Despite recent advances in the pathogenesis, treatment, and public health response to hepatitis C virus (HCV), HCV as it specifically relates to pregnancy has been a neglected condition and a markedly improved public health response to these populations is needed. HCV-monoinfected pregnant women have a 2–8% risk of viral transmission to their infant, but the mechanism and timing of mother to child transmission (MTCT) are not fully understood, nor is the natural history of the illness in pregnant women and their offspring. Recognition of HCV is relevant to infected pregnant women because of their risk of the long-term complications of infection, potential effects of infection on pregnancy, and risk of transmission to their infants. Certain risk factors for mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HCV appear similar to those for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), however, unlike HIV, effective methods of prevention of HCV vertical transmission have not been developed. It is possible that a better understanding of HCV pathogenesis in pregnancy and MTCT of HCV infection will lead to useful prevention strategies, particularly as we enter an era where interferon-free drug cocktails may emerge as viable treatment options for HCV
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV); Pregnancy; Mother to Child Transmission; Screening
We aim to test the hypothesis that 2D fetal AGV measurements offer similar volume estimates as volume calculations based on 3D technique
Fetal AGV was estimated by 3D ultrasound (VOCAL) in 93 women with signs/symptoms of preterm labor and 73 controls. Fetal AGV was calculated using an ellipsoid formula derived from 2D measurements of the same blocks (0.523× length × width × depth). Comparisons were performed by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of repeatability, and Bland-Altman method. The cAGV (AGV/fetal weight) was calculated for both methods and compared for prediction of PTB within 7 days.
Among 168 volumes, there was a significant correlation between 3D and 2D methods (ICC=0.979[95%CI: 0.971-0.984]). The coefficient of repeatability for the 3D was superior to the 2D method (Intra-observer 3D: 30.8, 2D:57.6; inter-observer 3D: 12.2, 2D: 15.6). Based on 2D calculations, a cAGV≥433mm3/kg, was best for prediction of PTB (sensitivity: 75%(95%CI=59-87); specificity: 89%(95%CI=82-94). Sensitivity and specificity for the 3D cAGV (cut-off ≥420mm3/kg) was 85%(95%CI=70-94) and 95%(95%CI=90-98), respectively. In receiver-operating-curve curve analysis, 3D cAGV was superior to 2D cAGV for prediction of PTB (z=1.99, p=0.047).
2D volume estimation of fetal adrenal gland using ellipsoid formula cannot replace 3D AGV calculations for prediction of PTB.
3D ultrasound; volume measurement; fetal adrenal gland; preterm birth
Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but many do not receive recommended follow-up. We sought to identify barriers to follow-up screening.
We surveyed primary care (PCPs) and obstetric and gynecology care providers (OBCPs) in a large health system. We also assessed documentation of GDM history in the health care system’s electronic medical record.
478 clinicians were surveyed, among whom 207 responded. Most participants (81.1%) gave an accurate estimate of risk of progression to T2DM. PCPs were less likely than OBCPs to ask patients about history of GDM (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20–0.90), but they were far more likely to indicate that they order glucose screening for women with a known history (OR 4.31, 95% CI 2.01–9.26). Providers identified poor communication between OBCPs and PCPs as a major barrier to screening. Fewer than half (45.8%) of 450 women with GDM by GTT criteria had that history documented on their electronic problem list.
Clinicians are aware that women with GDM are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but they do not routinely assess and screen patients, and communication between OBCPs and PCPs can be improved.
gestational diabetes; evidence-based practice; electronic medical record; type 2 diabetes
To determine in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants if elevated blood inteferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) are associated with need for shunt following severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), or with ventricular dilation following milder grades /no IVH.
Whole blood cytokines were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21. Maximum IVH grade in the first 28d, and shunt surgery or ventricular dilation on subsequent ultrasound (28d -36 w PMA) were determined.
Of 902 infants in the NICHD NRN Cytokine study who survived to 36w/discharge, 3.1% had shunts. Of the 12% of infants with severe (Gr III–IV) IVH, 26% had a shunt associated with elevated TNF-α. None of the infants without IVH (69%) or with Gr I (12%) or II (7%) IVH received shunts, but 8.4% developed ventricular dilation, associated with lower IFN-γ and higher IL-18.
Statistically significant but clinically non-discriminatory alterations in blood cytokines were noted in infants with severe IVH who received shunts and in those without severe IVH who developed ventricular dilation. Blood cytokines are likely associated with brain injury but may not be clinically useful as biomarkers for white matter damage.
Infant; premature; Cytokines; Hydrocephalus; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Intracranial hemorrhage
To describe the staffing and availability of medical equipment and medications and the performance of procedures at health facilities providing maternal and neonatal care at African, Asian, and Latin American sites participating in a multicenter trial to improve emergency obstetric/neonatal care in communities with high maternal and perinatal mortality.
In 2009, prior to intervention, we surveyed 136 hospitals and 228 clinics in 7 sites in Africa, Asia, and Latin America regarding staffing, availability of equipment/ medications, and procedures including cesarean section.
The coverage of physicians and nurses/midwives was poor in Africa and Latin America. In Africa, only 20% of hospitals had full-time physicians. Only 70% of hospitals in Africa and Asia had performed cesarean sections in the last 6 months. Oxygen was unavailable in 40% of African hospitals and 17% of Asian hospitals. Blood was unavailable in 80% of African and Asian hospitals.
Assuming that adequate facility services are necessary to improve pregnancy outcomes, it is not surprising that maternal and perinatal mortality rates in the areas surveyed are high. The data presented emphasize that to reduce mortality in these areas, resources that result in improved staffing and sufficient equipment, supplies, and medication, along with training, are required.
emergency obstetric and neonatal care; developing countries; perinatal mortality
We sought to estimate the frequency of pregnancy-related thromboembolic events among carriers of the factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation without a personal history of thromboembolism, and to evaluate the impact of maternal and fetal FVL mutation carriage or other thrombophilias on the risk of adverse outcomes.
Women with a singleton pregnancy and no history of thromboembolism were recruited at 13 clinical centers before 14 weeks of gestation from April 2000 to August 2001. Each was tested for the FVL mutation, as was the resultant conceptus after delivery or after miscarriage, when available. The incidence of thromboembolism (primary outcome), and of other adverse outcomes, was compared between FVL mutation carriers and noncarriers. We also compared adverse outcomes in a secondary nested carrier-control analysis of FVL mutation and other coagulation abnormalities. In this secondary analysis, we defined carriers as women having one or more of the following traits: carrier for FVL mutation, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, antithrombin III deficiency, activated protein C resistance, or lupus anticoagulant-positive, heterozygous for prothrombin G20210A or homozygous for the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations. Carriers of the FVL mutation alone (with or without activated protein C resistance) were compared with those having one or more other coagulation abnormalities and with controls with no coagulation abnormality.
One hundred thirty-four FVL mutation carriers were identified among 4,885 gravidas (2.7%), with both FVL mutation status and pregnancy outcomes available. No thromboembolic events occurred among the FVL mutation carriers (0%, 95% confidence interval 0–2.7%). Three pulmonary emboli and one deep venous thrombosis occurred (0.08%, 95% confidence interval 0.02–0.21%), all occurring in FVL mutation noncarriers. In the nested carrier-control analysis (n = 339), no differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes were observed between FVL mutation carriers, carriers of other coagulation disorders, and controls. Maternal FVL mutation carriage was not associated with increased pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, placental abruption, or small for gestational age births. However, fetal FVL mutation carriage was associated with more frequent preeclampsia among African-American (15.0%) and Hispanic (12.5%) women than white women (2.6%, P = .04), adjusted odds ratio 2.4 (95% confidence interval 1.0–5.2, P = .05).
Among women with no history of thromboembolism, maternal heterozygous carriage of the FVL mutation is associated with a low risk of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Neither universal screening for the FVL mutation, nor treatment of low-risk carriers during pregnancy is indicated.
Examine maternal and infant medical outcomes of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA).
Four hundred and twelve mother-infant pairs (204 MA-exposed and 208 unexposed matched comparisons) were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study. Exposure was determined by maternal self-report during this pregnancy and/or positive meconium toxicology. Maternal interviews assessed prenatal drug use, pregnancy course, and sociodemographic information. Medical chart reviews provided medical history, obstetric complications, infant outcomes, and discharge placement.
MA-using mothers were more likely to be poor, to have a psychiatric disorder/emotional illness and less prenatal care, and to be less likely to breast-feed their infant than comparison mothers. After adjusting for covariates, MA-exposed infants were more likely to exhibit poor suck, to have smaller head circumferences and length, to require neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and to be referred to child protective services (CPS). Several outcomes previously reported from studies that lacked adequate control groups or adjustment for covariates were not significantly different in this study.
Prenatal MA exposure is associated with maternal psychiatric disorder/emotional illness, poor suck, NICU admission, and CPS involvement, and MA-exposed infants were less likely to be breast-fed; however, the absence of many serious complications, such as fetal distress, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, placenta previa, abruptio placentae, and cardiac defects, suggests confounding variables influenced prior studies.
amphetamine; methamphetamine; drug; antenatal; neonate
We examined the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on growth parameters from birth to age 3 years. The 412 subjects included (n = 204 exposed) were enrolled at birth in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle study, a longitudinal study assessing the effects of prenatal MA exposure on childhood outcomes. Individual models were used to examine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on weight, head circumference, height, and weight-for-length growth trajectories. After adjusting for covariates, height trajectory was lower in the exposed versus the comparison children (p = 0.021) over the first 3 years of life. Both groups increased height on average by 2.27 cm per month by age 3 years. In term subjects, MA exposure was also associated with a lower height trajectory (p = 0.034), with both the exposed and comparison groups gaining 2.25 cm per month by age 3 years. There was no difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length growth trajectories between the comparison and the exposed groups. Children exposed prenatally to MA have a modest decrease in height growth trajectory during the first 3 years of life with no observed difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length trajectories.
height; antenatal; drug; amphetamine
We present the neonatal complications of two premature newborn infants whose placentas demonstrated placental thrombosis in the fetal circulation. Both mothers presented with a 3-day history of decreased fetal movements before delivery. The first infant presented with thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The second infant had extended bilateral extended hemorrhagic venous infarctions. Severe fetal placental vascular lesions seem to be a predisposing factor for some adverse neonatal outcomes. We present these two cases with a brief review of the literature.
Newborn; placenta; fetal thrombotic vasculopathy; brain infarct
The objective of this study was to examine the performance of early fetal echocardiography as a screening tool for major cardiac defects in a high-risk population. Fetal echocardiograms performed at 12 to 16 weeks were reviewed. Cases that did not undergo a follow-up echocardiogram at 18 to 22 weeks were excluded. Results of the early and follow-up echocardiograms were compared. Over a 4-year period, 119 early fetal echocardiograms were recorded. Of those, 81 (68%) had follow-up fetal echocardiograms. Results of the early echocardiogram were normal in 77 of 81 (95.1%) cases. Of these, the follow-up was normal in 75 of these 77 cases; in the remaining 2, the follow-up raised suspicion for a ventricular septal defect (VSD) in one and persistent left superior vena cava in the other. On the other hand, the early echocardiogram was abnormal in 4 (4.9%) cases: (1) atrioventricular canal defect, with the follow-up demonstrating a VSD; (2) hypoplastic right ventricle and transposition of the great arteries, confirmed on follow-up; (3) VSD and coarctation of the aorta, confirmed on follow-up. In the fourth case, the early echocardiogram suspected a VSD and right-left disproportion, yet the follow-up was normal. In conclusion, early fetal echocardiography appears to be a reasonable screening tool for major cardiac defects.
fetal echocardiography; fetal heart; congenital heart disease; prenatal diagnosis
Obesity is a demonstrated barrier to obtaining healthcare. Its impact on obtaining prenatal care (PNC) is unknown. Our objective was to determine if obesity is an independent barrier to accessing early and adequate PNC.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who initiated PNC and delivered at our institution in 2005. BMI was categorized by World Health Organization guidelines: underweight (<18.5kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–24.9kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Maternal history and delivery information were obtained through chart abstraction. Differences in gestational age at first visit (GA-1) and adequate PNC were evaluated by BMI category. Data were compared using χ2 and non-parametric analyses.
410 women were evaluated. Overall, the median GA-1 was 11.1 weeks and 69% had adequate PNC. There was no difference in GA-1 or adequate PNC by BMI category (p=0.17 and p=0.66, respectively). When BMI groups were dichotomized into obese and non-obese women, there was no difference in GA-1 or adequate PNC, p=0.41.
In our population, obesity is not an independent barrier to receiving early and adequate PNC. Future work is warranted in evaluating the association between obesity and PNC and the perceived barriers to obtaining care.
Obesity; access; adequate prenatal care
We examined body mass index (BMI) as a screening tool for gestational diabetes (GDM) and its sensitivity among different racial/ethnic groups. In a retrospective cohort study of 24,324 pregnant women at University of California, San Francisco, BMI was explored as a screening tool for GDM and was stratified by race/ethnicity. Sensitivity and specificity were examined using chi-square test and receiver-operator characteristic curves. BMI of ≥25.0 kg/m2 as a screening threshold identified GDM in >76% of African-Americans, 58% of Latinas, and 46% of Caucasians, but only 25% of Asians (p<0.001). Controlling for confounders and comparing to a BMI of ≤25, African-Americans had the greatest increased risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0 to 8.5), followed by Caucasians (AOR 3.6, 95% CI: 2.7 to 4.8), Latinas (AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.9 to 3.8), and Asians (AOR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.8 to 3.0). BMI’s screening characteristics to predict GDM varied by race/ethnicity. BMI can be used to counsel regarding the risk of developing GDM, but alone it is not a good screening tool.
Body mass index; gestational diabetes mellitus; glucose loading test; race/ethnicity; receiver-operator characteristic curve
We prospectively correlated the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) to conventional sphygmomanometer blood pressure measurements (CSM) in women at risk for gestational hypertensive disorders (GHTNDs) and identified predictive factors from ABPM for GHTND. We analyzed 73 women with ≥1 risk factor for developing a GHTND. Using both the CSM and ABPM, the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured for 24 hours during three periods (14 to 24 weeks; 24 to 32 weeks; and 33 weeks to delivery). Correlation between the CSM and ABPM lessened as pregnancy progressed. Seventeen (25%) of women developed a GHTND. MAP variability increased in the GHTND group versus those without a GHTND. The odds of developing a GHTND increased 1.5 times for every 1 beat per minute increase in the ABPM 24-hour HR at visit 1 and reversed by visit 3. In women at risk for a GHTND, CSM and ABPM correlate less well as pregnancy advances. HR changes in at-risk women may be a marker for the development of a GHTND and may reflect increased sympathetic activity and/or decreased baroreceptor sensitivity.
ambulatory blood pressure monitor; preeclampsia; gestational hypertension and heart rate
To determine if coexistence of periodontal disease (PD) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) is synergistic on the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD).
Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Women were screened 6–20 weeks gestation for PD and BV. Groups were defined by presence of BV and stratified on PD. The primary outcome was sPTD <37 weeks gestation. Univariable, stratified and multivariable analyses were performed to estimate the main and interaction effects of BV and PD on sPTD.
Of 1453 women screened, 792 (54.5%) were diagnosed with BV. Neither women with BV in the first trimester nor PD were at higher risk of sPTD (risk ratio (RR) for BV 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8–1.5, RR for PD 0.9, 95% CI 0.7–1.3). The interaction between BV and PD did not statistically significantly impact the odds of sPTD.
Coexistence of PD and BV did not have a synergistic effect on sPTD.
bacterial vaginosis; periodontal disease; preterm delivery
To estimate the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and small for gestational age (SGA) neonates, and to determine if there is a synergistic effect of tobacco use on SGA across all BMI strata.
Retrospective cohort study of 65,104 patients seen for second-trimester ultrasound. BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. SGA was defined as birth weight <10th percentile and <5th percentile. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between BMI and SGA. Stratified analyses and tests for effect modification were performed to evaluate for a potential synergistic effect between tobacco use and abnormal pre-pregnancy BMI on SGA.
After controlling for potential confounders, underweight BMI was significantly associated with an increased risk for SGA <10th percentile (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.1) while overweight (aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.7–0.8) and obese BMI (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5–0.7) were associated with a decreased risk of SGA. There was no effect modification of tobacco use on the risk of SGA across all BMI categories.
While both tobacco and underweight BMI are independently associated with SGA, there was no evidence of synergism. Continued emphasis on both smoking cessation and maintenance of normal pre-pregnancy BMI remain paramount to decreasing the incidence of SGA.
body mass index; tobacco; small for gestational age; underweight
Our aim was to improve the reliability of recording gestational age (GA) in the mother’s obstetric record, as this record is used for clinical management, research databases, and eventual transmission to the Ohio Department of Health birth certificates. We performed a prospective cohort study, including all hospital births. We began quality improvement interventions in October 2009. Improvement test cycles were targeted to four working groups, including nursing staff, community obstetric providers, and the process itself. Test cycle results were evaluated to determine which successful interventions could spread further. Rates of process outcome measurements were compared by statistical process control and univariate analysis pre- and postintervention. During the preintervention period, the median daily GA reliability was 25%. To date, over 30 small sample size tests of change have been completed. Of 8795 births studied, significant improvement in GA accuracy/completeness was detected (median postintervention =78%, p <0.01). Increased communication of and completion of the prenatal record, in addition to GA recording in high-risk groups, such as premature infants, were also achieved (all p <0.01). GA reliability can be increased using standardized improvement science methods. Better communication of GA will enable better clinical decisions and foster population-based perinatal research.
Gestational age; electronic medical record; birth certificate; vital statistics; quality improvement
We describe maternal childbirth goals among women planning either cesarean or vaginal birth. Women in the third trimester planning cesarean or vaginal birth were asked to report up to five childbirth goals. Goal achievement was assessed postpartum. Based on free-text responses, discrete goal categories were identified. Goals and goal achievement were compared between the two groups. Satisfaction was rated on a visual analogue scale and was compared with goal achievement. The sample included 163 women planning vaginal birth and 69 women planning cesarean. Twelve goal categories were identified. Only women planning vaginal birth reported a desire to achieve fulfillment related to childbirth. Women planning cesarean were less likely to express a desire to maintain control over their own responses during childbirth and more likely to report a desire to avoid complications. The 72 women who achieved all stated goals reported significantly higher mean satisfaction scores than the 94 women reporting that at least one goal was not achieved (p = 0.001). Goal achievement was higher among women planning cesarean than among those planning vaginal birth (52.2% versus 23.1%, p <0.001). This research furthers our understanding of women’s attitudes regarding cesarean childbirth and definitions of a successful birth experience.
Cesarean; vaginal birth; patient-centered goals; maternal satisfaction
To investigate the effects of different pharmacological induction agents on myometrial contractility.
Myometrial biopsies were obtained from 13 term non-laboring women undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery. Tissue strips were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording. The effects of cumulative doses (10−10 M to 10−5 M) of Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), E2 (PGE2) and oxytocin on spontaneous uterine contractility were determined. Areas under the contraction curve were compared using one-way ANOVA on Ranks with Dunn’s post-hoc test.
Oxytocin induced myometrial contractility was superior to PGE1, PGE2 and time controls (CTR) at all the concentrations tested. When only prostaglandins were compared to CTR, PGE1 10−5 mol/l increased myometrial contractility, while PGE2 had no effects.
Oxytocin and PGs have different effects on myometrial contractility accounting for different mechanisms of action and side effects. The increased uterine contractility observed with PGE1 as compared to PGE2 can contribute to explain the higher success of vaginal delivery.
Prostaglandin E1; Prostaglandin E2; oxytocin; uterine contractility; organ chamber
To estimate the effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and E2 (PGE2) on myometrial contractility and structure in vitro.
Myometrial strips from 18 women were incubated with PGE1 (10−5 mol/l), PGE2 (10−5 mol/l) or solvent (CTR) for up to 360 min in organ chambers for isometric tension recording. The area under the contraction curve (AUC), total collagen content and the percentage of the area covered by connective tissue were calculated at various time periods.
PGE1 significantly increased in vitro myometrial contractility up to 90 min when compared to PGE2 and CTR (p < 0.01), and up to 180 minutes as compared to PGE2 (p < 0.05). After 360 min, CTR and PGE1 samples had lower total collagen content and area covered by connective tissue than PGE2 (p < 0.01).
The effects of prostaglandins on the uterus cannot be solely explained by contractility. Treatment with PGE1 significantly increased myometrial contractions, decreased both total collagen content and the area covered by connective tissue. Such findings may explain the higher rates of vaginal delivery, tachysystole and uterine rupture associated with PGE1 use.
prostaglandin E1; prostaglandin E2; collagen; uterine contractility; organ chamber
We describe obstetric outcomes in a group of patients with prior cesarean delivery (CD) presenting with an intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD). A secondary analysis of an observational study of women with prior CD was performed. All antepartum singleton pregnancies with a prior CD and IUFD ≥ 20 weeks’ gestation or 500 grams were evaluated. Two hundred nine patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. The mean gestational age ± standard deviation at delivery was 31.3 ± 6.5 weeks. The trial of labor rate was 75.6% (158/209), and the vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) success rate was 86.7%. Labor induction or augmentation occurred in 83.3% of attempted VBAC. Uterine rupture occurred in five women (2.4%), and in 3.4% of those being induced but none of these required hysterectomy. Women with a history of previous CD and an IUFD often undergo trial of labor with a high VBAC success rate. Uterine rupture complicates 2.4% of such cases.
vaginal birth after cesarean; fetal demise; induction of labor
We evaluated if the development of early childhood caries is associated with the severity of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia during the first 2 weeks after birth. We performed a retrospective case-control study of children less than 6 years of age seen for comprehensive dental examination by pediatric dentists years following a hospital stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Exclusion criteria included genetic disorders, cleft palate, direct hyperbilirubinemia, and missing information on jaundice. Children with early childhood caries were compared with those without dental caries for a panel of perinatal and neonatal clinical variables. Seventy-six children met study criteria. Of 76 children, 42 children had early childhood caries, while 34 children had healthy primary dentitions. Among clinical variables, only race and peak total serum bilirubin concentration differed significantly between the two groups on bivariate analysis. On logistic regression, peak total serum bilirubin concentration was significantly associated with early childhood caries (adjusted odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.32). Neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may be associated with early childhood caries in children.
Dental enamel hypoplasia; free bilirubin; total serum bilirubin; dental caries
We investigated if clinicians were altering their care of group B streptococcus (GBS)-positive women in labor to achieve 4 hours of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis based on their interpretation of the 2002 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines on prevention of perinatal GBS disease. We surveyed all clinicians with privileges on the labor floor at our institution about their interpretation and clinical application of the 2002 CDC guidelines. Seventy of 96 eligible clinicians (72.9%) completed our survey. In our survey, only 22.9% of clinicians reported not altering their management of labor in GBS-positive pregnancies that achieved less than 4 hours of prophylaxis. These alterations included “laboring down” or delaying pushing; turning off or decreasing an oxytocin infusion; or delaying or avoiding artificial rupture of membranes. Clinicians are altering their management of labor to attempt to achieve 4 hours of intrapartum prophylaxis. The 2002 CDC guidelines do not specifically recommend prolonging labor and are being interpreted differently in the clinical setting than the authors may have intended. The effects and consequences of this interpretation are unknown.
Group B streptococcus; intrapartum prophylaxis; CDC guidelines; early onset neonatal sepsis
We compared the short-term maternal and neonatal outcomes of women who deliver by cesarean without labor compared with women who deliver by cesarean after labor or by vaginal birth. This was a retrospective cohort study of women delivering a first baby from 1998 to 2002. Hospital discharge diagnostic coding identified unlabored cesarean deliveries (UCDs), labored cesarean deliveries (LCDs), and vaginal births (VBs). Medical records were abstracted and mode of delivery confirmed. The three outcomes of interest were maternal bleeding complications, maternal febrile morbidity, and neonatal respiratory complications. Using logistic regression for each outcome, we investigated whether mode of delivery was associated with the outcome, independent of other factors. The study groups included 513 UCDs, 261 LCDs, and 251 VBs. Compared with the UCD group, the adjusted odds of bleeding complications was higher in the LCD comparison group (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21, 4.53) and the VB comparison group (OR 1.96; 95% CI 0.95, 4.02). The incidence of febrile morbidity was similar for both cesarean groups but lower in the VB group. Both comparison groups had lower odds of neonatal complications than the UCD group (OR for LCD comparison group 0.52; 95% CI 0.27, 0.95 and OR for VB comparison group 0.26; 95% CI 0.098, 0.59). Scheduled cesarean is associated with increased odds of neonatal respiratory complications but decreased odds of maternal bleeding complications.
Cesarean morbidity; elective cesarean; neonatal complications; maternal complications