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1.  Protein Binding of Rifapentine and Its 25-Desacetyl Metabolite in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis 
Rifapentine is highly protein bound in blood, but the free, unbound drug is the microbiologically active fraction. In this exploratory study, we characterized the free plasma fraction of rifapentine in 41 patients with tuberculosis. We found a lower total rifapentine concentration but significantly higher free rifapentine levels in African patients of black race compared to non-Africans. These data support larger pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies to confirm these findings and assess free rifapentine in relation to microbiological and clinical outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4136068  PMID: 24841270
2.  A Markov Chain Model to Evaluate the Effect of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 Polymorphisms on Adverse Events Associated with Tacrolimus in Pediatric Renal Transplantation 
The AAPS Journal  2013;15(4):1189-1199.
The SNP A6986G of the CYP3A5 gene (*3) results in a non-functional protein due to a splicing defect whereas the C3435T was associated with variable expression of the ABCB1 gene, due to protein instability. Part of the large interindividual variability in tacrolimus efficacy and toxicity can be accounted for by these genetic factors. Seventy-two individuals were examined for A6986G and C3435T polymorphism using a PCR-RFLP-based technique to estimate genotype and allele frequencies in the Jordanian population. The association of age, hematocrit, platelet count, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 polymorphisms with tacrolimus dose- and body-weight-normalized levels in the subset of 38 pediatric renal transplant patients was evaluated. A Markov model was used to evaluate the time-dependent probability of an adverse event occurrence by CYP3A5 phenotypes and ABCB1 genotypes. The time-dependent probability of adverse event was about double in CYP3A5 non-expressors compared to the expressors for the first 12 months of therapy. The CYP3A5 non-expressors had higher corresponding normalized tacrolimus levels compared to the expressors in the first 3 months. The correlation trend between probability of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus concentrations for the two CYP3A5 phenotypes persisted for the first 9 months of therapy. The differences among ABCB1 genotypes in terms of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus levels were only observed in the first 3 months of therapy. The information on CYP3A5 genotypes and tacrolimus dose requirement is important in designing effective programs toward management of tacrolimus side effects particularly for the initial dose when tacrolimus blood levels are not available for therapeutic drug monitoring.
PMCID: PMC3787223  PMID: 23990505
ABCB1; adverse events; CYP3A5; Markov; tacrolimus
3.  Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of the Unbound Levofloxacin Concentrations in Rat Plasma and Prostate Tissue Measured by Microdialysis 
Levofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone used in the treatment of both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Currently, the treatment of bacterial prostatitis is still difficult, especially due to the poor distribution of many antimicrobials into the prostate, thus preventing the drug to reach effective interstitial concentrations at the infection site. Newer fluoroquinolones show a greater penetration into the prostate. In the present study, we compared the unbound levofloxacin prostate concentrations measured by microdialysis to those in plasma after a 7-mg/kg intravenous bolus dose to Wistar rats. Plasma and dialysate samples were analyzed using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. Both noncompartmental analysis (NCA) and population-based compartmental modeling (NONMEM 6) were performed. Unbound prostate tissue concentrations represented 78% of unbound plasma levels over a period of 12 h by comparing the extent of exposure (unbound AUC0–∞) of 6.4 and 4.8 h·μg/ml in plasma and tissue, respectively. A three-compartment model with simultaneous passive diffusion and saturable distribution kinetics from the prostate to the central compartment gave the best results in terms of curve fitting, precision of parameter estimates, and model stability. The following parameter values were estimated by the population model: V1 (0.38 liter; where V1 represents the volume of the central compartment), CL (0.22 liter/h), k12 (2.27 h−1), k21 (1.44 h−1), k13 (0.69 h−1), Vmax (7.19 μg/h), kM (0.35 μg/ml), V3/fuprostate (0.05 liter; where fuprostate represents the fraction unbound in the prostate), and k31 (3.67 h−1). The interindividual variability values for V1, CL, Vmax, and kM were 21, 37, 42, and 76%, respectively. Our results suggest that levofloxacin is likely to be substrate for efflux transporters in the prostate.
PMCID: PMC3910848  PMID: 24217697
4.  Estimation of Intracellular Concentration of Stavudine Triphosphate in HIV-Infected Children Given a Reduced Dose of 0.5 Milligrams per Kilogram Twice Daily 
The antiviral efficacy of stavudine depends on the trough concentration of its intracellular metabolite, stavudine-triphosphate (d4T-TP), while the degree of stavudine's mitochondrial toxicity depends on its peak concentration. Rates of mitochondrial toxicity are high when stavudine is used at the current standard pediatric dose (1 mg/kg twice daily [BID]). Evidence from adult work suggests that half of the original standard adult dose (i.e., 20 mg BID) may be equally effective, with markedly less mitochondrial toxicity. We present a population pharmacokinetic model to predict intracellular d4T-TP concentrations in pediatric HIV-infected patients administered a dose of 0.5 mg/kg BID. Our model predicted that the reduced pediatric dose would result in a trough intracellular d4T-TP concentration above that of the reduced 20-mg adult dose and a peak concentration below that of the 20-mg adult dose. The simulated pediatric intracellular d4T-TP at 0.5 mg/kg BID resulted in median peak and trough values of approximately 23.9 fmol/106 cells (95% prediction interval [PI], 14.2 to 41 fmol/106 cells) and 14.8 fmol/106 cells (95% PI, 7.2 to 31 fmol/106 cells), respectively. The peak and trough concentrations resulting from a 20-mg BID adult dose were 28.4 fmol/106 cells (95% PI, 17.3 to 45.5 fmol/106 cells) and 13 fmol/106 cells (95% PI, 6.8 to 28.6 fmol/106 cells), respectively. Halving the current standard pediatric dose should therefore not compromise antiviral efficacy, while markedly reducing mitochondrial toxicity.
PMCID: PMC3910857  PMID: 24295968
5.  Grapefruit–medication interactions 
PMCID: PMC3612155  PMID: 23550054
6.  Importance of Relating Efficacy Measures to Unbound Drug Concentrations for Anti-Infective Agents 
Clinical Microbiology Reviews  2013;26(2):274-288.
For the optimization of dosing regimens of anti-infective agents, it is imperative to have a good understanding of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Whenever possible, drug efficacy needs to be related to unbound concentrations at the site of action. For anti-infective drugs, the infection site is typically located outside plasma, and a drug must diffuse through capillary membranes to reach its target. Disease- and drug-related factors can contribute to differential tissue distribution. As a result, the assumption that the plasma concentration of drugs represents a suitable surrogate of tissue concentrations may lead to erroneous conclusions. Quantifying drug exposure in tissues represents an opportunity to relate the pharmacologically active concentrations to an observed pharmacodynamic parameter, such as the MIC. Selection of an appropriate specimen to sample and the advantages and limitations of the available sampling techniques require careful consideration. Ultimately, the goal will be to assess the appropriateness of a drug and dosing regimen for a specific pathogen and infection.
PMCID: PMC3623378  PMID: 23554417
7.  Largazole Pharmacokinetics in Rats by LC-MS/MS 
Marine Drugs  2014;12(3):1623-1640.
A highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of largazole thiol, the active species of the marine-derived preclinical histone deacetylase inhibitor, largazole (prodrug), was developed and validated. Largazole thiol was extracted with ethyl acetate from human or rat plasma along with the internal standard, harmine. Samples were separated on an Onyx Monolithic C18 column by a stepwise gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid in methanol and 0.1% aqueous formic acid employing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 12.5–400 ng/mL with 200 µL of human plasma. The overall intra-day precision was from 3.87% to 12.6%, and the inter-day precision was from 7.12% to 9.8%. The accuracy at low, medium and high concentrations ranged from 101.55% to 105.84%. Plasma protein bindings of largazole thiol in human and rat plasma as determined by an ultrafiltration method were 90.13% and 77.14%, respectively. Plasma drug concentrations were measured by this LC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetics of largazole thiol in rats was studied following i.v. administration at 10 mg/kg and found to follow a two-compartment model. Largazole thiol was rapidly eliminated from systemic circulation within 2 h. The established LC-MS/MS method is suitable for the analysis of largazole thiol in human plasma, as well.
PMCID: PMC3967229  PMID: 24658499
largazole; LC-MS/MS; pharmacokinetics; protein binding
8.  Relevance of liver failure for anti-infective agents: from pharmacokinetic alterations to dosage adjustments 
The liver is a complex organ with great ability to influence drug pharmacokinetics (PK). Due to its wide array of function, its impairment has the potential to affect bioavailability, enterohepatic circulation, drug distribution, metabolism, clearance, and biliary elimination. These alterations differ widely depending on the cause of the liver failure, if it is acute or chronic in nature, the extent of impairment, and comorbid conditions. In addition, the effects on liver functions do not occur in a proportional or predictable manner for escalating degrees of liver impairment. The ability of hepatic alterations to influence PK is also dependent on drug characteristics, such as administration route, chemical properties, protein binding, and extraction ratio, among others. This complexity makes it difficult to predict what effects these changes will have on a particular drug. Unlike certain classes of agents, efficacy of anti-infectives is most often dependent on fulfilling PK/pharmacodynamic targets, such as maximum concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (Cmax/MIC), area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC), time above MIC (T>MIC), half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) or half-maximal effective concentration (EC50), or the time above the concentration which inhibits viral replication by 95% (T>EC95). Loss of efficacy and/or an increased risk of toxicity may occur in certain circumstances of liver injury. Although it is important to consider these potential alterations and their effects on specific anti-infectives, many lack data to constitute specific dosing adjustments, making it important to monitor patients for effectiveness and toxicities of therapy.
PMCID: PMC4059611  PMID: 24949199
antibiotics; liver impairment; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics
9.  Oral Adherence Monitoring Using a Breath Test to Supplement Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy 
AIDS and behavior  2013;17(1):298-306.
A breath-based adherence system to document ingestion of oral medications (e.g., HAART) was investigated. Specifically, the food additive 2-butanol, which can be easily packaged with a drug, is converted via alcohol dehydrogenase to the volatile metabolite 2-butanone that rapidly appears in breath, indicating adherence. In healthy adults using a portable sensor and GC-MS, the following experiments were performed: yield of 2-butanone in breath following ingestion of 2-butanol, adherence system accuracy, and potential interference of the adherence system by food or misplacement of 2-butanol on the tongue. During feasibility testing, every subject exhaled 2-butanone with 6.6±1.5 min to peak concentrations of 548±235 ppb following ingestion of 2-butanol (40 mg). ROC areas at 5 and 10 min were 0.95 (0.86–1.00) and 3 1.00 (1.00–1.00). Food did not interfere. Tongue application resulted in large concentrations of 2-butanol, but not 2-butanone. A breath test to provide definitive evidence of oral medication adherence appears technically feasible.
PMCID: PMC3548996  PMID: 23001413
adherence; antiretroviral therapy; behavioral interventions; prevention of sexual transmission; sexual behavior
11.  Skin and soft tissue concentrations of tedizolid (formerly torezolid), a novel oxazolidinone, following a single oral dose in healthy volunteers 
Plasma concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have long been used to correlate exposure with effect, yet one cannot always assume that unbound plasma and tissue concentrations are similar. Knowledge about unbound tissue concentrations is important in the development of antimicrobial drugs, since most infections are localised in tissues. Therefore, a clinical microdialysis study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of tedizolid (TR-700), the active moiety of the antimicrobial prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), into interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues following a single oral 600 mg dose of tedizolid phosphate in fasting conditions. Twelve healthy adult subjects were enrolled. Two microdialysis probes were implanted into the thigh of each subject, one into the vastus medialis muscle and one into subcutaneous adipose tissue. Probes were calibrated using retrodialysis. Dialysate samples were collected every 20 min for 12 h following a single oral dose of 600 mg tedizolid phosphate, and blood samples were drawn over 24 h. Unbound tedizolid levels in plasma were similar to those in muscle and adipose tissue. The ratios of unbound (free) AUC in tissues over unbound AUC in plasma (fAUCtissue/fAUCplasma) were 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 for adipose and muscle tissue, respectively. The median half-life was 8.1, 9.2 and 9.6 h for plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue, respectively. Mean protein binding was 87.2 ± 1.8%. The study drug was very well tolerated. The results of this study show that tedizolid distributes well into ISF of adipose and muscle tissues. Unbound levels of tedizolid in plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue were well correlated. Free plasma levels are indicative of unbound levels in the ISF of muscle and adipose tissues.
PMCID: PMC3789129  PMID: 22584101
Microdialysis; Tissue distribution; Tedizolid; Pharmacokinetics
12.  Tobacco smoke exposure induces nicotine dependence in rats 
Psychopharmacology  2009;208(1):143-158.
Tobacco smoke contains nicotine and many other compounds that act in concert on the brain reward system. Therefore, animal models are needed that allow the investigation of chronic exposure to the full spectrum of tobacco smoke constituents.
The aim of these studies was to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke leads to nicotine dependence in rats.
The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal. Somatic signs were recorded from a checklist of nicotine abstinence signs. Nicotine self-administration sessions were conducted to investigate if tobacco smoke exposure affects the motivation to self-administer nicotine. Nicotinic receptor autoradiography was used to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke affects central α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and non-α7 nAChR levels (primarily α4β2 nAChRs).
The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine dose-dependently elevated the brain reward thresholds of the rats exposed to tobacco smoke and did not affect the brain reward thresholds of the untreated control rats. Furthermore, mecamylamine induced more somatic withdrawal signs in the smoke exposed rats than in the control rats. Nicotine self-administration was decreased 1 day after the last tobacco smoke exposure sessions and was returned to control levels 5 days later. Tobacco smoke exposure increased the α7 nAChR density in the CA2/3 area and the stratum oriens and increased the non-α7 nAChR density in the dentate gyrus.
Tobacco smoke exposure leads to nicotine dependence as indicated by precipitated affective and somatic withdrawal signs and induces an upregulation of nAChRs in the hippocampus.
PMCID: PMC3586198  PMID: 19936715
Tobacco; nicotine; dependence; withdrawal; rats
13.  Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Meropenem and Biapenem in Bile and Dosing Considerations for Biliary Tract Infections Based on Site-Specific Pharmacodynamic Target Attainment ▿ 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(12):5609-5615.
The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics of meropenem and biapenem in bile and estimated their pharmacodynamic target attainment at the site. Meropenem (0.5 g) or biapenem (0.3 g) was administered to surgery patients (n = 8 for each drug). Venous blood samples and hepatobiliary tract bile samples were obtained at the end of infusion (0.5 h) and for up to 5 h thereafter. Drug concentrations in plasma and bile were analyzed pharmacokinetically and used for a Monte Carlo simulation to predict the probability of attaining the pharmacodynamic target (40% of the time above the MIC). Both drugs penetrated similarly into bile, with mean bile/plasma ratios of 0.24 to 0.25 (maximum drug concentration) and 0.30 to 0.38 (area under the drug concentration-time curve). The usual regimens of meropenem (0.5 g every 8 h [q8h]) and biapenem (0.3 g q8h) (0.5-h infusions) achieved similar target attainment probabilities in bile (≥90%) against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates. However, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, meropenem at 1 g q8h and biapenem at 0.6 g q8h were required for values of 80.7% and 71.9%, respectively. The biliary pharmacodynamic-based breakpoint (the highest MIC at which the target attainment probability in bile was ≥90%) was 1 mg/liter for 0.5 g q8h and 2 mg/liter for 1 g q8h for meropenem and 0.5 mg/liter for 0.3 g q8h and 1 mg/liter for 0.6 g q8h for biapenem. These results help to define the clinical pharmacokinetics of the two carbapenems in bile while also helping to rationalize and optimize the dosing regimens for biliary tract infections based on site-specific pharmacodynamic target attainment.
PMCID: PMC3232762  PMID: 21947393
14.  Preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure leads to acute nicotine dependence but does not affect the rewarding effects of nicotine or nicotine withdrawal in adulthood in rats 
Epidemiological studies indicate that parental smoking increases the risk for smoking in children. However, the underlying mechanisms by which parental smoking increases the risk for smoking are not known. The aim of these studies was to investigate if preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure, postnatal days 21–35, affects the rewarding effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal in adult rats. The rewarding effects of nicotine were investigated with the conditioned place preference procedure. Nicotine withdrawal was investigated with the conditioned place aversion procedure and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Elevations in brain reward thresholds in the ICSS paradigm reflect a dysphoric state. Plasma nicotine and cotinine levels in the preadolescent rats immediately after smoke exposure were 188 ng/ml and 716 ng/ml, respectively. Preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure lead to the development of nicotine dependence as indicated by an increased number of mecamylamine-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the preadolescent tobacco smoke exposed rats compared to the control rats. Nicotine induced similar place preference in adult rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke or air during preadolescence. Furthermore, mecamylamine induced place aversion in nicotine dependent rats but there was no effect of preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure. Finally, preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure did not affect the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated or spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. These studies indicate that passive exposure to tobacco smoke during preadolescence leads to the development of nicotine dependence but preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure does not seem to affect the rewarding effects of nicotine or nicotine withdrawal in adulthood.
PMCID: PMC3337036  PMID: 20211642
Tobacco smoke; nicotine; preadolescent; reward; withdrawal; ICSS; rats
15.  Protein Binding: Do We Ever Learn?▿ 
Although the influence of protein binding (PB) on antibacterial activity has been reported for many antibiotics and over many years, there is currently no standardization for pharmacodynamic models that account for the impact of protein binding of antimicrobial agents in vitro. This might explain the somewhat contradictory results obtained from different studies. Simple in vitro models which compare the MIC obtained in protein-free standard medium versus a protein-rich medium are prone to methodological pitfalls and may lead to flawed conclusions. Within in vitro test systems, a range of test conditions, including source of protein, concentration of the tested antibiotic, temperature, pH, electrolytes, and supplements may influence the impact of protein binding. As new antibiotics with a high degree of protein binding are in clinical development, attention and action directed toward the optimization and standardization of testing the impact of protein binding on the activity of antibiotics in vitro become even more urgent. In addition, the quantitative relationship between the effects of protein binding in vitro and in vivo needs to be established, since the physiological conditions differ. General recommendations for testing the impact of protein binding in vitro are suggested.
PMCID: PMC3122431  PMID: 21537013
16.  PA-824 Exhibits Time-Dependent Activity in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis▿  
PA-824 is one of two nitroimidazoles in phase II clinical trials to treat tuberculosis. In mice, it has dose-dependent early bactericidal and sterilizing activity. In humans with tuberculosis, PA-824 demonstrated early bactericidal activity (EBA) at doses ranging from 200 to 1,200 mg per day, but no dose-response effect was observed. To better understand the relationship between drug exposure and effect, we performed a dose fractionation study in mice. Dose-ranging pharmacokinetic data were used to simulate drug exposure profiles. Beginning 2 weeks after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, total PA-824 doses from 144 to 4,608 mg/kg were administered as 3, 4, 8, 12, 24, or 48 divided doses over 24 days. Lung CFU counts after treatment were strongly correlated with the free drug T>MIC (R2 = 0.87) and correlated with the free drug AUC/MIC (R2 = 0.60), but not with the free drug Cmax/MIC (R2 = 0.17), where T>MIC is the cumulative percentage of the dosing interval that the drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions and AUC is the area under the concentration-time curve. When the data set was limited to regimens with dosing intervals of ≤72 h, both the T>MIC and the AUC/MIC values fit the data well. Free drug T>MIC of 22, 48, and 77% were associated with bacteriostasis, a 1-log kill, and a 1.59-log kill (or 80% of the maximum observed effect), respectively. Human pharmacodynamic simulations based on phase I data predict 200 mg/day produces free drug T>MIC values near the target for maximal observed bactericidal effect. The results support the recently demonstrated an EBA of 200 mg/day and the lack of a dose-response between 200 and 1,200 mg/day. T>MIC, in conjunction with AUC/MIC, is the parameter on which dose optimization of PA-824 should be based.
PMCID: PMC3019674  PMID: 20937781
17.  Thromboelastographic and Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Micro- and Macro-emulsions of Propofol in the Swine 
Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition  2010;31(5-6):269-277.
Compared to traditional macroemulsion propofol formulations currently in clinical use, microemulsion formulations of this common intravenous anesthetic may offer advantages. We characterized the pharmacokinetics and coagulation effects as assessed by thromboelastography of these formulations in swine.
Yorkshire swine (20-30 kg, either sex, n=15) were sedated, anesthetized with isoflurane, and instrumented to obtain a tracheostomy, internal jugular access, and carotid artery catheterization. Propofol (2 mg/kg, 30 s) was administered as macroemulsion (10 mg/mL; Diprivan®; n=7) or a custom (2 mg/kg, 30 s) microemulsion (10 mg/mL; n=8). Arterial blood specimens acquired pre- and post-injection (1 and 45 min) were used for thromboelastography. Arterial blood specimens (n=12 samples / subject, 60 min) were serially collected, centrifuged, and analyzed with solid-phase extraction with UPLC to determine propofol plasma concentrations. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was applied to plasma concentrations.
No changes were noted in thromboelastographic R time (P=0.74), K time (P=0.41), α angle (P=0.97), or maximal amplitude (P=0.71) for either propofol preparation. Pharmacokinetic parameters k (P=0.45), t1/2 (P=0.26), Co (P=0.89), AUC0-∞ (P=0.23), Cl (P=0.14), MRT (P=0.47), Vss (P=0.11) of the two formulations were not significantly different.
The microemulsion and macroemulsion propofol formulations had similar pharmacokinetics and did not modify thromboelastographic parameters in swine.
PMCID: PMC3021748  PMID: 20578214
Microemulsion; macroemulsion; propofol; swine; pharmacokinetics; thromboelastographic
18.  Pediatric Dosing and Body Size in Biotherapeutics 
Pharmaceutics  2010;2(4):389-418.
Although pediatric doses for biotherapeutics are often based on patients' body weight (mg/kg) or body surface area (mg/m2), linear body size dose adjustment is highly empirical. Growth and maturity are also important factors that affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of biologics in pediatrics. The complexity of the factors involved in pediatric pharmacokinetics lends to the reconsideration of body size based dose adjustment. A proper dosing adjustment for pediatrics should also provide less intersubject variability in the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of the product compared with no dose adjustment. Biological proteins and peptides generally share the same pharmacokinetic principle with small molecules, but the underlying mechanism can be very different. Here, pediatric and adult pharmacokinetic parameters are compared and summarized for selected biotherapeutics. The effect of body size on the pediatric pharmacokinetics for these biological products is discussed in the current review.
PMCID: PMC3967145
pediatric; dosing; proteins; peptides
19.  Comparison of the pharmacokinetic properties of vancomycin, linezolid, tigecyclin, and daptomycin 
The rapid antibiotic resistance development has created a major demand for new antimicrobial agents that can combat resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Until a short time ago, the glycopeptide vancomycin was the only therapeutic choice in this situation. However, in recent years some newer agents with different mechanisms of actions have been added to the arsenal, and more are on the horizon. For a successful therapy it is of vital importance that these compounds are used judiciously and dosed appropriately. The present article reviews the pharmacokinetic properties of vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin. The first major difference between these compounds is their oral bioavailability. Only linezolid can be administered orally, whereas vancomycin, daptomycin and tigecycline are limited to parenteral use. Once in the body, they show very different disposition. Daptomycin has a very small volume of distribution of 7L indicating very little tissue distribution whereas tigecycline has a very large volume of distribution of 350-500 L. Vancomycin and linezolid are in-between with volumes of distribution of approximately 30 and 50 L, close to total body water. However, studies have shown that linezolid shows better tissue penetration than vancomycin. Newer studies using microdialysis, a new technique that allows direct monitoring of unbound tissue levels, support this finding. As far as drug elimination, daptomycin and vancomycin are mainly eliminated into the urine and require dosing adjustments in renally impaired patients, whereas tigecycline is eliminated into the bile and linezolid is metabolized so that in renal patients no dosing adjustments are needed for these compounds. Although the elimination pathways are very different, the resulting half-lives of linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin are not greatly different and vary from 4-8 h. Tigecycline, however, has a much longer half-life of up to 1-2 days due to the slow redistribution from tissue binding sites.
PMCID: PMC3352102  PMID: 21163728
20.  Resistance and the management of complicated skin and skin structure infections: the role of ceftobiprole 
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are an increasing concern due to the resulting increase in morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs associated with the administration of inadequate or delayed antimicrobial therapy. The implications of inadequate antimicrobial therapy in complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) have gained more attention recently, most likely due to the recent emergence of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the already high prevalence of MRSA in the nosocomial setting. Due to the continuous threat of resistance arising and the limitations of currently available agents for the treatment of cSSSIs, it is necessary to develop new antimicrobials for this indication. Ceftobiprole medocaril, the prodrug of ceftobiprole, is a parental investigational cephalosporin for the treatment of cSSSIs displaying a wide-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species, including MRSA. Ceftobiprole displays noncomplex linear pharmacokinetics, is eliminated primarily by glomerular filtration, and distributes to extracellular fluid. Additionally, it has been shown that the extent of distribution to the site of action with regard to cSSSIs, ie, the extracellular space fluid of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, is expected to be efficacious, as free concentrations meet efficacy targets for most pathogens. Similar to other beta-lactams, it displays an excellent safety and tolerability profile with the primary adverse events being dysgeusia in healthy volunteers, resulting from the conversion of the prodrug to the active, and nausea in patients. Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to vancomycin, clinical cure rates 93.3% vs 93.5%, respectively, or vancomycin plus ceftazidime, clinical cure rates 90.5% vs 90.2%, respectively. Given the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, ceftobiprole is a promising new agent for the treatment of cSSSIs and has the potential to be used as a single agent for empiric treatment.
PMCID: PMC2952487  PMID: 20957140
cSSSIs; resistance; MRSA; cephalosporins
21.  Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of the In Vitro Activities of Oxazolidinone Antimicrobial Agents against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(12):5039-5045.
Linezolid is the first FDA-approved oxazolidinone with activity against clinically important gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). RWJ-416457 is a new oxazolidinone with an antimicrobial spectrum similar to that of linezolid. The goal of the present study was to develop a general pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) model that allows the characterization and comparison of the in vitro activities of oxazolidinones, determined in time-kill curve experiments, against MRSA. The in vitro activities of RWJ-416457 and the first-in-class representative, linezolid, against MRSA OC2878 were determined in static and dynamic time-kill curve experiments over a wide range of concentrations: 0.125 to 8 μg/ml (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) and 0.25 to 16 μg/ml (MIC, 1 μg/ml), respectively. After correction for drug degradation during the time-kill curve experiments, a two-subpopulation model was simultaneously fitted to all data in the NONMEM VI program. The robustness of the model and the precision of the parameter estimates were evaluated by internal model validation by nonparametric bootstrap analysis. A two-subpopulation model, consisting of a self-replicating, oxazolidinone-susceptible and a persistent, oxazolidinone-insusceptible pool of bacteria was appropriate for the characterization of the time-kill curve data. The PK-PD model identified was capable of accounting for saturation in growth, delays in the onsets of growth and drug-induced killing, as well as naturally occurring bacterial death. The simultaneous fit of the proposed indirect-response, maximum-effect model to the data resulted in concentrations that produced a half-maximum killing effect that were significantly (P < 0.05) lower for RWJ-416457 (0.41 μg/ml) than for linezolid (1.39 μg/ml). In combination with the appropriate PK data, the susceptibility-based two-subpopulation model identified may provide valuable guidance for the selection of oxazolidinone doses or dose regimens for use in clinical studies.
PMCID: PMC2786350  PMID: 19786607
22.  Pharmacodynamic activity of the lantibiotic MU1140 
This study evaluated the pharmacodynamics of the lantibiotic MU1140 and the ability of selected organisms to develop resistance to this antibiotic. MU1140 demonstrated activity against all Gram-positive organisms tested, including oxacillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF). No activity was observed against Gram-negative bacteria or yeast. Time–kill studies revealed that MU1140 was rapidly bactericidal against Streptococcus pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant S. aureus, whilst it was bacteriostatic against VREF. In vitro resistance development to MU1140, tested by sequential subculturing in subinhibitory concentrations of MU1140, revealed a stable three-fold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. Subsequent subculturing of the strains with elevated MICs in antibiotic-free media for 7 days did not result in a reduction of their MIC values for MU1140. Collectively, our findings illustrate the therapeutic potential of MU1140 for management of Gram-positive infections.
PMCID: PMC2643042  PMID: 18835136
Lantibiotic; MU1140; Lanthionine; Pharmacodynamics; Antibiotic resistance; MRSA; VRE
23.  Soft-Tissue Penetration of Ceftobiprole in Healthy Volunteers Determined by In Vivo Microdialysis▿  
Ceftobiprole is a promising new broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against several multidrug-resistant gram-positive and gram-negative species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In order to make efficacy predications against these resistant bacteria in soft-tissue infections, i.e., skin and skin structure infections, ceftobiprole's ability to reach the site of action should be explored. Therefore, a microdialysis study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers to determine the penetration of ceftobiprole into skeletal muscle and subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue after a single intravenous dose of 500 mg. Plasma and tissue interstitial space fluid (ISF) drug concentrations were measured for 24 h from the start of the 2-h intravenous infusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using noncompartmental analysis. The penetration of ceftobiprole into the ISF of tissues was assessed by comparing the ratios between tissue and plasma of the free drug area under the concentration-time curve (fAUC). It was found that ceftobiprole distributes into the muscle (fAUCmuscle/fAUCplasma of 0.69 ± 0.13) and s.c. adipose tissue (fAUCs.c.adipose/fAUCplasma of 0.49 ± 0.28). The concentrations in both skeletal muscle and s.c. adipose tissue met the efficacy breakpoint (percentage of the time that free drug concentrations remained above the MIC) for at least 40% of the 8-h dosing interval for organisms with a MIC of 2 mg/liter. Therefore, ceftobiprole qualifies as a potential agent with drug penetration capabilities to treat complicated skin and skin structure infections due to both gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens with MICs equal to or below 2 mg/liter.
PMCID: PMC2704637  PMID: 19364847

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