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1.  Clinical Characteristics and Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Associated with Choline Concentration Measured by 1H MR Spectroscopy 
NMR in biomedicine  2010;24(3):316-324.
This study was to investigate the association between tCho and the clinical characteristics and biomarker status of breast cancer. Sixty-two patients with breast cancer which was 1.5 cm or larger in size on MR images were studied. The tCho concentration was correlated with the MR imaging features, the contrast enhancement kinetics, clinical variables, and biomarkers. Pair-wise two-tailed Spearman’s non-parametric test was used for the statistical analysis. The tCho was higher in high grade than moderate/low grade tumor (p=0.04) and in tumors with higher Ktrans and kep (p<0.001 for both). The association of tCho with age (p=0.05) and triple negative biomarker (p=0.09) approached significance. tCho was not detected in 17 patients, including 15 invasive ductal cancer and 2 infiltrating lobular cancer. Fifteen of the 17 patients had moderate to low grade cancers, and 11 had HER-2 negative cancer, suggesting these two factors might lead to false negative choline. Higher tCho in high grade tumors and tumors with higher Ktrans and kep indicates choline is associated with cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Higher choline level in younger women may be due to their more aggressive tumor type. The results presented here may aid in better interpretation of 1H MRS for diagnosis of breast lesions.
doi:10.1002/nbm.1595
PMCID: PMC3075960  PMID: 20862660
3.  In vivo water state measurements in breast cancer using broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy 
Physics in medicine and biology  2008;53(23):6713-6727.
Structural changes in water molecules are related to physiological, anatomical and pathological properties of tissues. Near infrared (NIR) optical absorption methods are sensitive to water, however detailed characterization of water in thick tissues is difficult to achieve because subtle spectral shifts can be obscured by multiple light scattering. In the NIR, a water absorption peak is observed around 975nm. The precise NIR peak shape and position is highly sensitive to water molecular disposition. We introduce a Bound Water Index (BWI) that quantifies shifts observed in tissue water absorption spectra measured by broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS). DOS quantitatively measures light absorption and scattering spectra and therefore reveals bound-water spectral shifts. BWI as a water state index was validated by comparing broadband DOS to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted MRI and conductivity in bound water tissue phantoms. Non-invasive DOS measurements of malignant and normal breast tissues performed in 18 subjects showed a significantly higher fraction of free water in malignant tissues (p<0.0001) compared to normal tissues. BWI of breast cancer tissues inversely correlated with Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson histopathology scores. These results highlight broadband DOS sensitivity to molecular disposition of water, and demonstrate the potential of BWI as a non-invasive in-vivo index that correlates with tissue pathology.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/53/23/005
PMCID: PMC2586905  PMID: 18997265

Results 1-4 (4)