Here we describe the novel Sequencing Bead Array (SBA), a complete assay for molecular diagnostics and typing applications. SBA is a digital suspension array using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), to replace conventional optical readout platforms. The technology allows for reducing the number of instruments required in a laboratory setting, where the same NGS instrument could be employed from whole-genome and targeted sequencing to SBA broad-range biomarker detection and genotyping. As proof-of-concept, a model assay was designed that could distinguish ten Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes associated with cervical cancer progression. SBA was used to genotype 20 cervical tumor samples and, when compared with amplicon pyrosequencing, was able to detect two additional co-infections due to increased sensitivity. We also introduce in-house software Sphix, enabling easy accessibility and interpretation of results. The technology offers a multi-parallel, rapid, robust, and scalable system that is readily adaptable for a multitude of microarray diagnostic and typing applications, e.g. genetic signatures, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), structural variations, and immunoassays. SBA has the potential to dramatically change the way we perform probe-based applications, and allow for a smooth transition towards the technology offered by genomic sequencing.
The quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene in ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains (n=53) and strains of Neisseria spp. with reduced susceptibility (n=70) was determined by the pyrosequencing method. Results showed that the QRDR of the gyrA gene is an effective molecular indicator of resistance to ciprofloxacin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and presumably in Neisseria meningitidis, but not in all other Neisseria spp. This sequence was not unique for N. gonorrhoeae and seems unsuitable for species verification of N. gonorrhoeae. However, whether it is also possible to use this region for verification depends on the specificity of the primary screening method used.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria species; ciprofloxacin; gyrA; species verification
Despite the various technologies in place for genotyping human papillomaviruses (HPV), clinical use and clinical research demand a method that is fast, more reliable and cost-effective. The technology described here represents a breakthrough development in that direction. By combining the method of multiple sequencing primers with DNA sequencing, we have developed a rapid assay for genotyping HPV that relies on the identification of a single, type-specific ‘sentinel’ base. As described here, the prototype assay has been developed to recognize the 12 most high-risk HPV types (HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58 and 59) and is capable of recognizing and simultaneously genotyping multiple HPV co-infections. By providing sequence information on multiple HPV infections, this method eliminates the need for labor- and cost-intensive PCR cloning. These proof-of-concept studies establish the assay to be accurate, reliable, rapid, flexible, and cost-effective, providing evidence of the feasibility this technique for use in clinical settings.
Human papillomaviruses (HPV); DNA sequencing; Multiple infections; Multiple sequencing primers; Sentinel-base DNA sequencing; Pyrosequencing technology
Pyrosequencing technology is a rather novel DNA sequencing method based on the sequencing-by-synthesis principle. This bioluminometric, real-time DNA sequencing technique employs a cascade of four enzymatic reactions producing sequence peak signals. The method has been proven highly suitable for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis and sequencing of short stretches of DNA. Although the pyrosequencing procedure is relatively straightforward, users may face challenges due to varying parameters in PCR and sequencing primer design, sample preparation and nucleotide dispensation; such challenges are labor and cost intensive. In this study, these issues have been addressed to increase signal quality and assure sequence accuracy.
DNA sequencing; Primer-dimers; Pyrosequencing technology; Sample preparation; Single-strand binding protein
Quinolone resistance is rapidly increasing in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and is posing a significant public health threat that requires constant surveillance. A rapid and reliable mutation detection assay has been developed. The assay is based on pre-programmed short DNA sequencing and is designed to detect point mutations in the gyrA gene that are highly related to ciprofloxacin resistance, i.e. in codons 91 and 95. By developing an assay based on pyrosequencing and exploiting the pre-programmed nucleotide dispensation capability of this technology, the sequence comprising the mutations will be analysed and promptly reveal whether the N. gonorrhoeae pathogen carries resistance to ciprofloxacin. A panel of 40 N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates, of which 27 phenotypically displayed decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin, was used in the present study. All point mutations in the short stretch of the N. gonorrhoeae gyrA gene were easily discriminated, and the genotypic results obtained by pre-programmed sequencing were mainly in agreement with the phenotypically identified decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. The new method used in the present study has the potential for rapid and reliable identification of known as well as previously unknown drug resistance mutations.
DNA sequencing; Ciprofloxacin resistance; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Pre-programmed DNA sequencing; Pyrosequencing technology
A highly discriminative and objective genetic characterization of N. gonorrhoeae, which increases our knowledge of strain populations in different geographic areas, is crucial for the development of improved control measures. In the present study, conventional phenotypic characterization and genetic characterization by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing of the entire porB gene, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and pyrosequencing of a quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene of Swedish ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae serovar IB-10 isolates (n=45) were performed. The genetic characterization identified one widely spread ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae ST147 strain. In addition, isolates with slightly different genetic characteristics, which presumably reflect the ongoing evolution only, were also identified. All the isolates contained single nucleotide polymorphisms in QRDR of the gyrA gene that are highly correlated with ciprofloxacin resistance. Consequently, comprehensive characterization identified the first confirmed large domestic transmission, mainly among young heterosexuals, of one ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain in Swedish society during 2002–2003. In conclusion, a precise, i.e. genetic, characterization for identification of individual strains is a very valuable support to the crucial active surveillance of the epidemiological characteristics and the antibiotic susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae in the effective treatment of gonorrhoea.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae; ciprofloxacin resistance; molecular epidemiology; porB gene; NG-MAST
A giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biochip based on spin valve sensor array and magnetic nanoparticle labels was developed for inexpensive, sensitive and reliable DNA detection. The DNA targets detected in this experiment were PCR products amplified from Human Papillomavirus (HPV) plasmids. The concentrations of the target DNA after PCR were around 10 nM in most cases, but concentrations of 10 pM were also detectable, which is demonstrated by experiments with artificial DNA samples. A mild but highly specific surface chemistry was used for probe oligonucleotide immobilization. Double modulation technique was used for signal detection in order to reduce the 1/f noise in the sensor. Twelve assays were performed with an accuracy of approximately 90%. Magnetic signals were consistent with particle coverage data measured with Scanning Electron Microscopy. More recent research on microfluidics showed the potential of reducing the assay time below one hour. This is the first demonstration of magnetic DNA detection using plasmid-derived samples. This study provides a direct proof that GMR sensors can be used for biomedical applications.
GMR; giant magnetoresistive biosensor; DNA microarray; Human Papillomavirus genotyping
We combined components of a previous assay referred to as Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) with a complete gap filling strategy, creating a versatile powerful one-primer multiplex amplification system. As a proof-of-concept, this novel method, which employs a Connector Inversion Probe (CIPer), was tested as a genetic tool for pathogen diagnosis, typing, and antibiotic resistance screening with two distinct systems: i) a conserved sequence primer system for genotyping Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a cancer-associated viral agent and ii) screening for antibiotic resistance mutations in the bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We also discuss future applications and advances of the CIPer technology such as integration with digital amplification and next-generation sequencing methods. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of two-dimension informational barcodes, i.e. “multiplex multiplexing padlocks” (MMPs). For the readers' convenience, we also provide an on-line tutorial with user-interface software application CIP creator 1.0.1, for custom probe generation from virtually any new or established primer-pairs.
The Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) assay has been previously applied to a large-scale human SNP detection. Here we describe the PathogenMip Assay, a complete protocol for probe production and applied approaches to pathogen detection. We have demonstrated the utility of this assay with an initial set of 24 probes targeting the most clinically relevant HPV genotypes associated with cervical cancer progression. Probe construction was based on a novel, cost-effective, ligase-based protocol. The assay was validated by performing pyrosequencing and Microarray chip detection in parallel experiments. HPV plasmids were used to validate sensitivity and selectivity of the assay. In addition, 20 genomic DNA extracts from primary tumors were genotyped with the PathogenMip Assay results and were in 100% agreement with conventional sequencing using an L1-based HPV genotyping protocol. The PathogenMip Assay is a widely accessible protocol for producing and using highly discriminating probes, with experimentally validated results in pathogen genotyping, which could potentially be applied to the detection and characterization of any microbe.
Here we describe PathogenMIPer, a software program for designing molecular inversion probe (MIP) oligonucleotides for use in pathogen identification and detection. The software designs unique and specific oligonucleotide probes targeting microbial or other genomes. The tool tailors all probe sequence components (including target-specific sequences, barcode sequences, universal primers and restriction sites) and combines these components into ready-to-order probes for use in a MIP assay. The system can harness the genetic variability available in an entire genome in designing specific probes for the detection of multiple co-infections in a single tube using a MIP assay.
PathogenMIPer can accept sequence data in FASTA file format, and other parameter inputs from the user through a graphical user interface. It can design MIPs not only for pathogens, but for any genome for use in parallel genomic analyses. The software was validated experimentally by applying it to the detection of human papilloma virus (HPV) as a model system, which is associated with various human malignancies including cervical and skin cancers. Initial tests of laboratory samples using the MIPs developed by the PathogenMIPer to recognize 24 different types of HPVs gave very promising results, detecting even a small viral load of single as well as multiple infections (Akhras et al, personal communication).
PathogenMIPer is a software for designing molecular inversion probes for detection of multiple target DNAs in a sample using MIP assays. It enables broader use of MIP technology in the detection through genotyping of pathogens that are complex, difficult-to-amplify, or present in multiple subtypes in a sample.