changes in inflammatory gene expression.
To evaluate the reproducibility of gene expression measurements, intestinal biopsies were obtained from designated segmentsfrom6 healthy controls, 6 patients with active Crohn’s disease, and 6 patients with inactive Crohn’s disease. Disease activity was based on the simple endoscopic score for Crohn’s disease (SES-CD). Expression of 7 pro-inflammatory genes was measured from each biopsy using quantitative PCR. Using a linear mixed effects model, the power to detect transcriptional changes corresponding to active and inactive Crohn’s disease was calculated.
Total SES-CD score corresponds with expression of most inflammatory biomarkers. For most genes, 2 – 5biopsies are needed to reduce sampling error to <25% for most genes. To measure changes in mRNA expression corresponding to active versus inactive Crohn’s disease, one to two intestinal biopsies from 3 patients before and after treatment are needed to yield power of at least 80%.
Measuring pro-inflammatory gene expression from mucosal biopsies from patients with Crohn’s disease is practicable and provides objective biomarkers that can be utilized in proof-of-concept and mechanism-of-action trials to assess response to therapy.
Crohn’s disease; gene expression; biomarker; coefficient of variation; sampling error; proof-of-concept; power
Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Several of these inhibitors showed strong in vitro activity against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia trophozoites. The inhibitors were rescreened to discriminate between amebicidal and giardicidal activity and general cytotoxicity toward a mammalian cell line. No mammalian cytotoxicity was found at >100 μM for 48 h for any of the inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of action, a competitive binding assay was performed using the fluorescent ATP analogue bis-ANS (4,4′-dianilino-1,1′-binaphthyl-5,5′-disulfonic acid dipotassium salt) and recombinant E. histolytica Hsp90 preincubated in both the presence and absence of Hsp90 inhibitors. There was significant reduction in fluorescence compared to the level in the control, suggesting that E. histolytica Hsp90 is a selective target. The in vivo efficacy and safety of one Hsp90 inhibitor in a mouse model of amebic colitis and giardiasis was demonstrated by significant inhibition of parasite growth at a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Considering the results for in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, Hsp90 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option for amebiasis and giardiasis.
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) curtails immune responses to microbial infection and autoantigens and contributes to intestinal immune homeostasis, yet administration of IL-10 has not been effective at attenuating chronic intestinal inflammatory conditions, suggesting that its immune functions may be context dependent. To gain a broader understanding of the importance of IL-10 in controlling mucosal immune responses to infectious challenges, we employed the murine attaching and effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, which colonizes primarily the surfaces of the cecum and colon and causes transient mucosal inflammation driven by Th17 and Th1 T helper cells. Infection induced macrophage and dendritic cell production of IL-10, which diminished antibacterial host defenses, because IL-10-deficient mice cleared infection faster than wild-type controls. In parallel, the mice had less acute infection-associated colitis and resolved it more rapidly than controls. Importantly, transient C. rodentium infection protected IL-10-deficient mice against the later development of spontaneous colitis that normally occurs with aging in these mice. Genome-wide expression studies revealed that IL-10 deficiency was associated with downregulation of proinflammatory pathways but increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-27 in response to infection. IL-27 was found to suppress in vitro Th17 and, to a lesser degree, Th1 differentiation independent of IL-10. Furthermore, neutralization of IL-27 resulted in more severe colitis in infected IL-10-deficient mice. Together, these findings indicate that IL-10 is dispensable for resolving C. rodentium-associated colitis and further suggest that IL-27 may be a critical factor for controlling intestinal inflammation and Th17 and Th1 development by IL-10-independent mechanisms.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promotes tumor development under chronic inflammation. Because TNF also activates caspase-8, selective inhibition of TNF-induced extrinsic apoptosis would be required for inflammation-associated tumor growth. In a mouse model of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis, we found nuclear expression of β-catenin in tumors of wild-type, but not mutant, mice that were made resistant to TNF-induced apoptosis by a germline mutation blocking caspase cleavage of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein, despite similar frequencies of β-catenin exon-3 mutations in these two genetic backgrounds. TNF-induced apoptosis was also attenuated in human colon cancer cell lines with genetically activated β-catenin. However, we found that HCT116 cells, which contain an activated allele of β-catenin but do not express nuclear β-catenin, were sensitive to TNF-induced apoptosis. In HCT116 cells, TNF stimulated efficient RB cleavage that preceded chromatin condensation. In contrast, TNF did not induce RB cleavage in colon cancer cells expressing nuclear β-catenin and these cells could be sensitized to basal and/or TNF-induced apoptosis by the knockdown of β-catenin or RB. In the apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells, knockdown of β-catenin led to a reduction in the RB protein without affecting RB mRNA. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the caspase-resistant, but not the wild-type, RB re-established resistance to TNF-induced caspase activation in colon cancer cells without β-catenin. Together, these results suggest that nuclear β-catenin–dependent RB stabilization suppresses TNF-induced apoptosis in caspase-8–positive colon cancer cells.
The intestinal epithelium has a high rate of turnover, and dysregulation of pathways that regulate regeneration can lead to tumor development; however, the negative regulators of oncogenic events in the intestinal epithelium are not fully understood. Here we identified a feedback loop between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known mediator of proliferation, and the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We found that TRPV1 was expressed by IECs and was intrinsically activated upon EGFR stimulation. Subsequently, TRPV1 activation inhibited EGFR-induced epithelial cell proliferation via activation of Ca2+/calpain and resulting activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). In a murine model of multiple intestinal neoplasia (ApcMin/+ mice), TRPV1 deficiency increased adenoma formation, and treatment of these animals with an EGFR kinase inhibitor reversed protumorigenic phenotypes, supporting a functional association between TRPV1 and EGFR signaling in IECs. Administration of a TRPV1 agonist suppressed intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice, similar to — as well as in conjunction with — a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, which suggests that targeting both TRPV1 and COX-2 has potential as a therapeutic approach for tumor prevention. Our findings implicate TRPV1 as a regulator of growth factor signaling in the intestinal epithelium through activation of PTP1B and subsequent suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis.
The p53 protein has not only important tumor suppressor activity, but also additional immunological and other functions, whose nature and extent are only beginning to be recognized. Here we show that p53 has a novel inflammation-promoting action in the intestinal tract, since loss of p53 or the upstream activating kinase, ATM, protects against acute intestinal inflammation in murine models. Mechanistically, deficiency in p53 leads to increased survival of epithelial cells and lamina propria macrophages, higher IL-6 expression due to enhanced glucose-dependent NF-κB activation, and increased mucosal STAT3 activation. Blockade or loss of IL-6 signaling reverses the protective effects of p53 deficiency. Conversely, IL-6 treatment protects against acute colitis in a manner dependent on STAT3 signaling and induction of cytoprotective factors in epithelial cells. Together, these results indicate that p53 promotes inflammation in the intestinal tract through suppression of epithelium-protective factors, thus significantly expanding the spectrum of physiological and immunological p53 activities unrelated to cancer formation.
Intraepithelial γδ T lymphocytes (IEL) play important roles in repair of tissue damage at epithelial sites such as skin and intestine. Molecules that orchestrate these γδ T cell functions are not well defined. Recently, interaction of the semaphorin CD100 on skin γδ T cells with plexin B2 on keratinocytes was shown to be important for effective γδ T cell function in the epidermis, which raised the possibility that CD100 may exert similar functions in the intestinal tract. In this study, we find that CD100 is expressed on all IEL, and plexin B2 is present on all epithelial cells of the mouse colon. Using the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of colitis, disease severity is significantly exacerbated in CD100 deficient (CD100−/−) mice, with increased colon ulceration and mucosal infiltration with inflammatory cells. The severe colitis in CD100−/− mice is attributable to the failure of the colon epithelium to mount a proliferative response to damage. Unlike wild type γδ IEL, γδ IEL from CD100−/− mice fail to produce keratinocyte growth factor-1 (KGF-1) in response to DSS treatment. Administration of recombinant KGF-1 to CD100−/− animals ameliorates disease and reverses colitis susceptibility. These results demonstrate that CD100 mediated signals are critical for effective activation of γδ IEL to produce growth factors, including KGF-1, that are required for healing of the colon epithelium during colitis.
Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, yet preventive medical strategies are not available. A crude veterinary vaccine has been licensed for cats and dogs, but no defined human vaccine is available. We tested the vaccine potential of three conserved antigens previously identified in human and murine giardiasis, α1-giardin, α-enolase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase, in a murine model of G. lamblia infection. Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains were constructed that stably expressed each antigen, maintained colonization capacity, and sustained total attenuation in the host. Oral administration of the vaccine strains induced antigen-specific serum IgG, particularly IgG2A, and mucosal IgA for α1-giardin and α-enolase, but not for ornithine carbamoyl transferase. Immunization with the α1-giardin vaccine induced significant protection against subsequent G. lamblia challenge, which was further enhanced by boosting with cholera toxin or sublingual α1-giardin administration. The α-enolase vaccine afforded no protection. Analysis of α1-giardin from divergent assemblage A and B isolates of G. lamblia revealed >97% amino acid sequence conservation and immunological cross-reactivity, further supporting the potential utility of this antigen in vaccine development. Together. these results indicate that α1-giardin is a suitable candidate antigen for a vaccine against giardiasis.
Giardiasis; live oral vaccines; animal models
Detection of microbial constituents by membrane associated and cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors is the essence of innate immunity, leading to activation of protective host responses. However, it is still unclear how immune cells specifically respond to pathogenic bacteria. Using virulent and non-virulent strains of Bacillus anthracis, we have shown that secretion of ATP by infected macrophages and the sequential activation of the P2X7 purinergic receptor and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)- like receptors are critical for IL-1-dependent host protection from virulent B. anthracis. Importantly, lethal toxin produced by virulent B. anthracis blocked activation of protein kinases, p38 MAPK and AKT, resulting in opening of a connexin ATP release channel and induction of macrophage death. Prevention of cell death or ATP release through constitutive p38 or AKT activation interfered with inflammasome activation and IL-1β production, thereby compromising anti-microbial immunity.
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling is activated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a virus-associated molecular pattern. Injection of dsRNA into mice induced a rapid, dramatic and reversible remodeling of the small intestinal mucosa with significant villus shortening. Villus shortening was preceded by increased caspase 3 and 8 activation and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) located in the mid to upper villus with ensuing luminal fluid accumulation and diarrhea due to an increased secretory state. Mice lacking TLR3 or the adaptor molelcule TRIF mice were completely protected from dsRNA-induced IEC apoptosis, villus shortening and diarrhea. dsRNA induced apoptosis was independent of TNF signaling. Notably, NF-κB signaling through IκB kinase beta protected crypt IECs but did not protect villus IECs from dsRNA-induced or TNF-induced apoptosis. dsRNA did not induce early caspase 3 activation with subsequent villus shortening in mice lacking caspase 8 in IECs, but instead caused villus destruction with a loss of small intestinal surface epithelium and death. Consistent with direct activation of the TLR3-TRIF-caspase 8 signaling pathway by dsRNA in IECs, dsRNA-induced signaling of apoptosis was independent of non-TLR3 dsRNA signaling pathways, IL-15, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IRF3, type I IFN receptor, adaptive immunity, as well as dendritic cells, NK cells, and other hematopoietic cells. We conclude that dsRNA activation of the TLR3-TRIF-caspase 8 signaling pathway in IECs has a significant impact on the structure and function of the small intestinal mucosa and suggest signaling through this pathway has a host protective role during infection with viral pathogens.
Approximately 2% of colorectal cancer is linked to pre-existing inflammation known as colitis-associated cancer, but most develops in patients without underlying inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal cancer often follows a genetic pathway whereby loss of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor and activation of β-catenin are followed by mutations in K-Ras, PIK3CA and TP53, as the tumour emerges and progresses1,2. Curiously, however, ‘inflammatory signature’ genes characteristic of colitis-associated cancer are also upregulated in colorectal cancer3,4. Further, like most solid tumours, colorectal cancer exhibits immune/inflammatory infiltrates5, referred to as ‘tumour elicited inflammation’6. Although infiltrating CD4+ TH1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells constitute a positive prognostic sign in colorectal cancer7,8, myeloid cells and T-helper interleukin (IL)-17-producing (TH17) cells promote tumorigenesis5,6, and a ‘TH17 expression signature’ in stage I/II colorectal cancer is associated with a drastic decrease in disease-free survival9. Despite its pathogenic importance, the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of tumour-elicited inflammation are poorly understood. Many epithelial cancers develop proximally to microbial communities, which are physically separated from immune cells by an epithelial barrier10. We investigated mechanisms responsible for tumour-elicited inflammation in a mouse model of colorectal tumorigenesis, which, like human colorectal cancer, exhibits upregulation of IL-23 and IL-17. Here we show that IL-23 signalling promotes tumour growth and progression, and development of a tumoural IL-17 response. IL-23 is mainly produced by tumour-associated myeloid cells that are likely to be activated by microbial products, which penetrate the tumours but not adjacent tissue. Both early and late colorectal neoplasms exhibit defective expression of several barrier proteins. We propose that barrier deterioration induced by colorectal-cancer-initiating genetic lesions results in adenoma invasion by microbial products that trigger tumour-elicited inflammation, which in turn drives tumour growth.
Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. Treatment is primarily with 5-nitro antimicrobials, particularly metronidazole. Resistance to metronidazole has been described, and treatment failures can occur in up to 20% of cases, making development of alternative antigiardials an important goal. To this end, we have screened a chemical library of 746 approved human drugs and 164 additional bioactive compounds for activity against Giardia lamblia. We identified 56 compounds that caused significant inhibition of G. lamblia growth and attachment. Of these, 15 were previously reported to have antigiardial activity, 20 were bioactive but not approved for human use, and 21 were drugs approved for human use for other indications. One notable compound of the last group was the antirheumatic drug auranofin. Further testing revealed that auranofin was active in the low (4 to 6)-micromolar range against a range of divergent G. lamblia isolates representing both human-pathogenic assemblages A and B. Most importantly, auranofin was active against multiple metronidazole-resistant strains. Mechanistically, auranofin blocked the activity of giardial thioredoxin oxidoreductase, a critical enzyme involved in maintaining normal protein function and combating oxidative damage, suggesting that this inhibition contributes to the antigiardial activity. Furthermore, auranofin was efficacious in vivo, as it eradicated infection with different G. lamblia isolates in different rodent models. These results indicate that the approved human drug auranofin could be developed as a novel agent in the armamentarium of antigiardial drugs, particularly against metronidazole-resistant strains.
Purpose of review
The present review discusses the physiological functions of selected caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing sensor and adaptor proteins and their role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases.
Myeloid and lymphoid cells as well as intestinal epithelial cells express several intracellular CARD-containing proteins. CARD-containing sensors, particularly NOD1 (CARD4), NOD2 (CARD15) and IPAF (CARD12), have an important role in the detection of conserved microbial structures of invading microbial pathogens. Upon ligand recognition and activation, the sensors interact through CARD domains with downstream CARD-containing adaptors including CARD9, RIP2 (CARD3) and ASC (CARD5). Recent data suggest that multiple signaling pathways from Toll-like receptors and non-Toll-receptor pathways converge on these adaptor proteins and that their functions are crucial for the initiation of innate immune responses to invading microbial pathogens.
CARD-containing adaptors and sensors represent an important family of molecules involved in innate host defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and in the regulation of inflammatory responses, suggesting that further insights into their physiological functions may yield new pharmacological strategies for treating intestinal inflammatory conditions.
caspase recruitment domain; innate immunity; intestinal host defense; microbial sensor
Giardia lamblia, an important cause of diarrheal disease, resides in the small intestinal lumen in close apposition to epithelial cells. Since the disease mechanisms underlying giardiasis are poorly understood, elucidating the specific interactions of the parasite with the host epithelium is likely to provide clues to understanding the pathogenesis. Here we tested the hypothesis that contact of Giardia lamblia with intestinal epithelial cells might lead to release of specific proteins. Using established co-culture models, intestinal ligated loops and a proteomics approach, we identified three G. lamblia proteins (arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase and enolase), previously recognized as immunodominant antigens during acute giardiasis. Release was stimulated by cell–cell interactions, since only small amounts of argi-nine deiminase and enolase were detected in the medium after culturing of G. lamblia alone. The secreted G. lamblia proteins were localized to the cytoplasm and the inside of the plasma membrane of trophozoites. Furthermore, in vitro studies with recombinant arginine deiminase showed that the secreted Giardia proteins can disable host innate immune factors such as nitric oxide production. These results indicate that contact of Giardia with epithelial cells triggers metabolic enzyme release, which might facilitate effective colonization of the human small intestine.
Parasite; Cell–cell interaction; Innate immunity; Secretory product; Arginine deiminase; Enolase
Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus cause common sexually transmitted infections in humans and cattle, respectively. Mouse models of trichomoniasis are important for pathogenic and therapeutic studies. Here, we compared murine genital infections with T. vaginalis and T. foetus. Persistent vaginal infection with T. foetus was established with 100 parasites but T. vaginalis infection required doses of 106, perhaps because of greater susceptibility to killing by mouse vaginal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infection with T. vaginalis persisted longest after combined treatment of mice with estrogen and dexamethasone, whereas infection was only short-lived when mice were given estrogen or dexamethasone alone, co-infected with Lactobacillus acidophilus, and/or pretreated with antibiotics. Infection rates were similar with metronidazole-resistant (MR) and metronidazole-sensitive (MS) T. vaginalis. High dose but not low dose metronidazole treatment controlled infection with MS better than MR T. vaginalis. These murine models will be valuable for investigating the pathogenesis and treatment of trichomoniasis.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in young children, yet symptoms and duration are highly variable for unknown reasons. Citrobacter rodentium, a murine model pathogen that shares important functional features with EPEC, colonizes mice in colon and cecum and causes inflammation, but typically little or no diarrhea. We conducted genome-wide microarray studies to define mechanisms of host defense and disease in C. rodentium infection. A significant fraction of the genes most highly induced in the colon by infection encoded CXC chemokines, particularly CXCL1/2/5 and CXCL9/10, which are ligands for the chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR3, respectively. CD11b+ dendritic cells were the major producers of CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL9, while CXCL2 was mainly induced in macrophages. Infection of gene-targeted mice revealed that CXCR3 had a significant but modest role in defense against C. rodentium, whereas CXCR2 had a major and indispensable function. CXCR2 was required for normal mucosal influx of neutrophils, which act as direct antibacterial effectors. Moreover, CXCR2 loss led to severe diarrhea and failure to express critical components of normal ion and fluid transport, including ATPase β2-subunit, CFTR, and DRA. The antidiarrheal functions were unique to CXCR2, since other immune defects leading to increased bacterial load and inflammation did not cause diarrhea. Thus, CXCR2-dependent processes, particularly mucosal neutrophil influx, not only contribute to host defense against C. rodentium, but provide protection against infection-associated diarrhea.
The mechanism of action of, and resistance to, metronidazole in the anaerobic (or micro-aerotolerant) protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia has long been associated with the reduction of ferredoxin (Fd) by the enzyme pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and the subsequent activation of metronidazole by Fd to toxic radical species. Resistance to metronidazole has been associated with down-regulation of PFOR and Fd. The aim of this study was to determine whether the PFOR/Fd couple is the only pathway involved in metronidazole activation in Giardia.
PFOR and Fd activities were measured in extracts of highly metronidazole-resistant (MTRr) lines and activities of recombinant G. lamblia thioredoxin reductase (GlTrxR) and NADPH oxidase were assessed for their involvement in metronidazole activation and resistance.
We demonstrated that several lines of highly MTRr G. lamblia have fully functional PFOR and Fd indicating that PFOR/Fd-independent mechanisms are involved in metronidazole activation and resistance in these cells. Flavin-dependent GlTrxR, like TrxR of other anaerobic protozoa, reduces 5-nitroimidazole compounds including metronidazole, although expression of TrxR is not decreased in MTRr Giardia. However, reduction of flavins is suppressed in highly MTRr cells, as evidenced by as much as an 80% decrease in NADPH oxidase flavin mononucleotide reduction activity. This suppression is consistent with generalized impaired flavin metabolism in highly MTRr Trichomonas vaginalis.
These data add to the mounting evidence against the dogma that PFOR/Fd is the only couple with a low enough redox potential to reduce metronidazole in anaerobes and point to the multi-factorial nature of metronidazole resistance.
metronidazole; ronidazole; tinidazole; Blastocystis; NADPH oxidase
The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of potentially fatal amebic colitis and liver abscesses. E. histolytica trophozoites colonize the colon, where they induce inflammation, penetrate the mucosa, and disrupt the host immune system. The early establishment of E. histolytica in the colon occurs in the presence of antimicrobial human (LL-37) and murine (CRAMP [cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide]) cathelicidins, essential components of the mammalian innate defense system in the intestine. Studying this early step in the pathogenesis of amebic colitis, we demonstrate that E. histolytica trophozoites or their released proteinases, including cysteine proteinase 1 (EhCP1), induce intestinal cathelicidins in human intestinal epithelial cell lines and in a mouse model of amebic colitis. Despite induction, E. histolytica trophozoites were found to be resistant to killing by these antimicrobial peptides, and LL-37 and CRAMP were rapidly cleaved by released amebic cysteine proteases. The cathelicidin fragments however, did maintain their antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Degradation of intestinal cathelicidins is a novel function of E. histolytica cysteine proteinases in the evasion of the innate immune system in the bowel. Thus, early intestinal epithelial colonization of invasive trophozoites involves a complex interplay in which the ultimate outcome of infection depends in part on the balance between degradation of cathelicidins by amebic released cysteine proteinases and upregulation of proinflammatory mediators which trigger the inflammatory response.
Infections with the diarrheagenic protozoan pathogen Giardia lamblia are most commonly treated with metronidazole (Mz). Treatment failures with Mz occur in 10 to 20% of cases and Mz resistance develops in the laboratory, yet clinically, Mz-resistant (Mzr) G. lamblia has rarely been isolated from patients. To understand why clinical Mzr isolates are rare, we questioned whether Mz resistance entails fitness costs to the parasite. Our studies employed several newly generated and established isogenic Mzr cell lines with stable, high-level resistance to Mz and significant cross-resistance to tinidazole, nitazoxanide, and furazolidone. Oral infection of suckling mice revealed that three of five Mzr cell lines could not establish infection, while two Mzr cell lines infected pups, albeit with reduced efficiencies. Failure to colonize resulted from a diminished capacity of the parasite to attach to the intestinal mucosa in vivo and to epithelial cells and plastic surfaces in vitro. The attachment defect was related to impaired glucose metabolism, since the noninfectious Mzr lines consumed less glucose, and glucose promoted ATP-independent parasite attachment in the parental lines. Thus, resistance of Giardia to Mz is accompanied by a glucose metabolism-related attachment defect that can interfere with colonization of the host. Because glucose-metabolizing pathways are important for activation of the prodrug Mz, it follows that a fitness trade-off exists between diminished Mz activation and reduced infectivity, which may explain the observed paucity of clinical Mzr isolates of Giardia. However, the data also caution that some forms of Mz resistance do not markedly interfere with in vivo infectivity.
Constitutive NF-κB activation in IECs induces inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the lamina propria, but does not result in overt tissue damage unless acute inflammatory insults are present, causing TNF-dependent destruction and barrier disruption.
Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, activated by IκB kinase (IKK), is a key regulator of inflammation, innate immunity, and tissue integrity. NF-κB and one of its main activators and transcriptional targets, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are up-regulated in many inflammatory diseases that are accompanied by tissue destruction. The etiology of many inflammatory diseases is poorly understood, but often depends on genetic factors and environmental triggers that affect NF-κB and related pathways. It is unknown, however, whether persistent NF-κB activation is sufficient for driving symptomatic chronic inflammation and tissue damage. To address this question, we generated IKKβ(EE)IEC mice, which express a constitutively active form of IKKβ in intestinal epithelial cell (IECs). IKKβ(EE)IEC mice exhibit NF-κB activation in IECs and express copious amounts of inflammatory chemokines, but only small amounts of TNF. Although IKKβ(EE)IEC mice exhibit inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria (LP) of their small intestine, they do not manifest tissue damage. Yet, upon challenge with relatively mild immune and microbial stimuli, IKKβ(EE)IEC mice succumb to destructive acute inflammation accompanied by enterocyte apoptosis, intestinal barrier disruption, and bacterial translocation. Inflammation is driven by massive TNF production, which requires additional activation of p38 and extracellular-signal–regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).
cAMP, the intracellular signaling molecule produced in response to GPCR signaling, has long been recognized as an immunosuppressive agent that inhibits T cell receptor activation and T cell function. However, recent studies show that cAMP also promotes T cell–mediated immunity. Central to cAMP production downstream of GPCR activation is the trimeric G protein Gs. In order to reconcile the reports of divergent effects of cAMP in T cells and to define the direct effect of cAMP in T cells, we engineered mice in which the stimulatory Gα subunit of Gs (Gαs) could be deleted in T cells using CD4-Cre (GnasΔCD4). GnasΔCD4 CD4+ T cells had reduced cAMP accumulation and Ca2+ influx. In vitro and in vivo, GnasΔCD4 CD4+ T cells displayed impaired differentiation to specific Th subsets: Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced or absent, but Th2 and regulatory T cells were unaffected. Furthermore, GnasΔCD4 CD4+ T cells failed to provoke colitis in an adoptive transfer model, indicating reduced inflammatory function. Restoration of cAMP levels rescued the impaired phenotype of GnasΔCD4 CD4+ T cells, reinstated the PKA-dependent influx of Ca2+, and enhanced the ability of these cells to induce colitis. Our findings thus define an important role for cAMP in the differentiation of Th subsets and their subsequent inflammatory responses, and provide evidence that altering cAMP levels in CD4+ T cells could provide an immunomodulatory approach targeting specific Th subsets.
The 5-nitroimidazole (NI) compound C17, with a side chain carrying a remote phenyl group in the 2-position of the imidazole ring, is at least 14-fold more active against the gut protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia than the 5-NI drug metronidazole (MTR), with a side chain in the 1-position of the imidazole ring, which is the primary drug for the treatment of giardiasis. Over 10 months, lines resistant to C17 were induced in vitro and were at least 12-fold more resistant to C17 than the parent strains. However, these lines had ID90 values (concentration of drug at which 10% of control parasite ATP levels are detected) for MTR of >200 μM, whilst lines induced to be highly resistant to MTR in vitro have maximum ID90 values around 100 μM (MTR-susceptible isolates typically have an ID90 of 5–12.8 μM). The mechanism of MTR activation in Giardia apparently involves reduction to toxic radicals by the activity of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and the electron acceptor ferredoxin. MTR-resistant Giardia have decreased PFOR activity, which is consistent with decreased activation of MTR in these lines, but C17-resistant lines have normal levels of PFOR. Therefore, an alternative mechanism of resistance in Giardia must account for these super-MTR-resistant cells.
Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; Tinidazole; Ronidazole; 5-Nitroimidazole; Cross-resistance
By dampening DUBA expression, IL-1 receptor signals facilitate TLR9-driven TRAF3 ubiquitination, antiinflammatory cytokine production, and resistance to DSS-induced colitis.
The interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are highly homologous innate immune receptors that provide the first line of defense against infection. We show that IL-1R type I (IL-1RI) is essential for TLR9-dependent activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and for production of the antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and type I interferon (IFN). Noncanonical K63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF3, which is essential for type I IFN and IL-10 production, was impaired in Il1r1−/− CD11c+ dendritic cells. In contrast, degradative ubiquitination of TRAF3 was not affected in the absence of IL-1R1 signaling. Deubiquitinating enzyme A (DUBA), which selectively cleaves K63-linked ubiquitin chains from TRAF3, was up-regulated in the absence of IL-1R1 signaling. DUBA short interference RNA augmented the TLR9-dependent type I IFN response. Mice deficient in IL-1RI signaling showed reduced expression of IL-10 and type I IFN and increased susceptibility to dextran sulphate sodium–induced colitis and failed to mount a protective type I IFN response after TLR9 ligand (CpG) administration. Our data identifies a new molecular pathway by which IL-1 signaling attenuates TLR9-mediated proinflammatory responses.
Attachment to the small intestinal mucosa is crucial for initiating and maintaining Giardia infection. We tested the effect of isoflavones on Giardia attachment.
We evaluated the effect of formononetin on trophozoite attachment to glass, to intestinal epithelial cell layers in vitro and to murine small intestinal explants, and on the intestinal load in mice.
We found that the isoflavone formononetin inhibits both attachment and flagellar motility within minutes and reduces the trophozoite load of Giardia in mice within 1.5 h after treatment.
The antigiardial activity of formononetin is at least partially due to its capacity to rapidly detach trophozoites.
attachment; flagella; antigiardial drugs