The controversies concerning possible overtreatment of prostate cancer, highlighted by debate over PSA screening, have highlighted active surveillance (AS) as an alternative management option for appropriate men. Regional differences in the underlying prevalence of PSA testing may alter the pre-test probability for high-risk disease, which can potentially interfere with the performance of selection criteria for AS. In a multicentre study from three different countries, we examine men who were initially suitable for AS according to the Toronto and Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) criteria, that underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) in regards to:1.the proportion of pathological reclassification(Gleason score ⩾7, ⩾pT3 disease),2.predictors of high-risk disease,3.create a predictive model to assist with selection of men suitable for AS.
From three centres in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, data on men who underwent RP were retrospectively reviewed (n=2329). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of high-risk disease. A nomogram was generated by logistic regression analysis, and performance characterised by receiver operating characteristic curves.
For men suitable for AS according to the Toronto (n=800) and PRIAS (410) criteria, the rates for upgrading were 50.6, 42.7%, and upstaging 17.6, 12.4%, respectively. Significant predictors of high-risk disease were:•Toronto criteria: increasing age, cT2 disease, centre of diagnosis and number of positive cores.•PRIAS criteria: increasing PSA and cT2 disease.Cambridge had a high pT3a rate (26 vs 12%). To assist selection of men in the United Kingdom for AS, from the Cambridge data, we generated a nomogram predicting high-risk features in patients who meet the Toronto criteria (AUC of 0.72).
The proportion of pathological reclassification in our cohort was higher than previously reported. Care must be used when applying the AS criteria generated from one population to another. With more stringent selection criteria, there is less reclassification but also fewer men who may benefit from AS.
prostate cancer; active surveillance; radical prostatectomy; nomogram; pathology; United Kingdom
The majority of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in South Africa are co-infected with HIV, but the radiographic features of MDR-TB and their relationship with time to sputum culture conversion in the antiretroviral therapy era have not been described.
We reviewed baseline chest radiographs for 56 patients with MDR-TB from a rural area of South Africa. We analyzed the association of cavities, consolidation, pleural effusion and hilar lymphadenopathy with time to sputum culture conversion, adjusting for HIV status, baseline sputum smear and CD4 count.
Of the 56 subjects, 49 (88%) were HIV-positive, with a median CD4 count of 136 cells/mm3 (IQR 65-249). Thirty-two (57%) patients were sputum smear positive. Twenty-two (39%) patients had a cavity and 37 (66%) patients had consolidations. Cavitary disease and consolidations were each associated with longer time to culture conversion on bivariate analysis but not after adjusting for sputum smear status (aORs 1.79 [0.94-3.42] and 1.09 [0.67-1.78], respectively). Positive baseline sputum smear remained independently associated with longer time to conversion (aOR 3.45 [1.39-8.59]). We found no association between pleural effusion or hilar lymphadenopathy and time to conversion. Seventy-nine percent of patients were cured at the end of treatment.
Despite high rates of HIV co-infection and advanced immunodeficiency, the majority of patients had severe pathology on baseline chest radiograph. Nevertheless, culture conversion rates were high and treatment outcomes were favorable. Cavitation and consolidation do not appear to have an independent association with time to culture conversion beyond that of baseline sputum smear status.
In September 2012, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) substantially amended the Marketing Authorisation for acetylcysteine following an extensive review. The present study examined the impact of this license change on patterns of acetylcysteine use in patients presenting to hospital after paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose. Between September 2011 and April 2013, 785 consecutive patients presented to York Hospital due to paracetamol overdose, and a before-after analysis was used to compare outcomes. There were 483 patients before and 302 patients after the license amendment, and age, gender, acute or staggered overdose pattern, and dose were similar in both groups. In the patients with paracetamol concentrations between the “100-line” and “200-line,” a significantly higher proportion received acetylcysteine treatment (51% before versus 98% after, P = 0.0029), as expected. A modest increase was also observed in relation to late or staggered overdose or cases where the time of ingestion was uncertain (53% versus 74%, P = 0.0430). The median duration of hospital stay increased across the entire study population, from 15 to 24 hours (P = 0.0159) due to the increased proportion of patients requiring acetylcysteine treatment. The findings indicate that the MHRA amendment is a financially costly intervention, and further studies are needed to examine clinical outcomes so that its cost effectiveness might be addressed.
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis has spread among hospitalized patients in South Africa, but the epidemic-level impact of hospital-based infection control strategies remains unknown.
We investigated the effect of administrative, environmental, and personal infection control measures on the epidemic trajectory of XDR tuberculosis in a rural South African community. Assessments were performed with a mathematical model, which incorporated inpatient airborne tuberculosis transmission and community tuberculosis and HIV transmission.
If no new interventions are introduced, 1,300 cases of XDR tuberculosis are predicted to occur in the area of Tugela Ferry by the end of 2012. Over half of these cases are likely to be nosocomially transmitted. Mask use would avert less than 10% of overall cases, due to long inpatient exposure times and real-world face-seal leakage rates, but could reduce a significant proportion of hospital staff XDR tuberculosis cases. Combining mask use with reduced hospitalization time and a shift to outpatient therapy, however, could prevent nearly one-third of XDR tuberculosis cases. Supplementing this approach with improved ventilation, rapid drug resistance testing, HIV treatment, and tuberculosis isolation facilities could avert 48% of XDR tuberculosis cases (range 34-50%) by the end of 2012. Involuntary detention, however, could result in an unexpected rise in incidence, given limited isolation capacity.
In the face of rising XDR tuberculosis incidence, prevalence and burden on the health care system, a synergistic combination of available nosocomial infection control strategies may prevent nearly half of XDR tuberculosis cases, even in a resource-limited setting. XDR tuberculosis transmission will continue in the community in spite of such efforts, however, indicating the need to develop parallel community-based programs.
Tuberculosis, Drug-Resistant; Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant; Tuberculosis, Extensively Drug-Resistant; Tuberculosis, MDR; Tuberculosis, XDR; Mathematical Model; Nosocomial Infections; Hospital Infections; South Africa; Infection Control
Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms are rare pancreatic tumours that may occur sporadically or as part of inherited syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 syndrome, von Recklinghausen disease, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome and tuberous sclerosis complex. Recent advances in the genetics and pathology of hereditary syndromes have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology and biology of sporadic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Evolving molecular data on the biology of these neoplasms have the potential for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic use.
Peritoneal lipomatosis is a rare disease in childhood with only two cases previously described in children. We report a further case of a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with peritoneal lipomatosis. His main symptoms were abdominal pain, alternating bowel habit, abdominal distension, and melaena. His diagnostic work up included an abdominal MRI, wireless capsule endoscopy and single-balloon enteroscopy. Peritoneal lipomatosis although rare can be diagnosed in childhood. It is a benign clinical entity with variable manifestations.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by typical extrapyramidal motor features and increasingly recognized non-motor symptoms such as working memory (WM) deficits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated differences in neuronal activation during a motor WM task in 23 non-demented PD patients and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants had to memorize and retype variably long visuo-spatial stimulus sequences after short or long delays (immediate or delayed serial recall). PD patients showed deficient WM performance compared to controls, which was accompanied by reduced encoding-related activation in WM-related regions. Mirroring slower motor initiation and execution, reduced activation in motor structures such as the basal ganglia and superior parietal cortex was detected for both immediate and delayed recall. Increased activation in limbic, parietal and cerebellar regions was found during delayed recall only. Increased load-related activation for delayed recall was found in the posterior midline and the cerebellum. Overall, our results demonstrate that impairment of WM in PD is primarily associated with a widespread reduction of task-relevant activation, whereas additional parietal, limbic and cerebellar regions become more activated relative to matched controls. While the reduced WM-related activity mirrors the deficient WM performance, the additional recruitment may point to either dysfunctional compensatory strategies or detrimental crosstalk from “default-mode” regions, contributing to the observed impairment.
Prescribing etiquette is an important determinant of antimicrobial prescribing behaviors. Prescribing etiquette recognizes clinical decision-making autonomy and the role of hierarchy in influencing practice. Existing clinical groups and clinical leadership should be utilized to influence antimicrobial prescribing behaviors.
Background. There is limited knowledge of the key determinants of antimicrobial prescribing behavior (APB) in hospitals. An understanding of these determinants is required for the successful design, adoption, and implementation of quality improvement interventions in antimicrobial stewardship programs.
Methods. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with doctors (n = 10), pharmacists (n = 10), and nurses and midwives (n = 19) in 4 hospitals in London. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached. Thematic analysis was applied to the data to identify the key determinants of antimicrobial prescribing behaviors.
Results. The APB of healthcare professionals is governed by a set of cultural rules. Antimicrobial prescribing is performed in an environment where the behavior of clinical leaders or seniors influences practice of junior doctors. Senior doctors consider themselves exempt from following policy and practice within a culture of perceived autonomous decision making that relies more on personal knowledge and experience than formal policy. Prescribers identify with the clinical groups in which they work and adjust their APB according to the prevailing practice within these groups. A culture of “noninterference” in the antimicrobial prescribing practice of peers prevents intervention into prescribing of colleagues. These sets of cultural rules demonstrate the existence of a “prescribing etiquette,” which dominates the APB of healthcare professionals. Prescribing etiquette creates an environment in which professional hierarchy and clinical groups act as key determinants of APB.
Conclusions. To influence the antimicrobial prescribing of individual healthcare professionals, interventions need to address prescribing etiquette and use clinical leadership within existing clinical groups to influence practice.
prescribing etiquette; antimicrobial prescribing; prescribing behavior
The impression exists that picture acuity scores may overestimate function when subjects are switched to letter charts. This has not been systematically investigated. The aims of this study were to validate both printed crowded Kay picture (pCKP) and computerised CKP (cCKP) logMAR test acuity measurements against gold standard ETDRS letter chart scores.
A total of 30 adult subjects with various ophthalmic disease and 40 amblyopic children underwent test and re-test visual acuity measurements using the ETDRS chart, the pCKP logMAR test, and the cCKP acuity scores taken, using the COMPlog visual acuity measurement system. Bland and Altman methods were employed.
Computerised and printed Kay picture acuity scores agreed well. Both Kay picture test measurements were systematically biased when compared with ETDRS chart measurements. No significant proportional bias was found. The test retest variability (TRV) of all three tests was found to be similar between ±0.14 and 0.16 logMAR in both groups.
All three tests were similarly replicable and computerised Kay pictures appear to be a valid alternative to hard copy Kay pictures. Kay picture acuity measurements were systematically biased when compared with the gold standard ETDRS. Measurement error means that differences of up to 0.16 logMAR may be observed in clinically stable patients when re-measured using the same technique. A combination of TRV and systematic bias can however lead to differences of up to 0.40 logMAR in stable amblyopic patients when switched from CKPs to ETDRS chart acuity measurements.
visual acuity; Kay picture test; COMPlog; logMAR
Background and Purose
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been proposed to be important in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) albumin and contrast-enhanced MRI provide supporting evidence, but quantification of the BBB permeability in patients with VCI is lacking. Therefore, we acquired dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) to quantify BBB permeability in VCI.
We studied 60 patients with suspected VCI. They had neurological and neuropsychological testing, permeability measurements with DCEMRI and lumbar puncture to measure albumin index (Qalb). Patients were separated clinically into subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD), multiple and lacunar infarcts (MI/LAC), and leukoaraiosis (LA). Twenty volunteers were controls for the DCEMRI studies, and control CSF was obtained from 20 individuals undergoing spinal anesthesia for non-neurological problems.
Thirty-six patients were classified as SIVD, 8 as MI/LAC and 9 as LA. The Qalb was significantly increased in the SIVD group compared to 20 controls. Permeabilities for the VCI patients measured by DCEMRI were significantly increased over controls (p<0.05). Patient age correlated with neither the BBB permeability nor Qalb. Highest Qalb values were seen in SIVD group (p<0.05), and were significantly increased over MI/LAC. Ki values were elevated over controls in SIVD, but were similar to MI/LAC.
There was abnormal permeability in white matter in patients with SIVD as shown by DCEMRI and Qalb. Future studies will be needed to determine the relationship of BBB damage and development of WMHs.
Albumin; blood-brain barrier; vascular cognitive impairment; MRI; cerebrospinal fluid
Treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in South Africa have suffered as centralized, inpatient treatment programs struggle to cope with rising prevalence and HIV co-infection rates. A new treatment model is needed to expand treatment capacity and improve MDR-TB and HIV outcomes. We describe the design and preliminary results of an integrated, home-based MDR-TB/HIV treatment program created in rural KwaZulu-Natal. In 2008, a decentralized center was established to provide outpatient MDR-TB and HIV treatment. Nurses, community health workers, and family supporters have been trained to administer injections, provide adherence support, and monitor adverse reactions in patients’ homes. Physicians assess clinical response, adherence, and adverse reaction severity to MDR-TB and HIV therapy at monthly follow-up visits. Treatment outcomes are assessed by monthly cultures and CD4 and viral load every 6 months. Eighty patients initiated MDR-TB therapy from 2/2008–4/2010; 66 were HIV co-infected. Retention has been high (only 5% defaults, 93% of visits attended) and preliminary outcomes have been favorable (77% cured/still on treatment, 82% undetectable viral load). Few patients have required escalation of care (9%), had severe adverse events (8%), or died (6%). Integrated, home-based treatment for MDR-TB and HIV is a promising treatment model to expand capacity and achieve improved outcomes in rural, resource-poor, and high-HIV prevalent settings.
HIV/AIDS; Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; Community-based treatment; Program development; AIDS
Neurogranin (NRGN) is the main postsynaptic protein regulating the availability of calmodulin-Ca(2+) in neurons. NRGN is expressed exclusively in the brain, particularly in dendritic spines and has been implicated in spatial learning and hippocampal plasticity. Genetic variation in rs12807809 in the NRGN gene has recently been confirmed to be associated with schizophrenia in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies: the T-allele was found to be genome-wide significantly associated with schizophrenia. Cognitive tests and personality questionnaires were administered in a large sample of healthy subjects. Brain activation was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an episodic memory encoding and retrieval task in a subsample. All subjects were genotyped for NRGN rs12807809. There was no effect of genotype on personality or cognitive measures in the large sample. Homozygote carriers of the T-allele showed better performance in the retrieval task during fMRI. After controlling for memory performance, differential brain activation was evident in the anterior cingulate cortex for the encoding and posterior cingulate regions during retrieval. We could demonstrate that rs12807809 of NRGN is associated with differential neural functioning in the anterior and posterior cingulate. These areas are involved in episodic memory processes and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia in structural and functional imaging as well as postmortem studies.
NRGN; fMRI; memory; cingulate
The clinical spectrum of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has undergone a striking change with asymptomatic form predominant in developed countries, whereas symptomatic form predominant in developing countries. In this study, we have analyzed clinical presentation, investigations, management, operative findings in patients with PHPT at our center.
Materials and Method:
A retrospective, review of medical records of all patients with PHPT between 2000 and July 2012 at our institute was undertaken. A total of 96 patients were included in this study.
The mean age of patients was 50.8 years. Of the 96 patients, 63 were females (65.6%) and 33 were males (34.4%). Among them, 17.7% were asymptomatic and 82.3% were symptomatic. Bone pain was the most common complaint (52%) followed by renal stones (27%). Nearly 10.4% were part of familial PHPT, whereas others were sporadic adenomas. All patients had hypercalcemia (range 10.5–19.4 mg/dl) with elevated parathyroid (PTH) levels (range 32–3820 pg/ml). 25(OH) VitD levels were available in 86 patients (89.6%). There was no correlation between VitaminD levels and symptomatology. Sestamibi scan was true positive in 95.6%, false negative 2.2%, and inconclusive in 2.2%. Ultrasonography (USG) results were true positive in 84.2%, false positive in 6.3%, and false negative in 9.5%. Intraoperative PTH levels were measured in 83.3% patients. Postoperative complications were reported in 20.8% patients.
Clinical spectrum of PHPT varies but bones and stones are still the predominant manifestations even in affluent society. Asymptomatic form also exists and can be detected by routine measurement of serum calcium. There was no correlation seen between the 25 VitD levels and clinical symptoms.
Primary hyperparathyroidism; sestamibi scan; ultrasonography parathyroid
During the last decade considerable attention has been focussed upon the development of new technologies and methodologies for detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is a growing acknowledgement that the redundancy in testing a full panel of first-line drugs is an unaffordable indulgence; since only resistance at baseline to either (or both) of the two most potent agents, isoniazid (H) and rifampicin (R), would usually prompt therapeutic modification there is a shift towards initial RH (or R alone for selected genotypic technologies) drug susceptibility testing (DST) followed, if necessary by further extended first and second line agent (currently phenotypic) DST. Most of the new drug susceptibility tests endorsed by the World Health Organization since 2007 deliver rapid RH (or R alone for selected genotypic technologies) DST. Targeting of patient groups with risk factors for drug resistance increases the proportion of tests that identify drug resistance, but in many settings at least as many patients with drug resistant disease will have no identifiable risk factors—equity of care demands that universal RH DST at baseline should be the goal. We review the bewildering array of choices facing TB program directors and attempt to provide objective information to help in deciding what tools may be best suited to different environments.
In patients with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in resource-constrained settings, smear-negative disease has been associated with higher mortality than smear-positive disease. Higher reported mortality may be due to misdiagnosis, diagnostic delays, or because smear-negative disease indicates more advanced immune suppression.
We analyzed culture-confirmed, pulmonary TB among patients with TB and HIV in the United States from 1993–2008 to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) for smear-negative disease by demographic and clinical characteristics. Allowing two years for treatment outcome to be reported, we determined hazard ratios (HRs) for survival by smear status, adjusted for significant covariates on patients before 2006.
Among 16,710 cases with sputum smear results, 6,739 (39%) were sputum smear-negative and 9,971 (58%) were sputum smear-positive. The prevalence of smear-negative disease was lower in male patients (PR: 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86–0.93) and in those who were homeless (PR: 0.92, CI: 0.87–0.97) or used alcohol excessively (PR: 0.91, CI: 0.87–0.95), and higher in persons diagnosed while incarcerated (PR: 1.20, CI: 1.13–1.27). Patients with smear-negative disease had better survival compared to patients with smear-positive disease, both before (HR: 0.82, CI: 0.75–0.90) and after (HR: 0.81, CI: 0.71–0.92) the introduction of combination anti-retroviral therapy.
In the United States, smear-negative pulmonary TB in patients with HIV was not associated with higher mortality, in contrast to what has been documented in high TB burden settings. Smear-negative TB can be routinely and definitively diagnosed in the United States, whereas high-burden countries often rely solely on AFB-smear microscopy. This difference could contribute to diagnostic and treatment delays in high-burden countries, possibly resulting in higher mortality.
Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player.
For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls.
The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand.
Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.
Gastric fundoplication (GF) for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may protect against the progression of chronic rejection in lung transplant (LT) recipients. However, the association of GERD with acute rejection episodes (ARE) is uncertain. This study sought to identify if ARE were linked to GERD in LT patients.
This single-center retrospective observational study, of patients transplanted from January 1, 2000, to January 31, 2009, correlated results of pH probe testing for GERD with ARE (≥International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation A1 or B1). We compared the rates of ARE among patients with GERD (DeMeester Score > 14.7) versus without GERD as number of ARE per 1,000 patient-days after LT. Patients undergoing GF prior to LT were excluded.
The analysis included 60 LT subjects and 9,249 patient-days: 33 with GERD versus 27 without GERD. We observed 51 ARE among 60 LT recipients. The rate of ARE was highest among patients with GERD: 8.49 versus 2.58, an incidence density ratio (IDR) of 3.29 (P = .00016). Upon multivariate negative binomial regression modeling, only GERD was associated with ARE (IDR 2.15; P = .009). Furthermore, GERD was associated with multiple ARE (36.4% vs 0%; P < .0001) and earlier onset compared with patients without GERD: ARE proportion at 2 months was 0.55 versus 0.26 P = .004).
In LT recipients, GERD was associated with a higher rate, multiple events, and earlier onset of ARE. The efficacy of GF to reduce ARE among patients with GERD needs further evaluation.
A sensitive, accurate, precise and validated ion-pairing reverse-phase liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of atenolol and indapamide in bulk and tablet dosage form was developed. The proposed ion-pairing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography method utilises C18 column with 5 μm, 150×4.6 mm i.d. column and mobile phase consisting of 0.1% w/v solution of octane sulphonic acid, sodium salt and methanol (55:45 v/v), (pH 2.8) and ultraviolet detection at 235 nm. A linearity range of 1-250 μg/ml and 1-25 μg/ml for atenolol and indapamide, respectively, was obtained. The mean recoveries are 100.48 and 99.82% for atenolol and indapamide, respectively. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.
Atenolol; indapamide; ion-pairing; reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography
In modern day psychiatric practice, it is assumed as a matter of fact that when electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is administered, it will be administered under anesthesia and with succinylcholine (or its equivalent) modification. Yet, as surveys indicate, there is considerable practice of unmodified ECT in developing countries and, to a small extent, in the developed world, as well.
Materials and Methods:
This document examines historical and recent literature on the geographical practice, physiology, efficacy, and adverse effects of unmodified ECT. Particular attention is paid to musculoskeletal risks.
Although almost all the research is of poor methodological quality, there is a good reason to accept that unmodified ECT is associated with a wide range of adverse consequences, important among which are musculoskeletal complications, pre-ECT anxiety, and post-ECT confusion. However, it appears from recent data that these risks are not as large as historically portrayed. Possibly explanations are suggested, with seizure modification using parenteral benzodiazepines as a special possibility.
Under exceptional circumstances, if ECT is strongly indicated and seizure modification with succinylcholine is not feasible, unmodified ECT, especially benzodiazepine-modified ECT, may be a viable option. A detailed set of recommendations for such use of unmodified ECT is proposed along with necessary checks and balances. This document has been approved by the Indian Psychatric Society, the Indian Association of Biological Psychiatry, and the Indian Association of Private Psychiatry (which commissioned the preparation of the document).
Adverse effects of ECT; benzodiazepine-modified ECT; electroconvulsive therapy; guideline; position statement; succinylcholine; unmodified ECT
To report three cases of Loa loainfestation presenting over the course of 12 months to ophthalmology departments in the South West Thames region around London.
Case series (three case histories are described) and literature review.
All three patients had a history of travel to West Africa. All had worms surgically removed and were referred to an infectious diseases hospital, where these were confirmed as adult Loa loanematodes and treatment was initiated.
Although ocular loiasis is endemic in West Africa, European ophthalmologists in areas of diverse ethnicity should be aware that it is presenting increasingly frequently, that there is often no history of recent travel abroad, and that loiasis is a differential diagnosis for any ‘at-risk' patient with an unexplained foreign body sensation.
loa; eye infections; parasitic
To evaluate the effect of single-dose intravitreal bevacizumab followed by panretinal and macular grid laser, early in the course of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).
It is a prospective, non-randomized, interventional study of nine eyes of nine patients with <10 days origin of CRVO who received 2.5 mg (0.1 ml) intravitreal bevacizumab, followed 3 weeks later by panretinal and macular grid photocoagulation. Its effect on visual acuity and anatomical features of CRVO were studied.
Nine eyes of nine patients (male : female=8 : 1, mean age 54 years), with <10days (average 2.67days) onset of CRVO, received intravitreal bevacizumab within 7 days of presentation (average 3.1days) followed 3 weeks later by panretinal with macular grid laser. Presenting mean baseline visual acuity was 20/320 (1.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LOGMAR) units). All the patients showed rapid improvement in the form of rapid clearance of retinal hemorrhages, decreased optic disc swelling and venous dilation, and tortuosity. Mean final visual acuity was 20/63 (0.5 LOGMAR units). No patient showed conversion from non-ischemic to ischaemic CRVO, recurrence of macular edema, and disc collateral formation.
Early intravitreal bevacizumab followed by panretinal and macular grid laser may provide visually and anatomically favourable results in a case of CRVO. It may also obviate the need for repeated injection. It requires a large randomized study to substantiate the results.
bevacizumab; central retinal vein occlusion; intravitreal injection; macular edema; panretinal photocoagulation; vascular endothelial growth factor
To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We
conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk
behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was
defined as RPR titer ≥1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We
evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those
reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men and 398 women. Prevalence of
Chlamydia and gonorrhea was low (≤1%), while prevalence of other STI was high: Mycoplasma genitalium (14%),
syphilis (15% seropositivity, active syphilis 3%) and HSV-2 (85%). In multivariate analysis, disclosing HIV status to
partner (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3, p<0.001), participation in HIV support groups (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p=0.01), easy
access to condoms (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p=0.04) were protective factors for unprotected sex. Reporting a casual
partner in the last 12 months (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.5, p=0.004). and having an STI (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.3-5.5, p=0.02)
were associated with an increased odds of unprotected sex. Prevention interventions among HIV-positives in El Salvador
should focus on increasing condom access, promoting HIV disclosure and couples testing and reducing the number of
partners. The positive role of support groups should be used to enhance behavioral change.
El Salvador; HIV; AIDS; Prevention; People living with HIV; Condoms; Sexually transmitted infections.
AIM: To determine the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
METHODS: Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (n = 30), constipation-predominant IBS (n = 30), or mixed-symptom IBS (n = 30) were recruited from the community between March 2008 and February 2009. Rifaximin 200 mg three times daily was administered empirically to alleviate small intestinal bowel overgrowth in all patients. The presence of RLS was assessed via an RLS questionnaire and polysomnography.
RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with IBS (29%) were diagnosed with RLS using the RLS questionnaire. Twenty-four of the 26 patients (92%) underwent polysomnography, and all had confirmation of RLS. A greater percentage of patients with RLS had diarrhea-predominant IBS (62%) compared with patients with constipation-predominant IBS (4%) or mixed-symptom IBS (33%).
CONCLUSION: Restless legs syndrome is prevalent in patients with IBS, especially those with diarrheal symptoms. Assessment of concomitant disorders may improve diagnosis and expand relevant treatment options for patients.
Restless legs syndrome; Irritable bowel syndrome; Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; Prevalence