A prospective, randomized investigation compared early clinical outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using conventional (CONTROL) or minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches (n=44). Outcome measures included isometric quadriceps and hamstrings strength, quadriceps activation, functional performance, knee pain, active knee range of motion (AROM), muscle mass, the SF-36, and WOMAC, assessed preoperatively and 4 and 12 weeks after TKA. Four weeks after TKA, the MIS group had greater hamstring strength (p=0.02) and quadriceps strength (p=0.07), which did not translate to differences in other outcomes. At 12 weeks, there were no clinically meaningful differences between groups on any measure. Although MIS may lead to faster recovery of strength in patients undergoing TKA, there was no benefit on longer-term recovery of strength or functional performance.
total knee arthroplasty; joint arthroplasty; quadriceps; muscle strength; minimally invasive surgery
A novel, nonresorbable, monolithic composite structure ceramic, developed using a partially stabilized zirconia ceramic common to implantable devices, was used in a cementless weight-bearing articular implant to test the feasibility of replacing a region of degenerated or damaged articular cartilage in the knee as part of a preclinical study using male mongrel dogs lasting up to 24 weeks. Gross/histological cartilage observations showed no differences among control, 12-week and 24-week groups, while pull-out tests showed an increase in maximum pull-out load over time relative to controls. Hence, the use of a novel ceramic implant as a replacement for a focal cartilage defect leads to effective implant fixation within 12 weeks and does not cause significant degradation in opposing articular cartilage in the time frame evaluated.
unicondylar hemiarthroplasty; ceramic device; preclinical study; cartilage wear; animal model
Our objective was to compare outcomes (anesthesia time, total operative time, tourniquet time, duration of hospital stay, 90-day complication rate and transfusion rates) of patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) who underwent bariatric surgery before or after TKA. One-hundred-twenty-five patients were included: TKA before bariatric surgery (group 1; n=39); TKA within two years of bariatric surgery (group 2; n=25); and TKA more than 2 years after bariatric surgery (group 3; n=61). Patients with TKA more than 2 years after bariatric surgery had shorter anesthesia, total operative and tourniquet times than other groups; differences were significant between groups. Ninety-day complication and transfusion rates approached but did not meet statistical significance. Ninety-day complication rates and duration of hospital stay did not differ significantly between the three groups.
Total knee arthroplasty; morbidly obese; bariatric surgery; outcomes
Top walking speed (TWS) was used to compare UKA with TKA. Two groups of 23 patients, well matched for age, gender, height and weight and radiological severity were recruited based on high functional scores, more than twelve months post UKA or TKA. These were compared with 14 preop patients and 14 normal controls. Their gait was measured at increasing speeds on a treadmill instrumented with force plates. Both arthroplasty groups were significantly faster than the preop OA group. TKA patients walked substantially faster than any previously reported series of knee arthroplasties. UKA patients walked 10% faster than TKA, although not as fast as the normal controls. Stride length was 5% greater and stance time 7% shorter following UKA — both much closer to normal than TKA. Unlike TKA, UKA enables a near normal gait one year after surgery.
gait; walking speed; stride length; unicompartmental knee arthroplasty; total knee arthroplasty
We assessed important patient risk factors for postoperative periprosthetic fractures after revision total hip replacement (THR) using prospectively collected Institutional Joint Registry data. We used univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses. There were 330 postoperative periprosthetic fractures after 6,281 revision THRs. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, hazard [95% confidence interval] of periprosthetic fracture was higher for: women, 1.66 [1.32, 2.08], p<0.001; higher Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index of 2, 1.46 (1.03, 2.07) and index of 3+, 2.01 (1.48, 2.73), overall p<0.001; and operative diagnosis, especially previous non-union, 5.76 (2.55, 13.02), overall p<0.001. Hazard was lower in 61–70 year old, 0.64 (0.49, 0.84) and 71–80 year old 0.57 (0.43, 0.76), compared to <60 years (overall p<0.0001). Our study identified important modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors for fractures after revision THR.
Using an institutional Joint Registry, we studied frequency, trends and predictors of mortality following elective total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Of the 12,727 and 12,484 patients who underwent THA and TKA respectively, all-cause mortality rates at 7-, 30- and 90-days were as follows: THA, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5%; TKA 0.1%. 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Statistically significant downward time-trend in 90-day mortality was noted after TKA (p=0.02), but not after THA (p=0.41). In multivariable-adjusted analyses of THA patients, older age, higher comorbidity index, and prior cardiac disease were significantly associated with higher 90-day mortality. In TKA patients, older age, male gender, ASA class of 3-4, and higher comorbidity index were associated with higher 90-day all-cause mortality. Optimization of disease management may reduce postoperative mortality after THA/TKA.
Whether there are differences in knee anthropometry between Asian and white knees remains unclear. Three-dimensional knee models were constructed using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of healthy Chinese and white subjects. The morphologic measurements of the femur included mediolateral, anteroposterior dimensions, and aspect ratio. The tibial measurements included mediolateral, medial/lateral anteroposterior dimension, aspect ratio, and posterior slope of medial/lateral plateau. The results showed that Chinese knees were generally smaller than white knees. In addition, the femoral aspect ratio of Chinese females was significantly smaller than that of white females (1.24 ± 0.04 vs 1.28 ± 0.06). Tibial aspect ratio differences between Chinese and white males (1.82 ± 0.07 vs 1.75 ± 0.11), though significant, were likely a reflection of differences in knee size between races. These racial differences should be considered in the design of total knee arthroplasty prosthesis for Asian population.
knee geometry; total knee arthroplasty; Chinese; Caucasian; male; female
In-hospital falls (IFs) increase morbidity, cost, and may result in litigation. We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to quantify the incidence of IFs in patients who underwent hip and knee arthroplasty and to define trends, patient’s demographics, risk factors, complications, and hospital cost. Patients operated on between 1998 and 2007 were identified and grouped depending on the presence of a diagnosis of IF. Of those, 0.85% had an IF, representing 2.1 falls per 1000 inpatient days. The incidence of IF increased from 0.4% to 1.3% during the study period. Independent risk factors included revision surgery, advanced age, male sex, minority race, and the presence of comorbidities. Patients having IF had a longer hospital stay and were less likely to be discharged to their primary residence. In-hospital mortality, complications, and cost were higher in patients sustaining IF. Given the associated morbidity, mortality, and increased cost, resources should be allocated to minimize the risk of IF in this population.
total joint anthroplasty; complications; in-patient falls; safety
The hypothesis of this study was that acetabular liner vulnerability to scratching from femoral heads, roughened by third bodies embedded in the liner, is not significantly lower for highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXPE) than for conventional polyethylene (CPE). Six CPE and six HXPE acetabular liners were each reproducibly embedded with five CoCrMo beads, then run for 10,000 cycles in a joint simulator. By visual rank-ordering, there was low association between liner scratch severity and polyethylene type. The CPE and HXPE liner scratches were not significantly different in scratch peak-valley height or width, or in liner roughness in the vicinity of the embedded beads. This model indicated that high crosslinking of polyethylene does not offer appreciable protection against severe scratching induced by large embedded third body particles.
Although improvements in materials engineering have greatly reduced fracture rates in ceramic femoral heads, concerns still exist for liners. Ceramics are vulnerable fracture due to impact, and from stress concentrations (point and line loading) such as those associated with impingement-subluxation. Thus, ceramic cup fracture propensity is presumably very sensitive to surgical cup positioning. A novel fracture mechanics finite element formulation was developed to identify cup orientations most susceptible to liner fracture propagation, for several impingement-prone patient maneuvers. Other factors being equal, increased cup inclination and increased anteversion were found to elevate fracture risk. Squatting, stooping and leaning shoe-tie maneuvers were associated with highest fracture risk. These results suggest that fracture risk can be reduced by surgeons’ decreasing cup abduction and by patients’ avoiding of specific activities.
fracture mechanics; total hip arthroplasty; ceramic-on-ceramic; impingement; finite element analysis
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are an important endpoint in orthopedics providing comprehensive information about patients' perspectives on treatment outcome. Computer-adaptive test (CAT) measures are an advanced method for assessing PROs using item sets that are tailored to the individual patient. This provides increased measurement precision and reduces the number of items. We developed a CAT version of the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), a measure of joint awareness in everyday life. CAT development was based on FJS data from 580 patients after THA or TKA (808 assessments). The CAT version reduced the number of items by half at comparable measurement precision. In a feasibility study we administered the newly developed CAT measure on tablet PCs and found that patients actually preferred electronic questionnaires over paper–pencil questionnaires.
patient-reported outcomes; forgotten joint score; electronic data capture; computer-adaptive testing; total knee arthroplasty; total hip arthroplasty
We used Medicare administrative data to examine trends in primary and revision THA utilization and hospital volume. Between 1991 and 2005 primary and revision THA utilization increased by 40.9% and 16.8% respectively. The percentage of primary THA procedures performed in high volume hospitals (those in the highest quintile of volume) increased slightly from 58.0% of all procedures in 1991 to 58.7% in 2005 (P-value < 0.01). The percentage of revisions performed in high volume hospitals increased from 60.9% to 62.4% (P-value < 0.01). The percentage of primary THA procedures performed by low volume hospitals remained relatively stable (P-value = 0.36) while the percentage of revision THA performed by low volume hospitals declined (P-value < 0.001). In aggregate these results suggest minimal evidence that regionalization of THA is occurring.
Axial torsional loads representative of gait and stair climbing conditions were applied to transverse sections of 8 uncemented postmortem retrievals and a high-resolution imaging system with digital image correlation was used to measure local micromotion along the bone-implant interface. For seven components that were radiographically stable, there was limited micromotion for gait loading (1.42±1.33 μm) that increased significantly (p=0.0032) for stair climb loading (7.32±9.96 μm). A radiographically loose component had motions on the order of 2.3 mm with gait loading. There was a strong inverse relationship between the amount of bone-implant contact (contact fraction) (p=0.001) and micromotion. The uncemented components had greater contact fraction (41.8±14.4% vs. 11.5±10.2%, p=0.0033) and less median micromotion (0.81±0.79μm vs. 28.8±51.1μm) compared to a previously reported study of cemented retrievals.
Ceramic acetabular liners may exhibit a small, sharp crest - an artifact of discontinuous machining steps - at the junction between the concave spherical surface and the interior edge. On three ceramic liners, this crest was found to form a 9–11° deviation from tangency. Edge loading wear tests were conducted directly on this crest and on a smoother region of the edge. The crest elicited 2–15 times greater volumetric wear on the femoral head. The propensity of the crest to rapidly (<2000 wear cycles) cause elevated wear under low contact force (200 N) suggests that the crest artifact of prevailing machining protocols might be a root cause of stripe wear and squeaking in ceramic acetabular bearings.
This study aims to identify whether patient-level or provider-level characteristics are most influential on a patient’s length of stay in the acute care hospital.
Materials and Methods
A dataset containing a nationally representative sample of inpatient discharge abstracts was used. Multi-level linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between patient- and provider-level characteristics on patients’ lengths of stay.
The target population included 322,894 discharges with a primary procedure code for primary total knee arthroplasty and 193,553 discharges for total hip arthroplasty. The variables associated with the greatest increases in length of stay were a higher co-morbidity level among patient level attributes (+17.4%) and low surgeon volume among provider-level characteristics (+18.8%).
Provider-level characteristics, particularly provider volume, had a greater impact on length of stay.
The purpose was to explore the responsiveness of both patient-report and performance-based outcome measures to determine functional changes during the acute and long-term postoperative recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One hundred patients scheduled for unilateral TKA underwent testing preoperatively, 1 month, and 12 months postoperatively using the Delaware Osteoarthritis Profile. All physical performance measures decreased initially after surgery then increased in the long term, however the perceived function did not follow the same trend and some showed an increase immediately after surgery. Patient-report measures were variable with no to small response early, but had excellent long-term responsiveness that was twice as large as performance measures. Patient perception fails to capture the acute functional declines after TKA and may overstate the long-term functional improvement with surgery.
Nine cross-linked UHMWPE acetabular liners were retrieved at revision surgery. Eight of the liners were fully intact and functional at retrieval. Six cases contained shallow initiated cracks at the root of rim notches; one crack had propagated several millimeters. Optical and electron microscopic inspection of the crack surfaces revealed clam shell markings, which are characteristic of fatigue crack initiation. Crack initiation at notches has been identified in reports of catastrophic cross-linked liner failures, with cracks initiation sites exhibiting similar morphology and clam shell markings. Thus, we believe the shallow cracks identified in this case series are precursors to catastrophic rim fracture. The results of this study recommend further investigations to clarify the etiology and prevalence of crack initiation in cross-linked acetabular liners.
Acetabular liner; total hip arthroplasty; fracture; UHMWPE; crosslinked UHMWPE; crack initiation
The aim of this study was to better understand how in vivo oxidation contributes to fatigue damage in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 119 tibial inserts were consecutively collected after revision surgery. Of the 119 polyethylene retrievals, 29 were gamma sterilized in air (historical), while the remaining 90 were gamma sterilized in nitrogen (conventional). Surface damage assessment and characterization of oxidation were performed on all the retrievals. Delamination was significantly more prevalent and extensive in the longer-term, highly oxidized, historical tibial inserts. Pitting damage, in contrast, appeared to be equally prevalent between both retrieval groups, and was not correlated with in vivo oxidation. Our findings support our hypothesis that in vivo oxidation is a contributing factor to delamination, but not pitting, in TKA. Despite the lower oxidation displayed by conventional retrievals, this study provides strong evidence that delamination secondary to in vivo oxidation may occur during the second decade of implantation.
ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene; total knee arthroplasty; in vivo oxidation; pitting; delamination; fatigue
Recent reports have noted higher rates of heterotopic ossification (HO) with surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA) than with traditional total hip arthroplasty in the absence of postoperative HO prophylaxis. This study reports rates and grades of HO in 44 SRA patients with at least 1 year of follow-up. Heterotopic ossification prophylaxis was used in 32 (73%) of 44 cases. Heterotopic ossification prophylaxis consisted of radiotherapy (22/32), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (8/32), or both (2/32). One case of clinically significant HO was documented in the no-prophylaxis group. This strategy of selective HO prophylaxis in patients felt by orthopedic surgeons to be at high risk of HO resulted in low rates of clinically relevant HO after SRA (1/44, 2.3%). Further study is needed to establish optimal selection criteria for HO prophylaxis after SRA.
surface replacement arthroplasty; heterotopic ossification; prophylactic radiation
We assessed whether higher Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with higher risk of moderate-severe knee pain 2- and 5-years after primary or revision Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). We adjusted for gender, age, comorbidity, operative diagnosis and implant fixation in multivariable logistic regression. BMI (reference, <25 kg/m2) was not associated with moderate-severe knee pain at 2-years post-primary TKA (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 25-29.9, 1.02 (0.75,1.39), p=0.90; 30-34.9, 0.93 (0.65,1.34), p=0.71; 35-39.9, 1.16 (0.77,1.74), p=0.47; ≥40, 1.09 (0.69,1.73), (all p-values ≥0.47). Similarly, BMI was not associated with moderate-severe pain at 5-year primary TKA and at 2- and 5-yr revision TKA follow-up. Lack of association of higher BMI with poor pain outcomes post-TKA implies that TKA should not be denied to obese patients for fear of suboptimal outcomes.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether functional performance and self-report outcomes are related to body mass index (BMI) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesized that higher BMIs would negatively affect functional performance as assessed by the timed up-and-go test, stair climbing test, 6-minute walk test, and self-report questionnaires. A total of 140 patients with BMIs ranging from 21.2 to 40.0 kg/m2 were followed over the first 6 months after unilateral TKA. Hierarchical linear regression was used to evaluate the impact of BMI on functional performance at 1, 3, and 6 months after TKA, while taking into account preoperative functional performance. There were no meaningful relationships between BMI and functional performance in the subacute (1 and 3 months) and intermediate (6-month) stages of recovery.
total knee arthroplasty; body mass index; obesity; functional performance
Over a ten-year period, we prospectively evaluated the reasons for revision for contemporary and highly crosslinked polyethylene formulations in a multicenter retrieval program. 212 consecutive retrievals were classified as conventional gamma-inert sterilized liners (n=37), annealed (Crossfire™, n=72), or remelted (Longevity™, XLPE, Durasul; n=93). The most frequent reasons for revision were loosening (35%), instability (28%) and infection (21%) and were not related to polyethylene formulation (p = 0.17). Annealed and remelted liners had comparable linear penetration rates (0.03 and 0.04 mm/y, respectively, on average) and were significantly lower than conventional retrievals (0.11 mm/y; p ≤ 0.0005). This retrieval study including first-generation highly crosslinked liners demonstrated lower wear than conventional polyethylene. While loosening remained the most prevalent reason for revision, we could not demonstrate a relationship between wear and loosening. The long-term clinical performance of first-generation highly crosslinked remains promising, based on the mid-term outcomes of the components documented in this study.
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene; UHMWPE; revision; total hip replacement; total hip arthroplasty; crosslinking; wear
Sixty Crossfire (Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ) liners were consecutively revised after an average of 2.9 years (range: 0.01 – 8.0 years) for reasons unrelated to wear or mechanical performance of the polyethylene. Femoral head penetration was measured directly from 42 retrievals implanted for over 1 year. Penetration rate results (0.04 mm/y, on average; range: 0.00-0.13 mm/y) confirmed decreasing wear rates with longer in vivo times. Overall, we observed oxidation levels at the bearing surface of the 60 liners (0.5, on average; range: 0.1-1.7) comparable to those of non-implanted liners (0.5, on average; range: 0.3-1.1) and preservation of mechanical properties. We also measured elevated oxidation of the rim (3.4, on average; range: 0.2-8.8) that was correlated with implantation time. Rim surface damage, however, was observed in only 3/60 (5%) cases. Retrieval analysis of the three rim-damaged liners did not reveal an association between surface damage and the reasons for revision.
Mechanical properties; oxidation; wear; hip arthroplasty; highly crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene
This study was performed to explore the cost-effectiveness of total hip replacement compared with hemiarthroplasty in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in active otherwise healthy older patients in whom the optimum treatment is believed to be an arthroplasty procedure.
A Markov decision model was used to determine whether total hip arthroplasty or hemiarthroplasty was most cost-effective for the management of a displaced femoral neck fracture in this patient population.
Total hip arthroplasty was associated with an average cost $3,000 more than hemiarthroplasty, and the average quality-adjusted life year gain was 1.53. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with the total hip replacement treatment strategy is $1960 per quality-adjusted life-year.
Currently available data support the use of total hip arthroplasty as the more cost-effective treatment strategy in this specific population. The increased upfront cost appears to be offset by the improved functional results when compared with hemiarthroplasty in this select patient group.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of persons who underwent simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to subjects who underwent unilateral TKA and a healthy control group. Fifteen subjects who underwent primary bilateral TKA and 15 sex, age, and body mass index-matched subjects who underwent primary unilateral TKA were observed prospectively for 2 years. Subjects in both surgical groups showed significant improvement in Knee Outcome Scores, Short Form 36 physical component scores, Timed Up and Go, and stair-climbing tasks (P ≤ .004). No differences in final outcomes were found between surgical groups. In addition, most 2-year clinical measures were no different between the surgical and control groups. Subjects medically appropriate for bilateral TKA should be afforded this option.
bilateral; knee; arthroplasty; outcomes; function