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author:("lukins, Emily")
1.  Psychological Health in Cancer Survivors 
Seminars in Oncology Nursing  2008;24(3):193-201.
Objectives
The prevalence of both negative (distress) and positive responses (growth, well-being) to the cancer experience is examined and difficulties in establishing the prevalence of these responses discussed. A conceptual framework for understanding factors associated with psychological health in cancer survivors is presented. Finally, strategies for promoting psychological health in cancer survivors are examined.
Data Sources
Review of the literature.
Conclusions
Psychological health in cancer survivors is defined by the presence or absence of distress as well as the presence or absence of positive well-being and psychological growth. Furthermore, psychological health in cancer survivors is determined by the balance between two classes of factors: the stress and burden posed by the cancer experience and the resources available for coping with this stress and burden.
Implications for nursing practice
In general, promotion of psychological health is based upon the prevention or treatment of distress as well as the encouragement of growth and well-being. Periodic screening for psychological distress across the cancer trajectory is critical to appropriate management of distress.
doi:10.1016/j.soncn.2008.05.007
PMCID: PMC3321244  PMID: 18687265
2.  Beliefs About Cancer Causation and Prevention As a Function of Personal and Family History of Cancer: A National, Population-Based Study 
Psycho-Oncology  2008;17(10):967-974.
Research suggests individuals possess multifaceted cognitive representations of various diseases. These illness representations consist of various beliefs, including causal attributions for the disease, and are believed to motivate, guide, and shape health-related behavior. As little research has examined factors associated with beliefs about cancer causation, the present study examined the relationship between personal and family history of cancer and beliefs about the causes and prevention of malignant disease. Data was obtained from 6369 adult respondents to the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a national population-based survey. Information about personal and family history of cancer and beliefs regarding cancer causation and prevention was obtained. Results showed both a personal and family history of cancer were associated with differences in beliefs about the causes of cancer. In general, a personal history of cancer was not significantly linked to causal attributions for cancer relative to those without a personal history. In contrast, a family history of cancer tended to increase the likelihood a respondent viewed a particular cause as increasing cancer risk. Thus, personal and vicarious experience with cancer had dramatically diverging influences on attributions of cancer causation, which may be due to differing self-protection motives. Results support the belief that illness representations, in this case the causal belief component, are influenced by both personal and vicarious experience with a disease and also suggest illness representations may influence receptivity to messages and interventions designed to increase appropriate cancer risk reduction behavior.
doi:10.1002/pon.1306
PMCID: PMC3319087  PMID: 18203236
cancer; oncology; causal attributions; attribution theory; illness representations; prevention
3.  Differences in Cancer Information Seeking Behavior, Preferences, and Awareness Between Cancer Survivors and Healthy Controls: A National, Population-Based Survey 
Journal of Cancer Education  2009;24(1):73-79.
Background
No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions.
Methods
Data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was examined.
Results
The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups.
Conclusions
Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information seeking preferences and experience. However awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer.
doi:10.1080/08858190802664784
PMCID: PMC3315685  PMID: 19259869

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