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1.  A kinetic analysis of the inhibition of FOX-4 β-lactamase, a plasmid-mediated AmpC cephalosporinase, by monocyclic β-lactams and carbapenems 
Objectives
Class C β-lactamases are prevalent among Enterobacteriaceae; however, these enzymes are resistant to inactivation by commercially available β-lactamase inhibitors. In order to find novel scaffolds to inhibit class C β-lactamases, the comparative efficacy of monocyclic β-lactam antibiotics (aztreonam and the siderophore monosulfactam BAL30072), the bridged monobactam β-lactamase inhibitor BAL29880, and carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem) were tested in kinetic assays against FOX-4, a plasmid-mediated class C β-lactamase (pmAmpC).
Methods
The FOX-4 β-lactamase was purified. Steady-state kinetics, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ultraviolet difference (UVD) spectroscopy were conducted using the β-lactam scaffolds described.
Results
The Ki values for the monocyclic β-lactams against FOX-4 β-lactamase were 0.04 ± 0.01 μM (aztreonam) and 0.66 ± 0.03 μM (BAL30072), and the Ki value for the bridged monobactam BAL29880 was 8.9 ± 0.5 μM. For carbapenems, the Ki values ranged from 0.27 ± 0.05 μM (ertapenem) to 2.3 ± 0.3 μM (imipenem). ESI-MS demonstrated the formation of stable covalent adducts when the monocyclic β-lactams and carbapenems were reacted with FOX-4 β-lactamase. UVD spectroscopy suggested the appearance of different chromophoric intermediates.
Conclusions
Monocyclic β-lactam and carbapenem antibiotics are effective mechanism-based inhibitors of FOX-4 β-lactamase, a clinically important pmAmpC, and provide stimulus for the development of new inhibitors to inactivate plasmidic and chromosomal class C β-lactamases.
doi:10.1093/jac/dkt434
PMCID: PMC3922156  PMID: 24235094
bridged monobactams; monosulfactam; β-lactamase inhibitors; carbapenems
2.  In Vitro and In Vivo Properties of BAL30376, a β-Lactam and Dual β-Lactamase Inhibitor Combination with Enhanced Activity against Gram-Negative Bacilli That Express Multiple β-Lactamases ▿  
BAL30376 is a triple combination comprising a siderophore monobactam, BAL19764; a novel bridged monobactam, BAL29880, which specifically inhibits class C β-lactamases; and clavulanic acid, which inhibits many class A and some class D β-lactamases. The MIC90 was ≤4 μg/ml (expressed as the concentration of BAL19764) for most species of the Enterobacteriaceae family, including strains that produced metallo-β-lactamases and were resistant to all of the other β-lactams tested. The MIC90 for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was 2 μg/ml, for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa it was 8 μg/ml, and for MDR Acinetobacter and Burkholderia spp. it was 16 μg/ml. The presence of the class C β-lactamase inhibitor BAL29880 contributed significantly to the activity of BAL30376 against strains of Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter species, Serratia marcescens, and P. aeruginosa. The presence of clavulanic acid contributed significantly to the activity against many strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae that produced class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases. The activity of BAL30376 against strains with metallo-β-lactamases was largely attributable to the intrinsic stability of the monobactam BAL19764 toward these enzymes. Considering its three components, BAL30376 was unexpectedly refractory toward the development of stable resistance.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01370-10
PMCID: PMC3067176  PMID: 21245441
3.  In vitro activity of BAL30072 against Burkholderia pseudomallei 
Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intrinsically antibiotic-resistant Category B priority pathogen and the aetiological agent of melioidosis. Treatment of B. pseudomallei infection is biphasic and lengthy in order to combat the acute and chronic phases of the disease. Acute-phase treatment preferably involves an intravenous cephalosporin (ceftazidime) or a carbapenem (imipenem or meropenem). In this study, the anti-B. pseudomallei efficacy of a new monosulfactam, BAL30072, was tested against laboratory strains 1026b and 1710b and several isogenic mutant derivatives as well as a collection of clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei strains from Thailand. More than 93% of the isolates had minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range 0.004–0.016 μg/mL. For the laboratory strain 1026b, the MIC of BAL30072 was 0.008 μg/mL, comparable with the MICs of 1.5 μg/mL for ceftazidime, 0.5 μg/mL for imipenem and 1 μg/mL for meropenem. Time–kill curves revealed that BAL30072 was rapidly bactericidal, killing >99% of bacteria in 2 h. BAL30072 activity was not significantly affected by efflux, it was only a marginal substrate of PenA β-lactamase, and activity was independent of malleobactin production and transport and the ability to transport pyochelin. In summary, BAL30072 has superior in vitro activity against B. pseudomallei compared with ceftazidime, meropenem or imipenem and it is rapidly bactericidal.
doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.03.019
PMCID: PMC3124586  PMID: 21596528
Burkholderia pseudomallei; Melioidosis; Therapy; Monosulfactam; Efflux; Siderophore
4.  In Vitro Properties of BAL30072, a Novel Siderophore Sulfactam with Activity against Multiresistant Gram-Negative Bacilli▿  
BAL30072 is a new monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic belonging to the sulfactams. Its spectrum of activity against significant Gram-negative pathogens with β-lactam-resistant phenotypes was evaluated and was compared with the activities of reference drugs, including aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefepime, meropenem, imipenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam. BAL30072 showed potent activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. isolates, including many carbapenem-resistant strains. The MIC90s were 4 μg/ml for MDR Acinetobacter spp. and 8 μg/ml for MDR P. aeruginosa, whereas the MIC90 of meropenem for the same sets of isolates was >32 μg/ml. BAL30072 was bactericidal against both Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa, even against strains that produced metallo-β-lactamases that conferred resistance to all other β-lactams tested, including aztreonam. It was also active against many species of MDR isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae family, including isolates that had a class A carbapenemase or a metallo-β-lactamase. Unlike other monocyclic β-lactams, BAL30072 was found to trigger the spheroplasting and lysis of Escherichia coli rather than the formation of extensive filaments. The basis for this unusual property is its inhibition of the bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins PBP 1a and PBP 1b, in addition to its high affinity for PBP 3, which is the target of monobactams, such as aztreonam.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01525-09
PMCID: PMC2876421  PMID: 20308379

Results 1-4 (4)