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1.  Prognostic significance of thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidine phosphorylase protein expression in colorectal cancer patients treated with or without 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy 
Low tumour expression levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) have been linked with improved outcome for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). It is unclear whether this occurs because such tumours have better prognosis or they are more sensitive to 5-FU treatment.
Patients and methods
Associations between TS, DPD and TP levels, determined by tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, and survival was evaluated in 945 CRC patients according to treatment status.
Low TS and DPD expression associated with worse prognosis in stage II [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.09–2.63) and HR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.23–2.94), respectively] and stage III CRC patients treated by surgery alone [HR = 1.39 (95% CI 0.92–2.13) and HR = 1.49 (95% CI 1.02–2.17), respectively]. Low TS, DPD and TP associated with trends for better outcome in stage III patients treated with 5-FU [HR = 0.81 (95% CI 0.49–1.33), HR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.42–1.15) and HR = 0.66 (95% CI 0.39–1.12), respectively].
Low TS and DPD expression are prognostic for worse outcome in CRC patients treated by surgery alone, whereas low TS, DPD and TP expression are prognostic for better outcome in patients treated with 5-FU chemotherapy. These results provide indirect evidence that low TS, DPD and TP protein expression are predictive of good response to 5-FU chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC2931808  PMID: 18245778
colorectal cancer; fluorouracil; predictive; prognostic; thymidylate synthase
2.  The expression of RUNX3 in colorectal cancer is associated with disease stage and patient outcome 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;100(5):676-679.
RUNX3 is believed to have tumour suppressor properties in several cancer types. Inactivation of RUNX3 has been shown to occur by methylation-induced transcriptional silencing and by mislocalization of the protein to the cytoplasm. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical significance of RUNX3 expression in a large series of colorectal cancers using immunohistochemistry and tissue arrays. With advancing tumour stage, expression of RUNX3 in the nucleus decreased, whereas expression restricted to the cytoplasmic compartment increased. Nuclear RUNX3 expression was associated with significantly better patient survival compared to tumours in which the expression of RUNX3 was restricted to the cytoplasm (P=0.025). These results support a role for RUNX3 as a tumour suppressor in colorectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC2653772  PMID: 19223906
RUNX3; colorectal cancer; tissue arrays; prognosis; Wnt
3.  Tissue microarrays characterise the clinical significance of a VEGF-A protein expression signature in gastrointestinal stromal tumours 
British Journal of Cancer  2007;96(5):776-782.
A tissue microarray analysis of 22 proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), followed by an unsupervised, hierarchical monothetic cluster statistical analysis of the results, allowed us to detect a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein overexpression signature discriminator of prognosis in GIST, and discover novel VEGF-A DNA variants that may have functional significance.
PMCID: PMC2360083  PMID: 17299397
gastrointestinal stromal tumours; VEGF; tissue microarrays
4.  Overexpression of p53 protein is an independent prognostic indicator in human endometrial carcinoma. 
British Journal of Cancer  1996;74(4):562-567.
The important role of the p53 gene in tumour progression and cellular response to DNA damage has prompted investigation of the clinical significance of alterations to this gene. We examined both p53 overexpression and mutation of the gene in endometrial carcinoma in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of these changes. Of 122 endometrial carcinomas, 33 (27%) showed overexpression of p53 in the nucleus and 66 (54%) in the cytoplasm. Mutation in the p53 gene was found in 16 (13%) cases but showed no significant association with patient survival. Nuclear p53 overexpression was associated with poor survival (48% vs 80% alive in negative tumours 5 years post operatively, P < 0.001). In contrast, cytoplasmic p53 overexpression was associated with better survival (85% vs 55%, P < 0.001). When patients were separated into prognostic subgroups according to established clinical markers, these associations remained significant within most subgroups examined. In multivariate analysis adjusted for surgical stage, histological grade and type and vascular invasion, both nuclear p53 overexpression [hazard ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.3-17.6). P = 0.016] and cytoplasmic overexpression [0.25 (0.06-0.98), P = 0.047] were independent prognostic factors. Immunohistochemical assessment of p53 overexpression in the nucleus and cytoplasm could provide useful prognostic information for the management of patients with endometrial cancer.
PMCID: PMC2074673  PMID: 8761370

Results 1-4 (4)