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1.  Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Genotype and Fluoropyrimidine Dosing 
The fluoropyrimidines are the mainstay chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of many types of cancers. Detoxifying metabolism of fluoropyrimidines requires dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, encoded by the DPYD gene), and reduced or absent activity of this enzyme can result in severe, and sometimes fatal, toxicity. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting this association and provide dosing recommendations for fluoropyrimidines based on DPYD genotype (updates at
PMCID: PMC3831181  PMID: 23988873
2.  Prognostic significance of thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidine phosphorylase protein expression in colorectal cancer patients treated with or without 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy 
Low tumour expression levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) have been linked with improved outcome for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). It is unclear whether this occurs because such tumours have better prognosis or they are more sensitive to 5-FU treatment.
Patients and methods
Associations between TS, DPD and TP levels, determined by tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, and survival was evaluated in 945 CRC patients according to treatment status.
Low TS and DPD expression associated with worse prognosis in stage II [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.09–2.63) and HR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.23–2.94), respectively] and stage III CRC patients treated by surgery alone [HR = 1.39 (95% CI 0.92–2.13) and HR = 1.49 (95% CI 1.02–2.17), respectively]. Low TS, DPD and TP associated with trends for better outcome in stage III patients treated with 5-FU [HR = 0.81 (95% CI 0.49–1.33), HR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.42–1.15) and HR = 0.66 (95% CI 0.39–1.12), respectively].
Low TS and DPD expression are prognostic for worse outcome in CRC patients treated by surgery alone, whereas low TS, DPD and TP expression are prognostic for better outcome in patients treated with 5-FU chemotherapy. These results provide indirect evidence that low TS, DPD and TP protein expression are predictive of good response to 5-FU chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC2931808  PMID: 18245778
colorectal cancer; fluorouracil; predictive; prognostic; thymidylate synthase
4.  Familial deficiency of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. Biochemical basis for familial pyrimidinemia and severe 5-fluorouracil-induced toxicity. 
Severe neurotoxicity due to 5-fluorouracil (FUra) has previously been described in a patient with familial pyrimidinemia. We now report the biochemical basis for both the pyrimidinemia and neurotoxicity in a patient we have recently studied. After administration of a "test" dose of FUra (25 mg/m2, 600 microCi[6-3H]FUra by intravenous bolus) to a patient who had previously developed neurotoxicity after FUra, a markedly prolonged elimination half-life (159 min) was observed with no evidence of FUra catabolites in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid and with 89.7% of the administered dose being excreted into the urine as unchanged FUra. Using a sensitive assay for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we demonstrated complete deficiency of enzyme activity in the patient and partial deficiency of enzyme activity in her father and children consistent with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Patients who are deficient in this enzyme are likely to develop severe toxicity after FUra administration.
PMCID: PMC442471  PMID: 3335642
5.  Conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil by human intestinal microflora. 
The mechanism of toxicity from 5-fluorocytosine chemotherapy is unclear. However, recent evidence suggests that the generation of 5-fluorouracil by a host may play an important role in the development of this toxicity. Using an in vitro semicontinuous culture system to mimic the intestinal microflora, we examined the capacity of this complex microbial community to convert 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil. The system was dosed initially and after 2 weeks of chronic exposure to 5-fluorocytosine with radiolabeled 5-fluorocytosine. No detectable production of 5-fluorouracil was observed up to 8 h after the acute dose; however, at 24 h and at all time points thereafter, increasing levels of 5-fluorouracil were detected for 4 days. The chronic dose resulted in an increased rate of 5-fluorouracil production without the 8-h lag time. These findings suggest that the enzyme or enzymes responsible for the deamination of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil by the intestinal microflora can be induced by chronic exposure to 5-fluorocytosine and that this conversion may provide a mechanism through which 5-fluorocytosine toxicity is manifested.
PMCID: PMC180361  PMID: 3729334
6.  5-fluorocytosine susceptibility of pathogenic fungi in the presence of allopurinol: potential for improving the therapeutic index of 5-fluorocytosine. 
The minimal inhibitory concentration of 5-fluorocytosine in 18 pathogenic fungal isolates was not altered by either allopurinol (100 microM) or oxypurinol (100 microM). Since allopurinol at this level clinically has been demonstrated to interfere with 5-fluorouracil anabolism, thereby reducing toxicity owing to 5-fluorouracil, allopurinol may be useful in counteracting the 5-fluorouracil-induced myelotoxicity observed in patients being treated with 5-fluorocytosine without interfering with the antifungal activity of 5-fluorocytosine.
PMCID: PMC185345  PMID: 6639003
7.  Rapid determination of serum 5-fluorocytosine levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. 
A method for the rapid, quantitative determination of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. After initially ultrafiltrating the serum, a portion was injected onto a cation exchange column. 5-FC was separated by using an ammonium-phosphate buffer as the mobile phase and detected by ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm. Quantitation of 5-FC was based on the linear relationship between peak area in the chromatograms and known concentrations of 5-FC in a set of serum standards (prepared by adding from 10 to 200 micrograms of 5-FC to 1-ml aliquots of pooled human serum). This method was compared with the standard microbiological method for 5-FC. Advantages of the HPLC method include: Determination of 5-FC levels within 30 min; lack of interference from other antimicrobial drugs, particularly amphotericin B; more accurate determination of true 5-FC level, particularly at concentrations of less than 25 micrograms/ml or greater than 100 micrograms/ml; and ease with which the assay may be automated for routine use.
PMCID: PMC352271  PMID: 263889

Results 1-7 (7)