Plasma concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have long been used to correlate exposure with effect, yet one cannot always assume that unbound plasma and tissue concentrations are similar. Knowledge about unbound tissue concentrations is important in the development of antimicrobial drugs, since most infections are localised in tissues. Therefore, a clinical microdialysis study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of tedizolid (TR-700), the active moiety of the antimicrobial prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), into interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues following a single oral 600 mg dose of tedizolid phosphate in fasting conditions. Twelve healthy adult subjects were enrolled. Two microdialysis probes were implanted into the thigh of each subject, one into the vastus medialis muscle and one into subcutaneous adipose tissue. Probes were calibrated using retrodialysis. Dialysate samples were collected every 20 min for 12 h following a single oral dose of 600 mg tedizolid phosphate, and blood samples were drawn over 24 h. Unbound tedizolid levels in plasma were similar to those in muscle and adipose tissue. The ratios of unbound (free) AUC in tissues over unbound AUC in plasma (fAUCtissue/fAUCplasma) were 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 for adipose and muscle tissue, respectively. The median half-life was 8.1, 9.2 and 9.6 h for plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue, respectively. Mean protein binding was 87.2 ± 1.8%. The study drug was very well tolerated. The results of this study show that tedizolid distributes well into ISF of adipose and muscle tissues. Unbound levels of tedizolid in plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue were well correlated. Free plasma levels are indicative of unbound levels in the ISF of muscle and adipose tissues.
Microdialysis; Tissue distribution; Tedizolid; Pharmacokinetics
Tobacco smoke contains nicotine and many other compounds that act in concert on the brain reward system. Therefore, animal models are needed that allow the investigation of chronic exposure to the full spectrum of tobacco smoke constituents.
The aim of these studies was to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke leads to nicotine dependence in rats.
The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal. Somatic signs were recorded from a checklist of nicotine abstinence signs. Nicotine self-administration sessions were conducted to investigate if tobacco smoke exposure affects the motivation to self-administer nicotine. Nicotinic receptor autoradiography was used to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke affects central α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and non-α7 nAChR levels (primarily α4β2 nAChRs).
The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine dose-dependently elevated the brain reward thresholds of the rats exposed to tobacco smoke and did not affect the brain reward thresholds of the untreated control rats. Furthermore, mecamylamine induced more somatic withdrawal signs in the smoke exposed rats than in the control rats. Nicotine self-administration was decreased 1 day after the last tobacco smoke exposure sessions and was returned to control levels 5 days later. Tobacco smoke exposure increased the α7 nAChR density in the CA2/3 area and the stratum oriens and increased the non-α7 nAChR density in the dentate gyrus.
Tobacco smoke exposure leads to nicotine dependence as indicated by precipitated affective and somatic withdrawal signs and induces an upregulation of nAChRs in the hippocampus.
Tobacco; nicotine; dependence; withdrawal; rats
The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics of meropenem and biapenem in bile and estimated their pharmacodynamic target attainment at the site. Meropenem (0.5 g) or biapenem (0.3 g) was administered to surgery patients (n = 8 for each drug). Venous blood samples and hepatobiliary tract bile samples were obtained at the end of infusion (0.5 h) and for up to 5 h thereafter. Drug concentrations in plasma and bile were analyzed pharmacokinetically and used for a Monte Carlo simulation to predict the probability of attaining the pharmacodynamic target (40% of the time above the MIC). Both drugs penetrated similarly into bile, with mean bile/plasma ratios of 0.24 to 0.25 (maximum drug concentration) and 0.30 to 0.38 (area under the drug concentration-time curve). The usual regimens of meropenem (0.5 g every 8 h [q8h]) and biapenem (0.3 g q8h) (0.5-h infusions) achieved similar target attainment probabilities in bile (≥90%) against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates. However, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, meropenem at 1 g q8h and biapenem at 0.6 g q8h were required for values of 80.7% and 71.9%, respectively. The biliary pharmacodynamic-based breakpoint (the highest MIC at which the target attainment probability in bile was ≥90%) was 1 mg/liter for 0.5 g q8h and 2 mg/liter for 1 g q8h for meropenem and 0.5 mg/liter for 0.3 g q8h and 1 mg/liter for 0.6 g q8h for biapenem. These results help to define the clinical pharmacokinetics of the two carbapenems in bile while also helping to rationalize and optimize the dosing regimens for biliary tract infections based on site-specific pharmacodynamic target attainment.
Epidemiological studies indicate that parental smoking increases the risk for smoking in children. However, the underlying mechanisms by which parental smoking increases the risk for smoking are not known. The aim of these studies was to investigate if preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure, postnatal days 21–35, affects the rewarding effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal in adult rats. The rewarding effects of nicotine were investigated with the conditioned place preference procedure. Nicotine withdrawal was investigated with the conditioned place aversion procedure and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Elevations in brain reward thresholds in the ICSS paradigm reflect a dysphoric state. Plasma nicotine and cotinine levels in the preadolescent rats immediately after smoke exposure were 188 ng/ml and 716 ng/ml, respectively. Preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure lead to the development of nicotine dependence as indicated by an increased number of mecamylamine-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the preadolescent tobacco smoke exposed rats compared to the control rats. Nicotine induced similar place preference in adult rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke or air during preadolescence. Furthermore, mecamylamine induced place aversion in nicotine dependent rats but there was no effect of preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure. Finally, preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure did not affect the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated or spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. These studies indicate that passive exposure to tobacco smoke during preadolescence leads to the development of nicotine dependence but preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure does not seem to affect the rewarding effects of nicotine or nicotine withdrawal in adulthood.
Tobacco smoke; nicotine; preadolescent; reward; withdrawal; ICSS; rats
Although the influence of protein binding (PB) on antibacterial activity has been reported for many antibiotics and over many years, there is currently no standardization for pharmacodynamic models that account for the impact of protein binding of antimicrobial agents in vitro. This might explain the somewhat contradictory results obtained from different studies. Simple in vitro models which compare the MIC obtained in protein-free standard medium versus a protein-rich medium are prone to methodological pitfalls and may lead to flawed conclusions. Within in vitro test systems, a range of test conditions, including source of protein, concentration of the tested antibiotic, temperature, pH, electrolytes, and supplements may influence the impact of protein binding. As new antibiotics with a high degree of protein binding are in clinical development, attention and action directed toward the optimization and standardization of testing the impact of protein binding on the activity of antibiotics in vitro become even more urgent. In addition, the quantitative relationship between the effects of protein binding in vitro and in vivo needs to be established, since the physiological conditions differ. General recommendations for testing the impact of protein binding in vitro are suggested.
PA-824 is one of two nitroimidazoles in phase II clinical trials to treat tuberculosis. In mice, it has dose-dependent early bactericidal and sterilizing activity. In humans with tuberculosis, PA-824 demonstrated early bactericidal activity (EBA) at doses ranging from 200 to 1,200 mg per day, but no dose-response effect was observed. To better understand the relationship between drug exposure and effect, we performed a dose fractionation study in mice. Dose-ranging pharmacokinetic data were used to simulate drug exposure profiles. Beginning 2 weeks after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, total PA-824 doses from 144 to 4,608 mg/kg were administered as 3, 4, 8, 12, 24, or 48 divided doses over 24 days. Lung CFU counts after treatment were strongly correlated with the free drug T>MIC (R2 = 0.87) and correlated with the free drug AUC/MIC (R2 = 0.60), but not with the free drug Cmax/MIC (R2 = 0.17), where T>MIC is the cumulative percentage of the dosing interval that the drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions and AUC is the area under the concentration-time curve. When the data set was limited to regimens with dosing intervals of ≤72 h, both the T>MIC and the AUC/MIC values fit the data well. Free drug T>MIC of 22, 48, and 77% were associated with bacteriostasis, a 1-log kill, and a 1.59-log kill (or 80% of the maximum observed effect), respectively. Human pharmacodynamic simulations based on phase I data predict 200 mg/day produces free drug T>MIC values near the target for maximal observed bactericidal effect. The results support the recently demonstrated an EBA of 200 mg/day and the lack of a dose-response between 200 and 1,200 mg/day. T>MIC, in conjunction with AUC/MIC, is the parameter on which dose optimization of PA-824 should be based.
Compared to traditional macroemulsion propofol formulations currently in clinical use, microemulsion formulations of this common intravenous anesthetic may offer advantages. We characterized the pharmacokinetics and coagulation effects as assessed by thromboelastography of these formulations in swine.
Yorkshire swine (20-30 kg, either sex, n=15) were sedated, anesthetized with isoflurane, and instrumented to obtain a tracheostomy, internal jugular access, and carotid artery catheterization. Propofol (2 mg/kg, 30 s) was administered as macroemulsion (10 mg/mL; Diprivan®; n=7) or a custom (2 mg/kg, 30 s) microemulsion (10 mg/mL; n=8). Arterial blood specimens acquired pre- and post-injection (1 and 45 min) were used for thromboelastography. Arterial blood specimens (n=12 samples / subject, 60 min) were serially collected, centrifuged, and analyzed with solid-phase extraction with UPLC to determine propofol plasma concentrations. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was applied to plasma concentrations.
No changes were noted in thromboelastographic R time (P=0.74), K time (P=0.41), α angle (P=0.97), or maximal amplitude (P=0.71) for either propofol preparation. Pharmacokinetic parameters k (P=0.45), t1/2 (P=0.26), Co (P=0.89), AUC0-∞ (P=0.23), Cl (P=0.14), MRT (P=0.47), Vss (P=0.11) of the two formulations were not significantly different.
The microemulsion and macroemulsion propofol formulations had similar pharmacokinetics and did not modify thromboelastographic parameters in swine.
Microemulsion; macroemulsion; propofol; swine; pharmacokinetics; thromboelastographic
The rapid antibiotic resistance development has created a major demand for new antimicrobial agents that can combat resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Until a short time ago, the glycopeptide vancomycin was the only therapeutic choice in this situation. However, in recent years some newer agents with different mechanisms of actions have been added to the arsenal, and more are on the horizon. For a successful therapy it is of vital importance that these compounds are used judiciously and dosed appropriately. The present article reviews the pharmacokinetic properties of vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin. The first major difference between these compounds is their oral bioavailability. Only linezolid can be administered orally, whereas vancomycin, daptomycin and tigecycline are limited to parenteral use. Once in the body, they show very different disposition. Daptomycin has a very small volume of distribution of 7L indicating very little tissue distribution whereas tigecycline has a very large volume of distribution of 350-500 L. Vancomycin and linezolid are in-between with volumes of distribution of approximately 30 and 50 L, close to total body water. However, studies have shown that linezolid shows better tissue penetration than vancomycin. Newer studies using microdialysis, a new technique that allows direct monitoring of unbound tissue levels, support this finding. As far as drug elimination, daptomycin and vancomycin are mainly eliminated into the urine and require dosing adjustments in renally impaired patients, whereas tigecycline is eliminated into the bile and linezolid is metabolized so that in renal patients no dosing adjustments are needed for these compounds. Although the elimination pathways are very different, the resulting half-lives of linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin are not greatly different and vary from 4-8 h. Tigecycline, however, has a much longer half-life of up to 1-2 days due to the slow redistribution from tissue binding sites.
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are an increasing concern due to the resulting increase in morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs associated with the administration of inadequate or delayed antimicrobial therapy. The implications of inadequate antimicrobial therapy in complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) have gained more attention recently, most likely due to the recent emergence of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the already high prevalence of MRSA in the nosocomial setting. Due to the continuous threat of resistance arising and the limitations of currently available agents for the treatment of cSSSIs, it is necessary to develop new antimicrobials for this indication. Ceftobiprole medocaril, the prodrug of ceftobiprole, is a parental investigational cephalosporin for the treatment of cSSSIs displaying a wide-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species, including MRSA. Ceftobiprole displays noncomplex linear pharmacokinetics, is eliminated primarily by glomerular filtration, and distributes to extracellular fluid. Additionally, it has been shown that the extent of distribution to the site of action with regard to cSSSIs, ie, the extracellular space fluid of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, is expected to be efficacious, as free concentrations meet efficacy targets for most pathogens. Similar to other beta-lactams, it displays an excellent safety and tolerability profile with the primary adverse events being dysgeusia in healthy volunteers, resulting from the conversion of the prodrug to the active, and nausea in patients. Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to vancomycin, clinical cure rates 93.3% vs 93.5%, respectively, or vancomycin plus ceftazidime, clinical cure rates 90.5% vs 90.2%, respectively. Given the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, ceftobiprole is a promising new agent for the treatment of cSSSIs and has the potential to be used as a single agent for empiric treatment.
cSSSIs; resistance; MRSA; cephalosporins
Linezolid is the first FDA-approved oxazolidinone with activity against clinically important gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). RWJ-416457 is a new oxazolidinone with an antimicrobial spectrum similar to that of linezolid. The goal of the present study was to develop a general pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) model that allows the characterization and comparison of the in vitro activities of oxazolidinones, determined in time-kill curve experiments, against MRSA. The in vitro activities of RWJ-416457 and the first-in-class representative, linezolid, against MRSA OC2878 were determined in static and dynamic time-kill curve experiments over a wide range of concentrations: 0.125 to 8 μg/ml (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) and 0.25 to 16 μg/ml (MIC, 1 μg/ml), respectively. After correction for drug degradation during the time-kill curve experiments, a two-subpopulation model was simultaneously fitted to all data in the NONMEM VI program. The robustness of the model and the precision of the parameter estimates were evaluated by internal model validation by nonparametric bootstrap analysis. A two-subpopulation model, consisting of a self-replicating, oxazolidinone-susceptible and a persistent, oxazolidinone-insusceptible pool of bacteria was appropriate for the characterization of the time-kill curve data. The PK-PD model identified was capable of accounting for saturation in growth, delays in the onsets of growth and drug-induced killing, as well as naturally occurring bacterial death. The simultaneous fit of the proposed indirect-response, maximum-effect model to the data resulted in concentrations that produced a half-maximum killing effect that were significantly (P < 0.05) lower for RWJ-416457 (0.41 μg/ml) than for linezolid (1.39 μg/ml). In combination with the appropriate PK data, the susceptibility-based two-subpopulation model identified may provide valuable guidance for the selection of oxazolidinone doses or dose regimens for use in clinical studies.
Ceftobiprole is a promising new broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against several multidrug-resistant gram-positive and gram-negative species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In order to make efficacy predications against these resistant bacteria in soft-tissue infections, i.e., skin and skin structure infections, ceftobiprole's ability to reach the site of action should be explored. Therefore, a microdialysis study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers to determine the penetration of ceftobiprole into skeletal muscle and subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue after a single intravenous dose of 500 mg. Plasma and tissue interstitial space fluid (ISF) drug concentrations were measured for 24 h from the start of the 2-h intravenous infusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using noncompartmental analysis. The penetration of ceftobiprole into the ISF of tissues was assessed by comparing the ratios between tissue and plasma of the free drug area under the concentration-time curve (fAUC). It was found that ceftobiprole distributes into the muscle (fAUCmuscle/fAUCplasma of 0.69 ± 0.13) and s.c. adipose tissue (fAUCs.c.adipose/fAUCplasma of 0.49 ± 0.28). The concentrations in both skeletal muscle and s.c. adipose tissue met the efficacy breakpoint (percentage of the time that free drug concentrations remained above the MIC) for at least 40% of the 8-h dosing interval for organisms with a MIC of 2 mg/liter. Therefore, ceftobiprole qualifies as a potential agent with drug penetration capabilities to treat complicated skin and skin structure infections due to both gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens with MICs equal to or below 2 mg/liter.
This study evaluated the pharmacodynamics of the lantibiotic MU1140 and the ability of selected organisms to develop resistance to this antibiotic. MU1140 demonstrated activity against all Gram-positive organisms tested, including oxacillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF). No activity was observed against Gram-negative bacteria or yeast. Time–kill studies revealed that MU1140 was rapidly bactericidal against Streptococcus pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant S. aureus, whilst it was bacteriostatic against VREF. In vitro resistance development to MU1140, tested by sequential subculturing in subinhibitory concentrations of MU1140, revealed a stable three-fold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. Subsequent subculturing of the strains with elevated MICs in antibiotic-free media for 7 days did not result in a reduction of their MIC values for MU1140. Collectively, our findings illustrate the therapeutic potential of MU1140 for management of Gram-positive infections.
Lantibiotic; MU1140; Lanthionine; Pharmacodynamics; Antibiotic resistance; MRSA; VRE
Prednisolone is widely used for the treatment of inflammation and auto-immune diseases. It exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics (PK); and its induced systemic effects (pharmacodynamics (PD)) are commonly evaluated with two biomarkers, cortisol and blood lymphocytes in plasma. Circadian patterns are observed in both biomarkers. Furthermore, the disease itself may show a circadian pattern. For example, in rheumatoid arthritis patients, better therapeutic outcomes have been reported when prednisolone was administered in the very early morning. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of dosing time on the PK/PD of prednisolone with a simulation approach using an interactive algorithm. A series of simulations were performed with either intravenous or oral administration of prednisolone or prednisone. The results showed that the initial or maximum concentration and trough concentration of total prednisolone were lower when the drug was administered in the early morning around 6 am. Oscillation patterns were observed in cumulative cortisol suppression (CCS) and alteration of total lymphocyte trafficking in blood. When the drug was given in the morning within the therapeutic dose range, or around 6 pm for a small dose amount (<1 mg), the minimum CCS and maximum effect on lymphocytes were observed. These results indicated that the PK/PD of prednisolone are time- and dose-dependent, and suggested that it is necessary to consider the application of chronotherapy to achieve better clinical outcomes with fewer side effects of prednisolone, and a PK/PD simulation approach could provide a valuable tool to evaluate and predict time-dependency in the system.
dosing time; pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics; prednisolone; simulation
During antibiotic drug development, media are frequently spiked with either serum/plasma or protein supplements to evaluate the effect of protein binding. Usually, previously reported serum or plasma protein binding values are applied in the analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate this approach by experimentally measuring free, unbound concentrations for antibiotics with reportedly high protein binding and their corresponding antimicrobial activities in media containing commonly used protein supplements. Free, unbound ceftriaxone and ertapenem concentrations were determined in bacterial growth medium with and without bovine/human serum albumin, as well as adult bovine serum and human plasma using in vitro microdialysis. The corresponding antimicrobial activity was determined in MIC and time-kill curve experiments using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 6303 as test strains. A semimechanistic maximum effect model was simultaneously fitted to the data and respective EC50 (concentration at half-maximum effect) values compared. Protein binding differed significantly for ceftriaxone (P < 0.05) between human plasma (76.8 ± 11.0%) and commercially available bovine (20.2 ± 8.3%) or human serum albumin (56.9 ± 16.6%). Similar results were obtained for ertapenem (human plasma, 73.8 ± 11.6%; bovine serum albumin, 12.4 ± 4.8%; human serum albumin, 17.8 ± 11.5%). The MICs and EC50s of both strains were significantly increased (P < 0.05) for ceftriaxone when comparing human and bovine serum albumin, whereas the EC50s were not significantly different for ertapenem. Free, unbound antibiotic concentrations differed substantially between plasma and protein supplements and correlated well with antimicrobial efficacy. Therefore, free, active concentrations should be measured in the test system instead of correcting for literature protein binding values.
We developed a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) mathematical model that fits voriconazole time–kill data against Candida isolates in vitro and used the model to simulate the expected kill curves for typical intravenous and oral dosing regimens. A series of Emax mathematical models were used to fit time–kill data for two isolates each of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. PK parameters extracted from human data sets were used in the model to simulate kill curves for each isolate. Time–kill data were best fit by using an adapted sigmoidal Emax model that corrected for delays in candidal growth and the onset of voriconazole activity, saturation of the number of Candida and the steepness of the concentration–response curve. The rates of maximal killing by voriconazole (kmax) were highly correlated with the growth rates (ks) of the isolates (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.9861). Simulations using PK parameters derived from the human data sets showed fungistatic effects against each of the isolates. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the activity of voriconazole against Candida isolates can be accurately described using a mathematical model. In the future, it might be possible to devise optimal dosing regimens of voriconazole using the model and PK data collected in vivo.
Candida spp; Voriconazole; Time-kill assay; Mathematical modelling
We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay to validate time-kill and postantifungal-effect (PAFE) experiments for voriconazole against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis isolates. Voriconazole exerted prolonged fungistatic activity but no PAFE at concentrations achievable in human sera. HPLC confirmed that experiments were conducted at the desired steady-state voriconazole concentrations.
In many cases the clinical outcome of therapy needs to be determined by the drug concentration in the tissue compartment in which the pharmacological effect occurs rather than in the plasma. Microdialysis is an in vivo technique that allows direct measurement of unbound tissue concentrations and permits monitoring of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs throughout the body. Microdialysis was first used in pharmacodynamic research to study neurotransmission, and this remains its most common application in the field. In this review, we give an overview of the principles, techniques, and applications of microdialysis in pharmacodynamic studies of local physiological events, including measurement of endogenous substances such as acetylcholine, catecholamines, serotonin, amino acids, peptides, glucose, lactate, glycerol, and hormones. Microdialysis coupled with systemic drug administration also permits the more intensive examination of the pharmacotherapeutic effect of drugs on extracellular levels of endogenous substances in peripheral compartments and blood. Selected examples of the physiological effects and mechanisms of action of drugs are also discussed, as are the advantages and limitations of this method. It is concluded that microdialysis is a reliable technique for the measurement of local events, which makes it an attractive tool for local pharmacodynamic research.
Microdialysis; pharmacodynamics (PD); neurotransmitter; glucose; hormone
We measured time-kills and postantifungal effects (PAFEs) of caspofungin against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata isolates. One-hour exposure to caspofungin during PAFE experiments accounted for the majority of killing during time-kill experiments. Regrowth of all isolates was inhibited for at least 24 h following drug washout.
We present the first population pharmacokinetic analysis of quinine in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Ghanaian children (n = 120; aged 12 months to 10 years) with severe malaria received an intramuscular loading dose of quinine dihydrochloride (20 mg/kg of body weight). A two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination gave post hoc estimates for pharmacokinetic parameters that were consistent with those derived from non-population pharmacokinetic studies (clearance [CL] = 0.05 liter/h/kg of body weight; volume of distribution in the central compartment [V1] = 0.65 liter/kg; volume of distribution at steady state = 1.41 liter/kg; half-life at β phase = 19.9 h). There were no covariates (including age, gender, acidemia, anemia, coma, parasitemia, or anticonvulsant use) that explained interpatient variability in weight-normalized CL and V1. Intramuscular quinine was associated with minor, local toxicity in some patients (13 of 108; 12%), and 11 patients (10%) experienced one or more episodes of postadmission hypoglycemia. A loading dose of intramuscular quinine results in predictable population pharmacokinetic profiles in children with severe malaria and may be preferred to the intravenous route of administration in some circumstances.