Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) occurs as a consequence of unregulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells. Severe recessive mutations and milder dominant mutations have been described in the ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes encoding SUR1 and Kir6.2 subunits of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive K(+) channel. Here we report two patients with CHI unresponsive to medical therapy with diazoxide. Sequencing analysis identified a compound heterozygous mutation in ABCC8 in both patients. The first one is a carrier for the known mild dominant mutation p.Glu1506Lys jointly with the novel mutation p.Glu1323Lys. The second carries the p.Glu1323Lys mutation and a second novel mutation, p.Met1394Arg. Functional studies of both novel alleles showed reduced or null cell surface expression, typical of recessive mutations. Compound heterozygous mutations in congenital hyperinsulinism result in complex interactions. Studying these mechanisms can improve the knowledge of this disease and modify its therapy.
Congenital hyperinsulinism; Mutation; ABCC8; Functional study
P63, a member of the P53 tumor suppressor family, is known to play important functions in cancer and development. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that p63 null mice are absent or have truncated limbs, while mutations in human P63 cause several skeletal syndromes that also show limb and digit abnormalities, suggesting its essential role in long bone development. Indeed, we detected increased level of p63 transcript in hypertrophic MCT cells (an established cell model of chondrocyte maturation) than in proliferative MCT cells. To investigate the in vivo role of P63 upon endochondral bone formation, we have established transgenic mouse lines in which HA- and Flag-tagged TAP63α (the longest P63 isoform) is driven by the hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific Col10a1 regulatory elements. Skeletal staining of Col10a1-TAP63α transgenic mice at either embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5) or postnatal day 1 (P1) observed accelerated ossification in long bone, digit and tail bones compared to their wild-type littermates, suggesting a putative function of P63 during skeletal development. We also detected decreased level of Sox9 and Bcl-2 transcripts, while Alp and Ank are slightly upregulated in Col10a1-TAP63α transgenic mouse limbs. Further immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the decreased Sox9 expression in the proliferative and hypertrophic zone of these mice. Von Kossa staining suggests increased mineralization in hypertrophic zone of transgenic mice compared to littermate controls. Together, our results suggest a role of TAP63α upon skeletal development. TAP63a may promote endochondral ossification through interaction with genes relevant to matrix mineralization and chondrocyte maturation or apoptosis
Col10a1; P63; Hypertrophic chondrocytes; Transgenic mice; Endochondral bone formation
Mycobacteriophage Bxb1 encodes a serine-integrase that catalyzes both integrative and excisive site-specific recombination. However, excision requires a second phage-encoded protein, gp47, which serves as a recombination directionality factor (RDF). The viability of a Bxb1 mutant containing an S153A substitution in gp47 that eliminates the RDF activity of Bxb1 gp47 shows that excision is not required for Bxb1 lytic growth. However, the inability to construct a Δ47 deletion mutant of Bxb1 suggests that gp47 provides a second function that is required for lytic growth, although the possibility of an essential cis-acting site cannot be excluded. Characterization of a mutant prophage of mycobacteriophage L5 in which gene 54 – a homologue of Bxb1 gene 47 – is deleted shows that it also is defective in induced lytic growth, and exhibits a strong defect in DNA replication. Bxb1 gp47 and its relatives are also unusual in containing conserved motifs associated with a phosphoesterase function, although we have not been able to show robust phosphoesterase activity of the proteins, and amino acid substitutions with the conserved motifs do not interfere with RDF activity. We therefore propose that Bxb1 gp47 and its relatives provide an important function in phage DNA replication that has been co-opted by the integration machinery of the serine-integrases to control the directionality of recombination.
Phage integration; Directionality control; Bacteriophage
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is poorly transformed with DNA that is methylated on adenine or cytosine. Here we characterize three genetic loci encoding type IV methylation-dependent restriction enzymes that target DNA containing C5-methylcytosine (m5C). Strains in which these genes were inactivated, either singly or collectively, showed increased transformation by methylated DNA. Additionally, a triple mutant with an ~30-kb genomic deletion could be transformed by DNA obtained from Dam+Dcm+ E. coli, although at a low frequency of ~10−3 transformants/106 cfu. This strain of B. anthracis can potentially serve as a preferred host for shuttle vectors that express recombinant proteins, including proteins to be used in vaccines. The gene(s) responsible for the restriction of m6A-containing DNA in B. anthracis remain unidentified, and we suggest that poor transformation by such DNA could in part be a consequence of the inefficient replication of hemimethylated DNA in B. anthracis.
Restriction; Methylation; Bacillus anthracis; Transformation; Plasmids
Eukaryotic genomes exist as an elaborate three-dimensional structure in the nucleus. Recent studies have shown that this higher-order organization of the chromatin fiber is coupled to various nuclear processes including transcription. In fission yeast, we demonstrated that RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-transcribed genes such as tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, dispersed throughout chromosomal arm regions, localize to centromeres in interphase. This centromeric association of Pol III genes, mediated by the condensin complex, becomes prominent during mitosis. Here, we discuss potential roles of the Pol III gene-mediated genome organization during interphase and mitosis, and hypothesize that the interphase genome structure serves as a scaffold for the efficient assembly of condensed mitotic chromosomes and that tethering of chromosomal arm regions to centromeres allows chromosomes to properly segregate along the spindle microtubules during anaphase.
Genome organization; RNA polymerase III; chromosome condensation
Synthesis of the translation apparatus is a central activity in growing and/or proliferating cells. Because of its fundamental importance and direct connection to cell proliferation, ribosome synthesis has been a focus of ongoing research for several decades. As a consequence, much is known about the essential factors involved in this process. Many studies have shown that transcription of the ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I is a major target for cellular regulation of ribosome synthesis rates. The initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase I has been implicated as a regulatory target, however, recent studies suggest that the elongation step in transcription is also influenced and regulated by trans-acting factors. This review describes the factors required for rRNA synthesis and focuses on recent works that have begun to identify and characterize factors that influence transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I and its regulation.
Exactly twenty years ago TFII-I was discovered as a biochemical entity that was able to bind to and function via a core promoter element called the Initiator (Inr). Since then several different properties of this signal-induced multifunctional factor were discovered. Here I update these ever expanding functions of TFII-I--focusing primarily on the last ten years since the first review appeared in this journal.
Transcription of ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I is a central feature of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis. Since ribosome synthesis is closely linked to cell proliferation, there is a need to define the molecular mechanisms that control transcription by RNA polymerase I. To fully define the factors that control RNA polymerase I activity, biochemical analyses using purified transcription factors are essential. Although such assays exist, one limitation is the low abundance and difficult purification strategies required for some of the essential transcription factors for RNA polymerase I. Here, we describe a new method for expression and purification of the three subunit core factor complex from Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that the recombinant material is more active than yeast-derived core factor in assays for RNA polymerase I transcription in vitro. Finally, we use recombinant core factor to differentiate between two opposing models for the role of the TATA-binding protein in transcription by RNA polymerase I.
ribosome; transcription; rRNA; gene expression; in vitro transcription
For more than a decade, Wnt signaling pathways have been the focus of intense research activity in bone biology laboratories because of their importance in skeletal development, bone mass maintenance, and therapeutic potential for regenerative medicine. It is evident that even subtle alterations in the intensity, amplitude, location, and duration of Wnt signaling pathways affects skeletal development, as well as bone remodeling, regeneration, and repair during a lifespan. Here we review recent advances and discrepancies in how Wnt/Lrp5 signaling regulates osteoblasts and osteocytes, introduce new players in Wnt signaling pathways that have important roles in bone development, discuss emerging areas such as the role of Wnt signaling in osteoclastogenesis, and summarize progress made in translating basic studies to clinical therapeutics and diagnostics centered around inhibiting Wnt pathway antagonists, such as sclerostin, Dkk1 and Sfrp1. Emphasis is placed on the plethora of genetic studies in mouse models and genome wide association studies that reveal the requirement for and crucial roles of Wnt pathway components during skeletal development and disease.
Lrp5; Lrp6; Sclerostin; β-catenin; R-spondin; Bone mineral density; Polymorphisms
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), the paradigm of Rho GTPase activating bacterial toxins has been shown to promote E. coli invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier, but its synthesis and secretion is unclear. In this study, we performed mini Tn5 mutagenesis screen to identify genetic requirements for CNF1 production and secretion. Transposon mutagenesis screen of meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain RS218 revealed that CNF1 production was markedly decreased in a transposon mutant (NBC-28G9) where transposon insertion occurred in the 5′ end of gidA gene. In contrast, total deletion of gidA gene has less drastic effect on the production of CNF1. The N-terminus truncated GidA exhibited dominant negative effect on the production of CNF1. The inhibition of CNF1 production by N-terminus truncated GidA was shown to occur at the translational level. This was supported by our demonstrations that cnf1 mRNA transcription levels did not differ between strains RS218 and NBC-28G9; and the production of recombinant CNF1 under the control of artificial promoter was also repressed by truncated GidA. Progressive deletion of DNA regions in cnf1 gene identified two putative regions that were responsible for translational inhibition mediated by truncated GidA.
CNF1; GidA; mRNA; E. coli; gene expression
We have previously shown that male Npc1 heterozygous mice (Npc1+/−), as compared to homozygous wild-type mice (Npc1+/+), both maintained on the —lean BALB/cJ genetic background, become obese on a high fat but not on a low fat diet. We have now extended this result for female heterozygous mice. When fed high-fat diet, the Npc1+/− white adipose weight is also increased in females, therefore following the same trend as males. Bile transporters which had previously been found to be altered in Npc1−/− mice on a high fat diet, showed related, but small, changes in mRNA levels but large changes in protein expression. We have addressed the possible role of caveolae in these differences. It has long been known that caveolin 1 is increased in the liver (sex not specified) of Npc1+/− (compared to Npc1+/+ and Npc1−/−) mice and in heterozygous cultured skin fibroblasts of NPC1 carriers. We now find that caveolin 1 is increased in male, but not female liver and female, but not male adipose tissue. The caveolin 1 increase was not accompanied by changes in another caveolar protein, polymerase1 and transcript release factor (Ptrf). The numbers of caveolae in female adipose cells could not be correlated with levels of caveolae. Thus, we conclude that Npc1 affects female as well as male obesity and bile transporters but that effects on caveolin 1 are not discernible.
obesity; white adipose tissue; caveolin 1; polymerase 1 and transcript release factor
The specific role of endogenous Bmp2 gene in chondrocytes and in osteoblasts in fracture healing was investigated by generation and analysis of chondrocyte- and osteoblast-specific Bmp2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. The unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in these Bmp2 cKO mice. Bone fracture callus samples were collected and analyzed by X-ray, micro-CT, histology analyses, biomechanical testing and gene expression assays. The results demonstrated that the lack of Bmp2 expression in chondrocytes leads to a prolonged cartilage callus formation and a delayed osteogenesis initiation and progression into mineralization phase with lower biomechanical properties. In contrast, when the Bmp2 gene was deleted in osteoblasts, the mice showed no significant difference in the fracture healing process compared to control mice. These findings suggest that endogenous BMP2 expression in chondrocytes may play an essential role in cartilage callus maturation at an early stage of fracture healing. Our studies may provide important information for clinical application of BMP2.
BMP2; Fracture healing; Fracture callus; Chondrocyte; Osteoblast; Conditional knockout
The Amazon catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Loricariidae, Siluriformes) is closely related to the loricariid genus Hypostomus, in which at least two species lack detectable ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, typically catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) enzymes. Pterygoplichthys sp. liver microsomes also lacked EROD, as well as activity with other substituted resorufins, but aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists induced hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein suggesting structural/functional differences in Pterygoplichthys CYP1s from those in other vertebrates. Comparing the sequences of CYP1As of Pterygoplichthys sp. and of two phylogenetically-related siluriform species that do catalyze EROD (Ancistrus sp., Loricariidae and Corydoras sp., Callichthyidae) showed that these three proteins share amino acids at 17 positions that are not shared by any fish in a set of 24 other species. Pterygoplichthys and Ancistrus (the loricariids) have an additional 22 amino acid substitutions in common that are not shared by Corydoras or by other fish species. Pterygoplichthys has six exclusive amino acid substitutions. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations indicate that Pterygoplichthys CYP1A has a weak affinity for ER, which binds infrequently in a productive orientation, and in a less stable conformation than in CYP1As of species that catalyze EROD. ER also binds with the carbonyl moiety proximal to the heme iron. Pterygoplichthys CYP1A has amino acids substitutions that reduce the frequency of correctly oriented ER in the AS preventing the detection of EROD activity. The results indicate that loricariid CYP1As may have a peculiar substrate selectivity that differs from CYP1As of most vertebrates.
CYP1A; Ethoxiresorufin; Substrate specificity; Amino acid; Biotransformation
MyD88 is an adapter protein that links toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) with downstream signaling molecules. The MyD88 has been found to be an essential mediator in the development of osteoarthritis in articular cartilage. However, the role of the MyD88 pathway has yet to be elucidated in the intervertebral disk (IVD). Using in vitro techniques, we analyzed the effect of MyD88 pathway-specific inhibition on the potent inflammatory and catabolic mediator LPS and IL-1 in bovine and human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells by assessing matrix-degrading enzyme expression, including matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS family). We also analyzed inhibition of MyD88 in the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TLR-2. Finally, we used an ex vivo organ culture model to assess the effects of MyD88 inhibitor (MyD88i) on catabolic factor-induced disk degeneration in mice lumbar disks. In bovine NP cells, MyD88i potently antagonizes LPS- or IL-1-mediated induction of cartilage-degrading enzyme production, including MMP-1, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5. MyD88i also attenuates the LPS- or IL-1-mediated induction of iNOS and TLR-2 gene expression. Our ex vivo findings reveal inhibition of MyD88 via counteraction of IL-1-mediated proteoglycan depletion. The findings from this study demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of inhibition of MyD88 pathway inhibition on IVD homeostasis, suggesting a potential therapeutic benefit of a MyD88i in degenerative disk disease in the future.
MyD88 inhibitor; Intervertebral disk degeneration; Toll-like receptors; Low back pain; Signaling pathway
Sirtirt3 is a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase mainly localized in mitochondria. Recent studies indicate that the murine Sirtirt3 gene expresses different transcript variants resulting in three possible Sirt3 protein isoforms with variable lengths at the N-terminus: M1 (aa 1–334), M2 (aa 15–334), and M3 (aa 78–334). In this study, we stably expressed these variants in several cell lines. We found that Sirt3 M1 or M2 could be stably expressed with predominant mitochondrial localization. However, stable expression of Sirt3 M3 protein was consistently at very low levels. Fast proteasomal degradation contributed to the low expression of Sirt3 M3 protein, as proteasome inhibitor treatment increased Sirt3 M3 protein levels in these cells. Sirt3 M3 protein is ubiquitinated and the E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit Skp2 is involved in Sirt3 M3 protein degradation. Additionally, we found Sirt3 M3 protein could be produced from Sirt3 transcripts encoding longer M1 and M2 isoforms. To explore the mechanism underlying the instability of Sirt3 M3 protein, we found that Sirt3 M1 and M2 proteins, but not M3, specifically interacted with HSP60. This suggests that heat shock proteins might play a role in the maintenance of Sirt3 protein stability.
sirtuin; Sirt3; mouse; mitochondria; proteasome; protein half-life; HSP60
Amyloid β peptide (Aβ) plaque in the brain is the primary (post mortem) diagnostic criterion of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Any physiological role of Aβ constituent is poorly understood. We have previously determined an Aβ interacting domain (AβID) in the promoters of AD–associated genes (Maloney and Lahiri, 2011). This AβID interacts in a DNA–sequence specific manner with Aβ. We now demonstrate novel Aβ activity as a possible transcription factor. Herein, we demonstrate Aβ–chromatin interaction in cell culture by ChIP assay. We observed that human neuroblastoma (SK–N–SH) cells treated with FITC conjugated Aβ1–40 localized Aβ to the nucleus in the presence of H2O2–mediated oxidative stress. Furthermore, primary rat fetal cerebrocortical cultures were transfected with APP and BACE1 promoter–luciferase fusions, and rat PC12 cultures were transfected with polymorphic APP promoter–CAT fusion clones. Transfected cells were treated with different Aβ peptides and/or H2O2. Aβ treatment of cell cultures produced a DNA sequence–specific response in cells transfected with polymorphic APP clones. Our results suggest the Aβ peptide may regulate its own production through feedback on its precursor protein and BACE1, leading to amyloidogenesis in AD.
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid beta; DNA–protein interaction; gene regulation; transcription factor
Deposition of extracellular plaques, consisting of amyloid β peptide (Aβ), in the brain is the confirmatory diagnostic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); however, the physiological and pathological role of Aβ is not fully understood. Herein, we demonstrate novel Aβ activity as a putative transcription factor upon AD–associated genes. We used oligomers from 5’–flanking regions of the apolipoprotein E (APOE), Aβ–precursor protein (APP) and β–amyloid site cleaving enzyme–1 (BACE1) genes for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) with different fragments of the Aβ peptide. Our results suggest that Aβ bound to an Aβ–interacting domain (AβID) with a consensus of “KGGRKTGGGG”. This peptide–DNA interaction was sequence specific, and mutation of the first “G” of the decamer’s terminal “GGGG” eliminated peptide–DNA interaction. Furthermore, the cytotoxic Aβ25–35 fragment had greatest DNA affinity. Such specificity of binding suggests that the AβID is worth of further investigation as a site wherein the Aβ peptide may act as a transcription factor.
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid beta; DNA–protein interaction; gene regulation; transcription factor
The various iterations of the HapMap Project and many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of potential genes involved in monogenic and multifactorial traits. We constructed an arrayed 115,000-member human genomic library in the PAC shuttle vector pJCPAC-Mam2 that can be propagated in both bacterial and human cells. The library appears to represent a two-fold coverage of the human genome. Transient transfection of a p53-containing PAC clone into p53-null Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells demonstrated that both p53 mRNA and protein were produced. Additionally, expression of the p53 protein triggered apoptosis in a subset of the Saos-2 cells. This library should serve as a valuable resource to validate potential disease genes identified by GWAS in human cell lines and in animal models. Also, individual library members could potentially be used for gene therapy trials for a variety of recessive disorders.
Genomic library; Genome-wide association studies; Functional genomics; Gene therapy
IRF1 is a transcription factor that participates in interferon signaling. Previous studies of IRF1 binding have utilized in vitro assays. We used ChIP-seq in human monocytes to better define the recognition motif for IRF1. The newly identified 18bp motif (RAAASNGAAAGTGAAASY) is a refinement of the 13bp IRF1 motif commonly used. We utilized the 18bp consensus motif and identified 345 potential target genes. To compare the 18bp motif with the 13bp motif, we compared putative gene targets. Only 56 potential gene targets were defined by both consensus motifs. To compare biological effects of interferon on the 13bp and the 18bp consensus targets, we mined expression data from cells exposed to interferons or transfected with IRF1. In all cases, the 18bp consensus motif was more strongly associated with transcriptional responses than the 13bp motif. Therefore, the new 18bp consensus motif appears to have a greater association with biological activities of IRF1.
IRF1; IRF-E; chromatin immunoprecipitation; inflammation; lupus; interferon
A potential relationship between transposon-derived repeats (TDR) and human germline methylation is of biological importance since many genes are flanked by TDR and methylation could affect the expression of nearby genes. Furthermore, DNA methylation has been suggested as a global defense mechanism against genome instability threatened by TDR. We studied the correlation between the density of HapMap methyl-associated SNPs (mSNPs), a marker of germline methylation, and proportion of TDR.
After correcting for confounding variables, we found a negative correlation between proportion of Alu repeats and mSNP density for 125–1000 kb windows. Similar results were found for the most active subgroup of repeats. In contrast, a negative correlation between proportion of L1 repeats and mSNP density was found only in the larger 1000 kb windows.
Using methylation data on germ cells (sperm) from the Human Epigenome Project, we found a lower proportion of Alu repeats adjacent (3–15 kb) to hypermethylated amplicons. On the contrary, there was a higher proportion of L1 repeats in the 3–5 kb of sequence flanking hypermethylated amplicons but not in the 10–15 kb flanks.
Our data indicate a differential response to the major repeat families and that DNA methylation is unlikely to be a uniform global defense system against all TDR. It appears to play a role for the L1 subgroup, with sequences adjacent to L1 repeats methylated in response to their proximity. In contrast, sequences adjacent to Alu repeats appear to be hypomethylated, arguing against a role of methylation in germline defense against those elements.
Repeats; Alu; L1; HapMap; Germline; Methylation
MDM2 and MDM4 are proto-oncoproteins that bind to and inhibit members of the p53 protein family, p53, p73 and possibly p63. p53 is a mammalian tumor suppressor and p63 and p73 are critical for development. With the sequencing of genomes from multiple organisms there is mounting evidence for a consensus scenario of p53 gene family evolution. A single p53/p63/p73 gene is in invertebrates and required for maintenance of germline DNA. Gene duplication occurred in an ancestor in common with cartilaginous fishes, giving rise to a separate p53 gene and at least one ancestral p63/p73 gene. In bony vertebrates, all three p53 gene family paralogs, p53, p63, and p73 are distinct genes. This raises the question of how MDM2 and MDM4 genes evolved. We show evidence that MDM2 and MDM4 arose from a gene duplication event prior to the emergence of bony vertebrates more than 440 million years ago. Comparative genome studies indicate that invertebrate organisms have only one MDM homolog. In jawed vertebrates, the p53-binding domains of MDM2 and MDM4 proteins evolved at a high rate, approaching the evolution rate of the MDM2-binding domain of p53. However, the MDM2-binding domain of p73 exhibits markedly stronger conservation suggesting novel p53-independent functions. The most conserved domain within all MDM2 family members is the RING domain of the MDM2 ortholog which is responsible for ubiquitination of p53 and heterodimerization with MDM4. We suggest a model where dimerization is an ancient function of MDM and ubiquitination activity was acquired later near the MDM gene duplication event coinciding with the time of the emergence of p53 as a distinct gene.
cancer; MDM; MDM2; MDM4; MDMX; p53
In mammals, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 (LRP2) is an endocytic receptor that binds multiple ligands and is essential for a wide range of physiological processes. To gain new insights into the biology of this complex protein, we have initiated the molecular characterization of the LRP2 homolog from an oviparous species, the chicken (Gallus gallus). The galline LRP2 cDNA encodes a membrane protein of 4658 residues. Overall, the galline and human proteins are 73% identical, indicating that the avian gene has been well conserved over 300 million years. Unexpectedly, LRP2 transcript and protein levels in the kidney of females and estrogen-treated roosters were significantly higher than those in untreated males. The estrogen-responsiveness of avian LRP2 may be related to the dramatic differences in lipoprotein metabolism between mature roosters and laying hens. Newly identified potential estrogen-responsive elements (ERE) in the human and galline LRP2 gene, and additional Sp1 sites present in the promoter of the chicken gene, are compatible with both direct estrogen induction via the classical ligand-induced ERE pathway and the indirect transcription factor crosstalk pathway engaging the Sp1 sites. In agreement with this assumption, estrogen induction of LRP2 was observed not only in primary cultured chicken kidney cells, but also human kidney cell lines. These findings point to novel regulatory features of the LRP2 gene resulting in sex-specific receptor expression.
► First molecular characterization of a non-mammalian LRP2 ► LRP2 is highly conserved from chicken to man. ► Induction by estrogen of LRP2 in‐vivo and in cultured kidney cells of chicken and man ► Identification of estrogen-responsive elements in the galline and human genes
Apo, Apolipoprotein; BRCA1, Breast cancer 1; CK-II, Casein kinase-II; DAPI, 4′,6′-diamidino-2′-phenylindole; ERE, Estrogen responsive element; ER, Estrogen receptor; GAPDH, Glycerinaldehyd-3-phosphat-Dehydrogenase; GFP, Green fluorescent protein; gg, Gallus gallus; Gp330, Glycoprotein 330; GSK3, Glycogen synthase kinase-3; GST, Glutathione S-tranferase; HDL, High-density lipoprotein; HEK-293, Human embryonic kidney cells; HRP, Horseradish peroxidase; hs, Homo sapiens; Ig, Immunoglobulin(s); LA-repeat, LDL receptor type A-repeat; LDL, Low-density lipoprotein; LDL-R, Low-density lipoprotein receptor; LRP, Low-densitiy lipoprotein receptor-related protein; Ni-NTA, nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid; ORF, Open reading frame; PKA, Protein kinase A; PKC, Protein kinase C; RAP, Receptor-associated protein; SDS, Sodium dodecyl sulfate; SHBG, Sex hormone binding globulin; Sp, Stimulating protein; SRE, Sterol-responsive element; VLDL, Very low-density lipoprotein; VLDLR, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor; LRP2; LDL-R gene family; Sex specificity; Estrogen‐responsiveness; Chicken
Tau is a neuronal-specific microtubule-associated protein that plays an important role in establishing neuronal polarity and maintaining the axonal cytoskeleton. Aggregated tau is the major component of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), structures present in the brains of people affected by neurodegenerative diseases called tauopathies. Tauopathies include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism (FTDP-17), the early onset dementia observed in Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) and the dementia component of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Splicing misregulation of adult-specific exon 10, which codes for a microtubule binding domain, results in expression of abnormal ratios of tau isoforms, leading to FTDP-17. Positions 3 to 19 of the intron downstream of exon 10 define a hotspot of splicing regulation: the region diverges between humans and rodents, and point mutations within it result in tauopathies. In this study, we investigated three regulators of exon 10 splicing: serine/arginine-rich protein SRp75 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins hnRNPG and hnRNPE2. SRp75 and hnRNPG inhibit splicing of exon 10 whereas hnRNPE2 activates it. Using co-transfections, co-immunoprecipitations and RNAi we discovered that SRp75 binds to the proximal downstream intron of tau exon 10 at the FTDP-17 hotspot region; and that hnRNPG and hnRNPE2 interact with SRp75. Thus, increased exon 10 inclusion in FTDP mutants may arise from weakened SRp75 binding. This work provides insights into the splicing regulation of the tau gene and into possible strategies for correcting the imbalance in tauopathies caused by changes in the ratio of exon 10.
MAP tau; Exon 10 and tangle dementia; Isoform ratios; Alternative splicing regulation; Splicing factor SRp75; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins G and E2
Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) binds to and organizes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome into a mitochondrial nucleoid (mt-nucleoid) structure, which is necessary for mtDNA transcription and maintenance. Here, we demonstrate the mtDNA-organizing activity of mouse Tfam and its transcript isoform (Tfamiso), which has a smaller high-mobility group (HMG)-box1 domain, using a yeast model system that contains a deletion of the yeast homolog of mouse Tfam protein, Abf2p. When the mouse Tfam genes were introduced into the ABF2 locus of yeast genome, the corresponding mouse proteins, Tfam and Tfamiso, can functionally replace the yeast Abf2p and support mtDNA maintenance and mitochondrial biogenesis in yeast. Growth properties, mtDNA content and mitochondrial protein levels of genes encoded in the mtDNA were comparable in the strains expressing mouse proteins and the wild-type yeast strain, indicating that the proteins have robust mtDNA-maintaining and -expressing function in yeast mitochondria. These results imply that the mtDNA-organizing activities of the mouse mt-nucleoid proteins are structurally and evolutionary conserved, thus they can maintain the mtDNA of distantly related and distinctively different species, such as yeast.
mitochondrial transcription factor A; Tfam; transcript isoform; mitochondrial nucleoid; mtDNA; ABF2
Understanding gene regulation is a major objective in molecular biology research. Frequently, transcription is driven by transcription factors (TFs) that bind to specific DNA sequences. These motifs are usually short and degenerate, rendering the likelihood of multiple copies occurring throughout the genome due to random chance as high. Despite this, TFs only bind to a small subset of sites, thus prompting our investigation into the differences between motifs that are bound by TFs and those that remain unbound. Here we constructed vectors representing various chromatin- and sequence-based features for a published set of bound and unbound motifs representing nine TFs in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a machine learning approach, we identified a set of features that can be used to discriminate between bound and unbound motifs. We also discovered that some TFs bind most or all of their strong motifs in intergenic regions. Our data demonstrate that local sequence context can be strikingly different around motifs that are bound compared to motifs that are unbound. We concluded that there are multiple combinations of genomic features that characterize bound or unbound motifs.
Gene regulation; yeast; transcription factors; genomic features; machine learning