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1.  A first-in-human study of the anti-α5β1 integrin monoclonal antibody PF-04605412 administered intravenously to patients with advanced solid tumors 
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology  2014;74(5):1039-1046.
A first-in-human clinical trial of a fully human, Fc-engineered IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting integrin α5β1 was conducted to evaluate tolerability, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and preliminary anti-tumor activity.
Escalating doses of PF-04605412 were given IV on day 1, 28 and every 2 weeks thereafter to patients with advanced solid tumors until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Sequential dose cohorts were evaluated based on a modified 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. The starting dose was 7.5 mg based on preclinical data.
Thirty-three patients were enrolled to six dose levels (7.5, 11.25, 16.9, 34, 68 and 136 mg). Twenty-three patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint (determination of the maximum tolerated dose). Five patients required permanent drug discontinuation due to acute infusion-related reactions, which occurred as grade 3 events in two patients. PK analysis indicated that the targeted drug exposure based on preclinical models was not achieved by the tolerated doses and PK modeling suggesting that doses at least fivefold higher would be necessary. No anti-tumor activity was observed.
Based on the safety data, the risks associated with the likelihood of significant cytokine-mediated infusion reactions at higher doses, the projected high dose necessary to affect on the biological target and the lack of anti-tumor activity at the doses explored, the trial was prematurely terminated without determining a formal maximum tolerated dose. Further clinical development of PF-04605412 has been discontinued.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00280-014-2576-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4209234  PMID: 25212537
Integrin; Antibody; Angiogenesis; ADCC; Phase I trial; First-in-human
2.  Phase I study of axitinib combined with paclitaxel, docetaxel or capecitabine in patients with advanced solid tumours 
British Journal of Cancer  2012;107(8):1268-1276.
Axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapy in human xenograft tumour models. This phase I study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity of axitinib combined with chemotherapy.
A total of 42 patients with advanced solid tumours received a continuous axitinib starting dose of 5 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) plus paclitaxel (90 mg m–2 weekly), docetaxel (100 mg m–2 every 3 weeks) or capecitabine (1000 or 1250 mg m–2 b.i.d., days 1–14).
Common treatment-related adverse events across all cohorts were nausea (45.2%), hypertension (45.2%), fatigue (42.9%), diarrhoea (38.1%), decreased appetite (33.3%) and hand–foot syndrome (31.0%). There was one complete response, nine partial responses and seven patients with stable disease. Ten patients (23.8%) remained on therapy for >8 months. Paclitaxel and capecitabine pharmacokinetics were similar in the absence or presence of axitinib, but docetaxel exposure was increased in the presence of axitinib. Axitinib pharmacokinetics were similar in the absence or presence of co-administered agents.
Axitinib combined with paclitaxel or capecitabine was well tolerated; no additive increase in toxicities was observed. Antitumour activity was observed for each treatment regimen and across multiple tumour types.
PMCID: PMC3494424  PMID: 22996612
axitinib; paclitaxel; docetaxel; capecitabine; solid tumours
3.  Phase I trial of axitinib combined with platinum doublets in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and other solid tumours 
British Journal of Cancer  2012;107(8):1277-1285.
This phase I dose-finding trial evaluated safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, combined with platinum doublets in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other solid tumours.
In all, 49 patients received axitinib 5 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) with paclitaxel/carboplatin or gemcitabine/cisplatin in 3-week cycles. Following determination of the maximum tolerated dose, a squamous cell NSCLC expansion cohort was enroled and received axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. with paclitaxel/carboplatin.
Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities: febrile neutropenia (n=1) in the paclitaxel/carboplatin cohort and fatigue (n=1) in the gemcitabine/cisplatin cohort. Common nonhaematologic treatment-related adverse events were hypertension (36.7%), diarrhoea (34.7%) and fatigue (28.6%). No grade⩾3 haemoptysis occurred among 12 patients with squamous cell NSCLC. The objective response rate was 37.0% for patients receiving axitinib/paclitaxel/carboplatin (n=27) and 23.8% for patients receiving axitinib/gemcitabine/cisplatin (n=21). Pharmacokinetics of axitinib and chemotherapeutic agents were similar when administered alone or in combination.
Axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. may be combined with standard paclitaxel/carboplatin or gemcitabine/cisplatin regimens without evidence of overt drug–drug interactions. Both combinations demonstrated clinical efficacy and were well tolerated.
PMCID: PMC3494447  PMID: 22990652
axitinib; chemotherapy; pharmacokinetics; solid tumours; non-small cell lung cancer
4.  A phase I study of the safety and pharmacokinetics of trabectedin in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with advanced malignancies 
Annals of Oncology  2008;19(10):1802-1809.
Background: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, potential pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, and effect on liver histology of trabectedin in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for advanced malignancies.
Patients and methods: Entry criteria for the 36 patients included normal liver function, prior doxorubicin exposure <250 mg/m2, and normal cardiac function. A 1-h PLD (30 mg/m2) infusion was followed immediately by one of six trabectedin doses (0.4, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.3 mg/m2) infused over 3 h, repeated every 21 days until evidence of complete response (CR), disease progression, or unacceptable toxicity. Plasma samples were obtained to assess PK profiles.
Results: The MTD of trabectedin was 1.1 mg/m2. Drug-related grade 3 and 4 toxic effects were neutropenia (31%) and elevated transaminases (31%). Six patients responded (one CR, five partial responses), with an overall response rate of 16.7%, and 14 had stable disease (less than a 50% reduction and less than a 25% increase in the sum of the products of two perpendicular diameters of all measured lesions and the appearance of no new lesions) >4 months (39%). Neither drug had its PK affected significantly by concomitant administration compared with trabectedin and PLD each given as a single agent.
Conclusion: Trabectedin combined with PLD is generally well tolerated at therapeutic doses of both drugs in pretreated patients with diverse tumor types and appears to provide clinical benefit. These results support the need for additional studies of this combination in appropriate cancer types.
PMCID: PMC2598415  PMID: 18497430
ET-743; ovarian cancer; pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD); sarcomas; trabectedin
5.  Phase 1 trial of the antiangiogenic peptide ATN-161 (Ac-PHSCN-NH2), a beta integrin antagonist, in patients with solid tumours 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;94(11):1621-1626.
To evaluate the toxicity, pharmacological and biological properties of ATN-161, a five –amino-acid peptide derived from the synergy region of fibronectin, adult patients with advanced solid tumours were enrolled in eight sequential dose cohorts (0.1–16 mg kg−1), receiving ATN-161 administered as a 10-min infusion thrice weekly. Pharmacokinetic sampling of blood and urine over 7 h was performed on Day 1. Twenty-six patients received from 1 to 14 4-week cycles of treatment. The total number of cycles administered to all patients was 86, without dose-limiting toxicities. At dose levels above 0.5 mg kg−1, mean total clearance and volume of distribution showed dose-independent pharmacokinetics (PKs). At 8.0 and 16.0 mg kg−1, clearance of ATN-161 was reduced, suggesting saturable PKs. Dose escalation was halted at 16 mg kg−1 when drug exposure (area under the curve) exceeded that associated with efficacy in animal models. There were no objective responses. Six patients received more than four cycles of treatment (>112 days). Three patients received 10 or more cycles (⩾280 days). ATN-161 was well tolerated at all dose levels. Approximately, 1/3 of the patients in the study manifested prolonged stable disease. These findings suggest that ATN-161 should be investigated further as an antiangiogenic and antimetastatic cancer agent alone or with chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC2361324  PMID: 16705310
ATN-161; α5β1 integrin; αvβ3 integrin; phase 1 trial; angiogenesis
6.  DNA affinity labeling of adenovirus type 2 upstream promoter sequence-binding factors identifies two distinct proteins. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1988;8(1):105-113.
A rapid affinity labeling procedure with enhanced specificity was developed to identify DNA-binding proteins. 32P was first introduced at unique phosphodiester bonds within the DNA recognition sequence. UV light-dependent cross-linking of pyrimidines to amino acid residues in direct contact at the binding site, followed by micrococcal nuclease digestion, resulted in the transfer of 32P to only those specific protein(s) which recognized the binding sequence. This method was applied to the detection and characterization of proteins that bound to the upstream promoter sequence (-50 to -66) of the human adenovirus type 2 major late promoter. We detected two distinct proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 116,000 that interacted with this promoter element. The two proteins differed significantly in their chromatographic and cross-linking behaviors.
PMCID: PMC363088  PMID: 3336354
7.  Partial purification of a nuclear protein that binds to the CCAAT box of the mouse alpha 1-globin gene. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1986;6(3):821-832.
We enriched a fraction from nuclear extracts of murine erythroleukemia cells which contains a protein able to form stable complexes with the promoter region of the alpha 1-globin gene. Binding activity, which is present in mouse brain and a variety of cultured mouse and human cell lines, is not erythroid cell specific. Binding studies with alpha-globin gene promoter deletion mutants as well as DNase I footprinting and dimethyl sulfate protection studies showed that the factor bound specifically to the CCAAT box of the alpha 1 promoter. Enriched factor preparations exhibited weak binding to the promoter region of the beta maj-globin gene. This suggests that this protein could bind differentially to these two promoters in vivo. The enriched factor may be a ubiquitous nuclear protein involved in the differential regulation of the alpha 1- and beta maj-globin genes.
PMCID: PMC367582  PMID: 3464831
8.  A common protein binds to two silencers 5' to the human beta-globin gene. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1989;17(21):8833-8852.
The temporal sequence of expression of human globin genes during development suggests precise regulation of these genes. Recent studies have characterized a number of DNA sequences within or flanking the human beta-globin gene which are important in its regulation and several proteins which bind to these sequences have been identified. We have found two proteins which bind 5' to the human beta-globin gene. One of these proteins, which we designate BP1, binds to two sequences, one between -550 and -527 bp relative to the cap site, the other between -302 and -294 bp. A second protein, BP2, binds to sequences between -275 and -263 bp. The binding sites for both BP1 and BP2 are in two regions which function as silencers in a transient expression assay using the human erythroleukemia cell line K562. These results and others presented here suggest that BP1 may act as a repressor protein. Negative regulation seems to be an important component of tissue and developmental specific globin gene regulation.
PMCID: PMC335046  PMID: 2587218

Results 1-8 (8)