Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), a syndrome primarily characterized by anemia and physical abnormalities, is one among a group of related inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) which share overlapping clinical features. Heterozygous mutations or single-copy deletions have been identified in 12 ribosomal protein genes in approximately 60% of DBA cases, with the genetic etiology unexplained in most remaining patients. Unlike many IBMFS, for which functional screening assays complement clinical and genetic findings, suspected DBA in the absence of typical alterations of the known genes must frequently be diagnosed after exclusion of other IBMFS. We report here a novel deletion in a child that presented such a diagnostic challenge and prompted development of a novel functional assay that can assist in the diagnosis of a significant fraction of patients with DBA.
The ribosomal proteins affected in DBA are required for pre-rRNA processing, a process which can be interrogated to monitor steps in the maturation of 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. In contrast to prior methods used to assess pre-rRNA processing, the assay reported here, based on capillary electrophoresis measurement of the maturation of rRNA in pre-60S ribosomal subunits, would be readily amenable to use in diagnostic laboratories. In addition to utility as a diagnostic tool, we applied this technique to gene discovery in DBA, resulting in the identification of RPL31 as a novel DBA gene.
Diamond Blackfan anemia; rRNA; ribosomal protein; diagnostic hematology; inherited bone marrow failure; RPL31
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a form of chronic graft vs. host disease (cGVHD) and a highly morbid pulmonary complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for BOS and cGVHD in a cohort of HSCT recipients, including those who received reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) HSCT. Between January 1, 2000 and June 30, 2010, all patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT at our institution (n = 1854) were retrospectively screened for the development of BOS by PFT criteria. We matched the BOS cases with two groups of control patients: (1) patients who had concurrent cGVHD without BOS and (2) those who developed neither cGVHD nor BOS. Comparisons between BOS patients and controls were conducted using t-test or Fisher’s exact tests. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine factors associated with BOS diagnosis. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.2. We identified 89 patients (4.8%) meeting diagnostic criteria for BOS at a median time of 491 days (range: 48–2067) after HSCT. Eighty-six (97%) of our BOS cohort had extra-pulmonary cGVHD. In multivariate analysis compared to patients without cGVHD, patients who received busulfan-based conditioning, had unrelated donors, and had female donors were significantly more likely to develop BOS, while ATG administration was associated with a lower risk of BOS. Our novel results suggest that busulfan conditioning, even in RIC transplantation, could be an important risk factor for BOS and cGVHD.
GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) is rate limiting for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, where BH4 is a cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthases and aromatic hydroxylases. GCH1 polymorphisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of pain, but have not been investigated in African populations. We examined GCH1 and pain in sickle cell anemia where GCH1 rs8007267 was a risk factor for pain crises in discovery (n = 228; odds ratio [OR] 2.26; P = 0.009) and replication (n = 513; OR 2.23; P = 0.004) cohorts. In vitro, cells from sickle cell anemia subjects homozygous for the risk allele produced higher BH4. In vivo physiological studies of traits likely to be modulated by GCH1 showed rs8007267 is associated with altered endothelial dependent blood flow in females with SCA (8.42% of variation; P = 0.002). The GCH1 pain association is attributable to an African haplotype with where its sickle cell anemia pain association is limited to females (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.21–5.94; P = 0.01) and has the opposite directional association described in Europeans independent of global admixture. The presence of a GCH1 haplotype with high BH4 in populations of African ancestry could explain the association of rs8007267 with sickle cell anemia pain crises. The vascular effects of GCH1 and BH4 may also have broader implications for cardiovascular disease in populations of African ancestry.
Children with sickle cell anemia have a high prevalence of silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs) that are associated with decreased full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). While the educational attainment of parents is a known strong predictor of the cognitive development of children in general, the role of parental education in sickle cell anemia along with other factors that adversely affect cognitive function (anemia, cerebral infarcts) is not known. We tested the hypothesis that both the presence of SCI and parental education would impact FSIQ in children with sickle cell anemia. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 19 US sites of the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial among children with sickle cell anemia, age 5–15 years. All were screened for SCIs. Participants with and without SCI were administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. A total of 150 participants (107 with and 43 without SCIs) were included in the analysis. In a multivariable linear regression model for FSIQ, the absence of college education for the head of household was associated with a decrease of 6.2 points (P=0.005); presence of SCI with a 5.2 point decrease (P=0.017); each $1000 of family income per capita with a 0.33 point increase (P=0.023); each increase of 1 year in age with a 0.96 point decrease (P=0.023); and each 1% (absolute) decrease in hemoglobin oxygen saturation with 0.75 point decrease (P=0.030). In conclusion, FSIQ in children with sickle cell anemia is best accounted for by a multivariate model that includes both biologic and socioenvironmental factors.
Anemia is now recognized as a risk factor for a number of adverse outcomes in the elderly, including hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. What constitutes appropriate evaluation and management for an elderly patient with anemia, and when to initiate a referral to a hematologist, are significant issues. Attempts to identify suggested hemoglobin levels for blood transfusion therapy have been confounded for elderly patients with their co-morbidities. Since no specific recommended hemoglobin threshold has stood the test of time, prudent transfusion practices to maintain hemoglobin thresholds of 9–10 g/dl in the elderly are indicated, unless or until evidence emerges to indicate otherwise.
Anemia; Elderly; Blood Transfusion
This study evaluates the functional procoagulant features of plasma MP in order to explore the MP contribution to the hypercoagulable state of patients with Essential Thrombocythemia (ET). Platelet-free plasma samples were obtained from 73 ET patients (37 positive for the JAK2V617F mutation) and 72 control subjects. The calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) was performed in plasma samples to determine thrombin generation of MP-associated tissue factor (TF) and procoagulant phospholipid (PPL) activity, and the STA Procoag PPL assay to measure MP-PPL activity only. Both thrombin generation and PPL procoagulant activities were found significantly elevated in ET patients compared to controls, and were associated to significantly higher levels of TF antigen and FVIIa/AT complex. Thrombin generation was significantly greater in JAK2-V617F positive compared to JAK2-V617F negative patients and normal subjects. Significant correlations were found between the PPL-assay and the different parameters of the CAT assay. No difference was seen between the thrombosis and no thrombosis group. Prospective studies are needed to test whether MP-associated thrombin generation and procoagulant activity may predict for thrombosis in these patients.
Children with sickle cell anemia have a higher-than-expected prevalence of poor educational attainment. We test two key hypotheses about educational attainment among students with sickle cell anemia, as measured by grade retention and use of special education services: (1) lower household per capita income is associated with lower educational attainment; (2) the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is associated with lower educational attainment. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study of cases from 22 U.S. sites included in the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial. During screening, parents completed a questionnaire that included sociodemographic information and details of their child’s academic status. Of 835 students, 670 were evaluable; 536 had data on all covariates and were used for analysis. The students’ mean age was 9.4 years (range: 5–15) with 52.2% male; 17.5% of students were retained one grade level and 18.3% received special education services. A multiple variable logistic regression model identified that lower household per capita income (odds ratio [OR] of quartile 1 = 6.36, OR of quartile 2 = 4.7, OR of quartile 3 = 3.87; P = 0.001 for linear trend), age (OR = 1.3; P < 0.001), and male gender (OR, 2.2; P = 0.001) were associated with grade retention; silent cerebral infarct (P = 0.31) and painful episodes (P = 0.60) were not. Among students with sickle cell anemia, household per capita income is associated with grade retention, whereas the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is not. Future educational interventions will need to address both the medical and socioeconomic issues that affect students with sickle cell anemia.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) patients with purine analogue refractory disease or TP53 dysfunction still have limited treatment options and poor survival. Alemtuzumab containing chemoimmunotherapy regimens can be effective but frequently cause serious infections. We report a phase II trial testing the efficacy and tolerability of a short duration regimen combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low dose high frequency rituximab (PAR) designed to decrease the risk of treatment associated infections and limit loss of CD20 expression by CLL cells. The study enrolled 39 patients with progressive CLL that was either relapsed/refractory (n=36) or previously untreated with 17p13 deletion (17p13-)(n=3). Thirteen (33%) patients had both 17p13- and TP53 mutations predicted to be dysfunctional and eight patients had purine analogue refractory CLL without TP53 dysfunction. Twenty-six (67%) patients completed therapy with only five (13%) patients having treatment limiting toxicity, and no treatment related deaths. Twenty-two (56%) patients responded to treatment with 11 (28%) complete responses (four with incomplete bone marrow recovery). Median progression free survival was 7.2 months, time to next treatment 9.1 months, and overall survival 34.1 months. The majority of deaths (82%) were caused by progressive disease including transformed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n=6). Correlative studies showed that low dose rituximab activates complement and NK cells without a profound and sustained decrease in expression of CD20 by circulating CLL cells. We conclude that PAR is a tolerable and effective therapy for CLL and that low dose rituximab therapy can activate innate immune cytotoxic mechanisms without substantially decreasing CD20 expression.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma; CLL/SLL; relapsed/refractory; TP53/p53/17p13 deletion; alemtuzumab and low dose rituximab; trogocytosis
CD59 is a membrane protein inhibitor of the membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement. Humans express only one, whereas mice express two CD59 genes. We previously reported the targeted deletion of the mCd59b gene in which absence of mCd59b together with an unintended down regulation of mCd59a caused hemolytic anemia with spontaneous platelet activation. To confirm the complement role in the hemolytic anemia caused by abrogation of mCd59 function, we have developed a mCd59a and mCd59b double knock out mice and analyzed its phenotype in complement sufficient and deficient (C3−/−). We report here that total abrogation of mCd59 function in mCd59ab−/− mice results in complement-mediated hemolytic anemia that is rescued by the deficiency of C3 in compound mCd59ab−/−/C3−/− mice.
CD59 is a membrane protein inhibitor of the membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement. mCd59 knockout mice reportedly exhibit hemolytic anemia and platelet activation. This phenotype is comparable to the human hemolytic anemia known as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), in which platelet activation and thrombosis play a critical pathogenic role. It has long been suspected but not formally demonstrated that both complement and nitric oxide (NO) contribute to PNH thrombosis. Using mCd59a and mCd59b double knockout mice (mCd59ab−/− mice) in complement sufficient (C3+/+) and deficient (C3−/−) backgrounds, we document that mCd59ab−/− platelets are sensitive to complement-mediated activation and provide evidence for possible in vivo platelet activation in mCd59ab−/− mice. Using a combination of L-NAME (a NO-synthase inhibitor) and NOC-18 or SNAP (NO-donors), we further demonstrate that NO regulates complement-mediated activation of platelets. These results indicate that the thrombotic diathesis of PNH patients could be due to a combination of increased complement-mediated platelet activation and reduced NO-bioavailability as a consequence of hemolysis.
Hemoglobin H-constant spring (Hb H-CS), the most common nondeletional alpha
thalassemia in Asia is increasingly recognized in North America due to shifts in
immigration patterns. In California, alpha (α)-thalassemia syndromes are the second
most frequent finding among newborns screened for hemoglobinopathies with a two-fold
increase compared to a decade earlier [1,2]. Though known to have a more severe anemia than Hb H
disease, the other clinical findings of Hb H-CS are not well described. Moreover,
beneficial therapies that have become available in the last decade are often not applied
to their care. This analysis of 46 patients enrolled in the Thalassemia Clinical Research
Network (TCRN) age 13+/− 10 years old, with Hb H-CS revealed moderate anemia (mean
8.7 ± 1.5 g/dl), regular transfusion therapy in 24% of patients, and splenomegaly
or prior splenectomy in one-third of them. Serum transferin receptor (sTfr), was elevated;
(44.4 ± 18 mcg/ml normal range 2.9–8.3 mcg/ml), reflecting ineffective
erythropoiesis, which in turn leads to high iron absorption and increased ferritin levels
in younger (median = 187 ng/ml) and older (median = 465 ng/ml) nontransfused patients.
These findings along with moderate growth delay and low bone mass were more prevalent in
Hb H-CS patients compared to deletional Hb H disease. Our results highlight the required
monitoring of the extent of anemia, growth, splenomegaly, iron overload, gallstones, bone
density and assessment of need for transfusions and specific treatments for disease
Thalassemia is a chronic, inherited blood disorder, which, in its most severe form, causes life-threatening anemia. Advances in treatment have led to increased life expectancy however the need for chronic blood transfusions and chelation therapy remains a significant burden for patients. Our study compared health related quality of life (HRQOL) from the Thalassemia Clinical Research Network's (TCRNs) Thalassemia Longitudinal Cohort (TLC) study to US norms and assessed association with clinical variables. There were 264 patients over age 14 who completed the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF36v2) baseline assessment. When compared to US norms, TLC patients had statistically significant (p<0.05) worse HRQOL on 5 of the 8 subscales (physical functioning, role-physical, general health, social functioning and role-emotional) and on both summary scales (physical component summary and mental component summary). Women, older patients, and those with more disease complications and side effects from chelation reported lower HRQOL. In general, adolescents and adults with thalassemia report worse HRQOL than the US population, despite contemporary therapy. The SF-36 should become a standard instrument for assessing HRQOL in thalassemia to determine predictors of low HRQOL which may be better addressed by a multidisciplinary team.
thalassemia; quality of life; North America; UK; adult
Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that requires lifelong adherence to a complicated and burdensome medical regimen which could potentially impact emotional functioning of patients. The importance of understanding and promoting healthy emotional functioning is crucial not only to psychological well-being, but also to physical health as it has been shown to impact adherence to medical regimens [1–4]. The current study aimed to  determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescent and adult patients with thalassemia; and  explore possible demographic, medical, and psychosocial correlates of these symptoms in 276 patients (14–58 years old, M age = 27.83; 52% female). Overall, most patients did not report experiencing significant symptoms of anxiety and depression (33% of participants indicated experiencing symptoms of anxiety and 11% symptoms of depression). Females and older patients were more likely to experience these symptoms than males and younger patients. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were positively associated with self-report of difficulty with adherence and negatively associated with quality of life. Given these findings, regular screening for anxiety and depression symptoms could help to identify at-risk individuals to provide them with appropriate psychological support with the goal of improving both emotional and physical health.
Most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP) treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) achieve complete cytogenetic response (CCyR). An increasing number of patients also achieve deep molecular responses (MR). We determined the frequency and significance of deep MR after TKI therapy for CML in CP. MR included: major molecular response (MMR), MR4, MR4.5, and undetectable transcripts (UND), ie BCR-ABL/ABL of ≤0.1%, ≤0.01%, ≤0.0032%, and undetectable transcripts, respectively. 483 patients received imatinib 400mg/day (IM400, 71, July 2000-April 2001), imatinib 800mg/day (IM800, 204, June 2001-July 2005), nilotinib (NILO, 106, July 2005 to date), or dasatinib (DASA, 102, November 2005 to date). UND rates at 36 months were 18.1%, 30.6%, 29.2%, and 28.6%, respectively. Patients achieving UND have superior transformation-free survival (TFS) and overall survival (OS) versus those obtaining ≤MMR, but not other MR levels. At the 18- and 24-month landmark analysis patients achieving UND have no advantage in TFS and OS compared to those achieving a lesser degree of MR. Among patients achieving MR4.5, those who maintain it for ≥2 years (susMR4·5) have no additional benefit in TFS or OS. Most patients with early CP CML receiving TKI achieve MMR. BCR-ABL transcripts become undetectable in a significant fraction of them. Deeper MR at 18 or 24 months are not associated with a benefit in TFS or OS. Furthermore, achieving susMR4·5 does not appear to further reduce the risk of transformation or death.
chronic myeloid leukemia; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; BCR-ABL; molecular response
Immune dysregulations associated with allergies may affect cancer cell biology but studies on the relationship between allergies and risk of hematologic malignancies (HM) yielded inconsistent results. Herein, we used the VITamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort to examine this association. From 2000–2002, 66,212 participants, aged 50–76, completed a baseline questionnaire on cancer risk factors, medical conditions, allergies, and asthma. Through 2009, incident HMs (n=681) were identified via linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer registry. After adjustment for factors possibly associated with HMs, a history of airborne allergy was associated with increased risk of HMs (hazard ratio [HR]=1.19 [95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.41], P= 0.039) in Cox proportional hazards models. This association was limited to allergies to plants/grass/trees (HR=1.26 [1.05–1.50], P=0.011) and was strongest for some mature B-cell lymphomas (HR=1.50 [1.14–2.00], P=0.005). Gender-stratified analyses revealed that the associations between airborne allergies overall and those to plants, grass, and trees were only seen in women (HR=1.47 [1.14–1.91], P=0.004; and HR=1.73 [1.32–2.25], P<0.001) but not men (HR=1.03 [0.82–1.29], P=0.782; and HR=0.99 [0.77–1.27], P=0.960). Together, our study indicates a moderately increased risk of HMs in women but not men with a history of allergies to airborne allergens, especially to plant, grass or trees.
allergies; cancer risk; epidemiology; hematologic malignancies; prospective cohort study; VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study
There has been an overall decline in the United States incidence of Primary CNS Lymphoma (PCNSL) from 1998 to 2008. This study’s intent was to characterize the cohorts contributing to it. First, calculated the PCNSL incidence rates from nine Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries for time period 1973 to 2008. Second, examined the time trends overall and by age and gender. Third, used 1992–2008 SEER data from the same registries to obtain overall trends for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Last, rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population and reported per 100,000 person-years. Rates continued to increase in women at all ages and men aged 65 and older. In men aged 20–39 and 40–64 years incidence rates peaked in 1995 and then declined dramatically, stabilizing after 1998. The trends in the incidence of PCNSL over this time frame were significantly different from DLBCL for ages 20–39 (P < 0.001) and 40–64 (P < 0.001) years but were not different for the 65 years and older age group (P = 0.99). The overall PCNSL incidence rate declined since 1995 and was driven primarily by the changing incidence in young and middle-aged men. The rate has continued to increase in men aged 65 years and older and in women. The trends in incidence in the younger age groups over this time period did not parallel those observed for DLBCL.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) accounts for ~100,000 hospitalizations in the US annually. Quality of care for hospitalized SCD patients has been insufficiently studied. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether four potential determinants of quality care,  hospital volume,  hospital teaching status,  patient socioeconomic status (SES), and  patient insurance status are associated with three quality indicators for patients with SCD:  mortality,  length of stay (LOS), and  hospitalization costs. We conducted an analysis of the 2003–2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) datasets. We identified cases using all ICD-9CM codes for SCD. Both overall and SCD-specific hospital volumes were examined. Multivariable analyses included mixed linear models to examine LOS and costs, and logistic regression to examine mortality. About 71,481 SCD discharges occurred from 2003 to 2005. Four hundred and twenty five patients died, yielding a mortality rate of 0.6%. Multivariable analyses revealed that SCD patients admitted to lower SCD-specific volume hospitals had  increased adjusted odds of mortality (quintiles 1–4 vs. quintile 5: OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.76) and  decreased LOS (quintiles 1–4 vs. quintile 5, effect estimate −0.08; 95% CI, −0.12, −0.04). These are the first data describing associations between lower SCD-specific hospital volumes and poorer outcomes.
Patients with sickle cell disease experience painful crises that often require hospitalization for a continuous infusion of morphine that may cause significant pruritus. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility of simultaneous continuous co-infusion of naloxone with morphine, test novel assessment instruments for pruritus, and explore whether pruritus could be reduced while maintaining effective analgesia. Patients with sickle cell disease and painful crisis requiring continuous infusion morphine received continuous co-infusion of naloxone at 0.25 (low dose) or 1.0 mcg/kg·hr (high dose). Pain scores were obtained using the FACES scale and a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Itching was quantified by a modified VAS score. Evaluable data were obtained on 16 patients. Simultaneous co-infusion of naloxone and morphine was feasible, did not seem to reduce the analgesic efficacy of morphine, and was associated with no adverse effects. The high dose group reported a lower median “VAS worst itch” score than the low dose group (4.8 vs. 7.3, P = 0.08). Simultaneous continuous infusion of naloxone with morphine in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease and pain crisis was feasible and well tolerated. A quantitative pruritus score allowed us to systematically measure pruritus. Further evaluation by randomized, placebo-controlled study of 1 mcg/kg·hr naloxone in this setting is required.
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia worldwide. Although oral iron is used as first-line treatment, many patients are unresponsive to or cannot take oral iron. This Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol, a rapid, injectable intravenous (IV) iron product with low immunological reactivity and minimal detectable free iron, with IV iron sucrose in adults with IDA of any cause. Patients (N = 605) were randomized 2:1 to receive ferumoxytol (n = 406, two doses of 510 mg 5 ± 3 days apart) or iron sucrose (n = 199, five doses of 200 mg on five nonconsecutive days over 14 days) and followed for 5 weeks. Ferumoxytol demonstrated noninferiority to iron sucrose at the primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin increase of ≥2 g dL−1 at any time from Baseline to Week 5 (ferumoxytol, 84.0% [n = 406] vs. iron sucrose, 81.4% [n = 199]), with a noninferiority margin of 15%. Ferumoxytol was superior to iron sucrose (2.7 g dL−1 vs. 2.4 g dL−1) in the mean change in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5 (the alternative preplanned primary endpoint) with P = 0.0124. Transferrin saturation, quality-of-life measures, and safety outcomes were similar between the two treatment groups. Overall, ferumoxytol demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy to iron sucrose, suggesting that ferumoxytol may be a useful treatment option for patients with IDA in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or could not be used. Am. J. Hematol. 89:646–650, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Although oral iron is the initial treatment approach for iron deficiency anemia (IDA), some
patients fail to respond to or cannot tolerate oral iron. This double-blind safety and efficacy
study of the intravenous (IV) iron, ferumoxytol, randomized patients with a history of
unsatisfactory oral iron therapy, or in whom oral iron could not be used, to ferumoxytol
(n = 609) or placebo (n = 203). The proportion of
patients achieving the primary endpoint (hemoglobin increase ≥2.0 g/dL at Week 5) was
81.1% with ferumoxytol versus 5.5% with placebo (P < 0.0001).
The mean increase in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5, a secondary endpoint (also the alternative
preplanned primary efficacy endpoint for other health authorities), was 2.7 versus 0.1 g/dL
(P < 0.0001). Achievement of a hemoglobin ≥12 g/dL, time to a
hemoglobin increase ≥2.0 g/dL, and improvement in the Functional Assessment of Chronic
Illness Therapy Fatigue score also significantly favored ferumoxytol over placebo at Week 5
(P < 0.0001). Ferumoxytol treatment-emergent adverse events were mainly mild
to moderate. Ferumoxytol was effective and well tolerated in patients with IDA of any underlying
cause in whom oral iron was ineffective or could not be used. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01114139.
Am. J. Hematol. 89:7–12, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A subgroup of patients with core binding factor acute myeloid leuke-mias (AML) is characterized by the presence of the fusion gene CBFb-Myh11. At the cytogenetic level, most of these patients are identified by the presence of an inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13q22)] and rarely by a translocation t(16;16)(p13;q22). The aim of this study is to describe the natural history of patients with t(16;16) [N = 6] treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center and compared them with a cohort of patients with inv(16)(p13q22) [n = 5 61]. In patients with t(16;16) the complete remission rate (CR) was 100% when treated with a combination of fludarabine and high-dose cytarabine. Median overall survival (OS) had not been achieved. There was no difference in response or OS or progression free survival between both groups. Presence of additional chromosomal abnormalities and molecular aberrations had no effect on prognosis. In conclusion, and consistent with previous reports, the natural history of patients with t(16:16)(p13;q22) is similar to that of classic patients with inv16 AML and therefore should be treated similarly.
Background & Aims
Acute vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in sickle cell disease (SCD) is an important cause of end-organ damage. It is estimated that 10–39% of VOC occurs with hepatic involvement. Current assessments of hepatic involvement during VOC are unsatisfactory. We investigated transient elastography (TE) as a marker of hepatic involvement, its relationship with histology, and biochemical markers during VOC.
SCD patients were evaluated with biochemical markers and TE at steady-state and during VOC. Change in TE and biochemical markers were correlated to length of hospital stay. When available, liver biopsy and tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) at steady-state were correlated with TE.
23 patients were evaluated (mean age=34.3 years, standard deviation=7.96). In 15 patients with liver biopsies, TE correlated with fibrosis (p=0.01) and TRV (p=0.0063), but not hepatic iron. Hemolysis biomarkers changed during VOC (p<0.022), but not alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Paired comparison of TE at steady-state and during VOC showed an increased from 6.2 to 12.3 kPa (p=0.0029). Increasing TE during VOC associated with increasing ALT and alkaline phosphatase (p=0.0088 and 0.0099, respectively). At steady-state, increasing inflammation on biopsy (p=0.0037) and TRV (p=0.0075) correlated with increasing TE during VOC. Increased hospital stay was associated with higher ALT (p=0.041), lower albumin (p=0.046), hemoglobin/hematocrit (p<0.0021) but not TE.
TE may identify patients with hepatic involvement during VOC independent of biochemical measures. Increase in TE may reflect both hepatic passive congestion and hepatic involvement during VOC. TE may serve as a physiological biomarker for hepatic features of VOC.
Transient Elastography; Sickle Cell Disease; Vaso-Occlusive Crisis; Hepatic Crisis; Liver Stiffness
Pain reports have become increasingly common and problematic in thalassemia. As patients are living longer, there is a growing need to study pain and explore its impact on patient lives. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was used quarterly to assess pain and pain interference in North American thalassemia patients. The SF-36 and HADS were used to assess quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Of the 252 participants, 56% reported pain at least once over the course of this study, with 32% reporting severe pain (≥7/10); 16% reported pain at all 4 visits. Increased pain severity significantly interfered with daily life (p<0.001; regression analysis), and participants with more sites of pain showed an increase in the amount of daily activities affected by pain (p=0.001). Participants reporting more visits with pain reported a significantly higher impact on affective and physical function (p <0.001). Physical quality of life decreased with increasing numbers of visits with pain (p <0.001). Those who reported one or more sites of pain showed increased symptoms of both depression (p <0.001) and anxiety (p= 0.003). Participants reporting at least two visits with pain had higher symptoms of anxiety (p= 0.002), and those with at least three visits, higher symptoms of depression (p= 0.003). Pain in thalassemia is a common, often chronic condition that interferes with life. The study highlights the significance of pain in thalassemia and its impact should be considered in future research and treatments.
Thalassemia; Pain; Quality of Life