Myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (MDC/PDC) play crucial roles in bridging adaptive and innate immunity by affecting development of both cellular and humoral immunity. The immune system evolves after birth as reflected in dynamic changes in numbers and functions of various immune cells with age. However, age-associated changes in DC subsets in children have not been elucidated despite the fact that such normative data are crucial for evaluating alternations of DC subsets in various pediatric diseases. This study addressed age-associated changes in DC subsets and CD40/86 expression on PDC (markers of maturation/activation) in 50 healthy children in comparison with 25 children with specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD). Our results revealed age-dependent decrease of PDC numbers (p<0.0001), although there was no age-associated changes in CD40/CD86 expression. MDC1/MDC2 numbers did not reveal such linear age-dependent changes and MDC1/PDC ratio reached around 2 as typically seen in young adults after 10 years of age. In contrast, SPAD patients did not reveal such age-associated changes and showed decreased fluorescence intensity of CD86 in PDC cells. These results indicate lineage specific, age-dependent changes in DC subsets in normal children and possible altered development of these cells in SPAD children, emphasizing the importance of age-appropriate controls.
Dendritic cells (DCs); Plasmacytoid DC; Myeloid DC; Specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD); CD86
Diarrhea treatment with either Lactobacillus GG (LGG) or smectite as an adjuvant to standard rehydration therapy has proven efficacy. In countries where both LGG and smectite are available, concomitant use is frequently practiced. We investigated whether LGG plus smectite is superior to LGG alone in the management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Children aged 4 to 60 months with AGE received LGG 6 × 109 colony forming units/day plus randomly either smectite (3 g) or placebo as an adjuvant to the standard rehydration therapy. Of the 88 children randomized, 81 (92 %) were available for intention-to-treat analysis. The duration of diarrhea in the LGG/smectite group (n = 44) compared with the LGG/placebo group (n = 37) was similar (P = 0.43). There were no significant differences between the study groups for the secondary outcomes, with three exceptions. On day 4, in the LGG/placebo group compared to the LGG/smectite group, there was significantly reduced stool frequency (P = 0.03). While there was a significant (P = 0.05) difference in stool consistency on the Bristol Stool Form Scale on day 4, it was not of clinical relevance. Finally, in the LGG/smectite group compared to the LGG/placebo group, there was a significantly shorter duration of intravenous therapy after randomization (P = 0.02). No adverse events were observed in the study groups. Conclusion: LGG plus smectite and LGG alone are equally effective for treating young children with AGE. Combined use of the two interventions is not justified.
LGG; Diosmectite; Dioctahedral smectite; Diarrhea; Infants; RCT
Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0–6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries’ data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.
Waist circumference reference values; Preschool children
Approximately one-third of boys with X-linked adrenoleukodystophy (X-ALD) develop an acute, progressive inflammatory process of the central nervous system, resulting in rapid neurologic deterioration and death. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can halt the progression of neurologic disease if performed early in the course of the cerebral form of X-ALD. We describe a retrospective cohort study of 90 boys with X-ALD evaluated at our institution between 2000 and 2009, to determine if early diagnosis of X-ALD following the diagnosis of unexplained adrenal insufficiency (AI) improves outcomes. We describe 7 cases with a delay in the diagnosis of X-ALD, and compare their outcomes to 10 controls with the diagnosis of ALD made within 12 months following diagnosis of AI. At the time of evaluation for HCT, boys with a delay in the diagnosis of X-ALD had more extensive cerebral involvement and more limited functioning. These boys also were 3.9 times more likely to die, and had significant advancement of cerebral disease after HCT, compared to boys with a timely diagnosis of X-ALD.
Early diagnosis of cerebral X-ALD following the diagnosis of unexplained AI, and subsequent treatment with HCT, improves both neurological outcomes and survival in boys with cerebral X-ALD.
adrenoleukodystrophy; adrenal insufficiency; Addison’s disease; hematopoietic cell transplantation
The varying clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis, transmitted by Ixodes ricinus and caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, frequently pose diagnostic problems. Diagnostic strategies vary between early and late disease manifestations and usually include serological methods. Erythema migrans is pathognomonic and does not require any further laboratory investigations. In contrast, the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis requires the assessment of serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Lyme arthritis is diagnosed in the presence of newly recognized arthritis and high-titer serum IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi. The committee concludes the following recommendations: Borrelial serology should only be ordered in case of well-founded clinical suspicion for Lyme borreliosis, i.e., manifestations compatible with the diagnosis. Tests for borrelial genomic sequences in ticks or lymphocyte proliferation assays should not be ordered. When results of such tests or of serological investigations that were not indicated are available, they should not influence therapeutic decisions. Laboratories should be cautious when interpreting results of serological tests and abstain from giving therapeutic recommendations and from proposing retesting after some time without intimate knowledge of patient's history and disease manifestations.
Lyme borreliosis; Borrelia burgdorferi; Neuroborreliosis; Lyme arthritis; Diagnosis; Children; Recommendations
Hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor (C1 esterase inhibitor) deficiency (types I and II HAE-C1-INH) is a rare disease that usually presents during childhood or adolescence with intermittent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. Diagnosis as early as possible is important to avoid ineffective therapies and to properly treat swelling attacks. At a consensus meeting in June 2011, pediatricians and dermatologists from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland reviewed the currently available literature, including published international consensus recommendations for HAE therapy across all age groups. Published recommendations cannot be unconditionally adopted for pediatric patients in German-speaking countries given the current approval status of HAE drugs. This article provides an overview and discusses drugs available for HAE therapy, their approval status, and study results obtained in adult and pediatric patients. Recommendations for developing appropriate treatment strategies in the management of HAE in pediatric patients in German-speaking countries are provided.Conclusion Currently, plasma-derived C1 inhibitor concentrate is considered the best available option for the treatment of acute HAE-C1-INH attacks in pediatric patients in German-speaking countries, as well as for short-term and long-term prophylaxis.
C1-INH (C1 inhibitor, C1-esterase inhibitor); Hereditary angioedema; Consensus; Pediatric
Skinfold thicknesses are used as valid anthropometric indicators of regional body fatness. Actual population-based values for skinfold thicknesses for Polish children are not available. The purpose of this study was to provide population-based values for triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfold thicknesses in healthy children and adolescents. A total number of 17,416 boys and girls aged 6.5–18.5 years, randomly selected from whole Polish population of children and adolescents, were enrolled in the study. Skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular, and abdominal) were measured using Harpenden skinfold caliper. All measurements were taken after the training of participating investigators. The LMS method was used to fit percentile curves across age for each skinfold. Q tests for fit were used to assess the global goodness of fit of our final models. The study shows for the first time smoothed population-based values of body fat distribution indices for Polish children and adolescents 7–18 years of age. Reported skinfold centiles are higher compared to previously established for Warsaw children and very close to the actual US data. Conclusion Our study provided for the first time population-based values for skinfold thicknesses evaluation in a way allowing to calculate reliable Z scores. The early detection of abnormal fat stores, using our population-based values and respective Z scores, may be now implemented for practice.
Triceps; Subscapular; Abdominal skinfold thickness; Population-based values; Children; Polish
Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic condition elicited by gluten and related prolamines in genetically predisposed individuals and characterised by gluten-induced symptoms and signs, specific antibodies, a specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type and enteropathy. The risk of coeliac disease is increased in first-degree relatives, certain syndromes including Down syndrome and autoimmune disorders. It is thought to occur in 1 in 100–200 individuals, but still only one in four cases is diagnosed. Small-bowel biopsy is no longer deemed necessary in a subgroup of patients, i.e. when all of the following are present: typical symptoms or signs, high titres of and transglutaminase antibodies, endomysial antibodies, and HLA-type DQ2 or DQ8. In all other cases, small-bowel biopsy remains mandatory for a correct diagnosis. Therapy consists of a strictly gluten-free diet. This should result in complete disappearance of symptoms and of serological markers. Adequate follow-up is considered essential. Conclusion: Although small-bowel biopsy may be omitted in a minority of patients, small-bowel biopsy is essential for a correct diagnosis of CD in all other cases. Diagnostic work-up should be completed before treatment with gluten-free diet instituted.
Coeliac disease; Gluten intolerance; HLA-DQ2; HLA-DQ8; Endomysium antibodies; Transglutaminase type 2 antibodies; Small-bowel biopsy; Marsh classification; Gluten-free diet
Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II), or Hunter syndrome, is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. Affected patients suffer progressive damage to multiple organ systems and early mortality. Two thirds of patients also manifest cognitive impairment and developmental delays. MPS II can be extremely difficult to diagnose before irreversible organ and tissue damage has occurred because of an insidious onset and the overlap in signs and symptoms with common childhood complaints. This is particularly true of patients without cognitive impairment (attenuated phenotype). Although not curative, early treatment with enzyme replacement therapy before irreversible organ damage has occurred may result in the greatest clinical benefit. Here, the signs, symptoms, and surgical history that should trigger suspicion of MPS II are described, and the diagnostic process is reviewed with a focus on practical considerations and the avoidance of common diagnostic pitfalls. Once a diagnosis is made, multidisciplinary management with an extended team of pediatric specialists is essential and should involve the pediatrician or family practice physician as facilitator and medical home for the patient and family. Conclusion: Because routine newborn screening is not yet available for MPS II, the involvement and awareness of pediatricians, family practice physicians, and pediatric specialists is critical for early identification, diagnosis, and referral in order to help optimize patient outcomes.
Lysosomal storage disease; Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Hunter syndrome; Glycosaminoglycans; Iduronate-2-sulfatase; Diagnosis
Despite the high prevalence of enuresis, the professional training of doctors in the evaluation and management of this condition is often minimal and/or inconsistent. Therefore, patient care is neither optimal nor efficient, which can have a profound impact on affected children and their families. Once comprehensive history taking and evaluation has eliminated daytime symptoms or comorbidities, monosymptomatic enuresis can be managed efficaciously in the majority of patients. Non-monosymptomatic enuresis is often a more complex condition; these patients may benefit from referral to specialty care centers. We outline two alternative strategies to determine the most appropriate course of care. The first is a basic assessment covering only the essential components of diagnostic investigation which can be carried out in one office visit. The second strategy includes several additional evaluations including completion of a voiding diary, which requires extra time during the initial consultation and two office visits before treatment or specialty referral is provided. This should yield greater success than first-line treatment. Conclusion: This guideline, endorsed by major international pediatric urology and nephrology societies, aims to equip a general pediatric practice in both primary and secondary care with simple yet comprehensive guidelines and practical tools (i.e., checklists, diary templates, and quick-reference flowcharts) for complete evaluation and successful treatment of enuresis.
Enuresis; Monosymptomatic; Consensus guidelines; Primary care; Management
We report a 16-year-old girl in whom Takayasu arteritis (TA) was manifested mainly by severe arterial hypertension on her right arm, which was detected during a routine examination at school. Her systolic blood pressure on the right arm was significantly higher than that on the left one. There was also a pressure difference between the right arm and legs. The pulse of the left external carotid artery and that of the left radial artery was absent. Vascular bruits over interscapular and right supra- and subclavian areas were heard on auscultation. The diagnosis of TA was confirmed by a spiral computed tomography angiography, which showed a thickened thoracic aortic wall and narrowing of its lumen. In addition, complete occlusion of the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery was observed. Conclusion: The rarity of the disorder and the heterogeneous nature of its clinical manifestation predispose to a late diagnosis and delayed treatment. Our report highlights the fact that the condition can and does occur in a pediatric population in Europe and hence must be considered in patients presenting with suggestive symptoms and signs, especially in young patients with unexplained hypertension. Clinical suspicion and proper imaging are crucial for the correct diagnosis and management of patients with TA. A brief review of literature completes this report.
Takayasu arteritis; Arterial hypertension; Children
In population studies, most children with episodic viral wheeze (EVW) become symptom free by 6 years. We studied the outcome of children with severe EVW, treated and followed up in hospital. We followed up 78 children <4 years, managed by paediatricians for severe EVW, to the age of 5–10 years. We recorded respiratory symptoms, spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). At follow-up, 42 children (54%) had current wheeze or dyspnoea, and 52 (67%) had current asthma. There was no significant difference between children with and without current asthma in FEV1 (p = 0.420), but FeNO was higher in children with current asthma (median (interquartile range) 14.5 (11.25–21.50) ppb) than in those without (12.0 (10.0–13.8) ppb, p = 0.020). Positive family history of asthma was the only factor associated with current asthma (odds ratio 8.77, 95% CI 2.88–26.69, p < 0.001). This remained significant after adjustment for duration of follow-up, gender and parental smoking. Conclusion. Severe EVW at preschool age has a high risk of asthma at age 5–10 years, and this is reinforced by a positive family history of asthma and to elevated FeNO levels.
Preschool wheeze; Asthma; Episodic viral wheeze; Outcome; Cohort studies
Our objective was to assess how the diagnosis and treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) have changed over time. We used data from 891 patients in the MPS I Registry, an international observational database, to analyze ages at symptom onset, diagnosis, treatment initiation, and treatment allocation (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, enzyme replacement therapy with laronidase, both, or neither) over time for all disease phenotypes (Hurler, Hurler–Scheie, and Scheie syndromes). The interval between diagnosis and treatment has become shorter since laronidase became available in 2003 (gap during 2006–2009: Hurler—0.2 year, Hurler–Scheie—0.5 year, Scheie—1.4 years). However, the age at diagnosis has not decreased for any MPS I phenotype over time, and the interval between symptom onset and treatment initiation remains substantial for both Hurler–Scheie and Scheie patients (gap during 2006–2009, 2.42 and 6.71 years, respectively). Among transplanted patients, an increasing proportion received hematopoietic stem cells from cord blood (34 out of 64 patients by 2009) and was also treated with laronidase (42 out of 45 patients by 2009). Conclusions: Despite the availability of laronidase since 2003, the diagnosis of MPS I is still substantially delayed for patients with Hurler–Scheie and Scheie phenotypes, which can lead to a sub-optimal treatment outcome. Increased awareness of MPS I signs and symptoms by primary care providers and pediatric subspecialists is crucial to initiate early treatment and to improve the quality of life of MPS I patients.
Mucopolysaccharidosis I; Hurler; Hurler–Scheie; Scheie; Laronidase; Enzyme replacement therapy; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant
Palivizumab utilization, compliance, and outcomes were examined in infants with preexisting medical diseases within the Canadian Registry Database (CARESS) to aid in developing guidelines for potential “at-risk” infants in the future. Infants who received ≥1 dose of palivizumab during the 2006–2010 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) seasons at 29 sites were recruited and utilization, compliance, and outcomes related to respiratory infection/illness (RI) events were collected monthly. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for premature infants ≤35 completed weeks gestational age (GA) who met standard approval criteria (group 1) compared to those with medical disorders (group 2) using Cox proportional hazards regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Of 7,339 registry infants, 4,880 were in group 1 and 952 in group 2, which included those with Down syndrome (20.3%), upper airway anomalies (18.7%), pulmonary diseases (13.3%), and cystic fibrosis (12.3%). Group 2 were older at enrolment (10.2 ± 9.2 vs. 3.5 ± 3.1 months, p < 0.0005), had higher GA (35.9 ± 6.0 vs. 31.0 ± 5.4 weeks, p < 0.0005), and were less compliant with treatment intervals (69.4% vs. 72.6%, p = 0.048). A greater proportion of group 2 infants were hospitalized for RI (9.0% vs. 4.2%, p < 0.0005) and RSV (2.4% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.003) (unadjusted). Being in group 2 was associated with an increased risk of RI (HR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.5–2.5, p < 0.0005), but not RSV hospitalization (HR = 1.6, 95%CI 0.9–2.8, p = 0.106). In infants receiving palivizumab, those with underlying medical disorders, though not currently approved for prophylaxis, are at higher risk for RI events compared with preterm infants. However, risk of RSV hospitalizations is similar.
Respiratory syncytial virus; Palivizumab; Premature; Special populations
Published epidemiologic data on the administration rates of enteral/parenteral home nutrition is very limited. The aim of this first nationwide study was to assess the availability of pediatric home enteral nutrition (HEN) services in Poland. The questionnaire was sent to all regional centers providing pediatric HEN services in Poland (n = 14). The analysis included the number of pediatric patients who received HEN in 2010, their demographic characteristics and geographical distribution. Furthermore, the distributions of indications and methods of enteral nutrition administration were analyzed, along with the reasons of withdrawal from the HEN program. The number and fraction of children receiving HEN increased in 2010, from 433 (11.34 per 1 million inhabitants) on January 1st to 525 (13.75) on December 31st. Marked differences were observed in geographical distribution of this parameter, from zero to up to 30 pediatric patients per 1 million inhabitants. Median age of patients was 6 years (range: 9 months–18 years). In most cases, HEN was prescribed due to neurological disorders (n = 337, 64.2%), and administered by means of gastrostomy (n = 450, 85.71%). This study revealed the dynamic development of pediatric HEN services in Poland but also documented their potential regional shortages.
Children; Gastrostomy; Home enteral nutrition; Jejunostomy
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a relatively common cause of neurotrauma in young children. Radiology plays an important role in establishing a diagnosis and assessing a prognosis. Computed tomography (CT), followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), is the best tool for neuroimaging. There is no evidence-based approach for the follow-up of AHT; both repeat CT and MRI are currently used but literature is not conclusive. A full skeletal survey according to international guidelines should always be performed to obtain information on possible underlying bone diseases or injuries suspicious for child abuse. Cranial ultrasonography is not indicated as a diagnostic modality for the evaluation of AHT. If there is a suspicion of AHT, this should be communicated with the clinicians immediately in order to arrange protective measures as long as AHT is part of the differential diagnosis. Conclusion: The final diagnosis of AHT can never be based on radiological findings only; this should always be made in a multidisciplinary team assessment where all clinical and psychosocial information is combined and judged by a group of experts in the field.
Abusive head trauma; Radiology; Child abuse; Head injury; Closed; Haematoma; Subdural
The current recommended therapy for Kawasaki disease (KD) is the combination of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin. However, the role of corticosteroid therapy in KD remains controversial. Using meta-analysis, this study aimed to investigate the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy in KD by comparing it with standard IVIG and aspirin therapy. We included all related randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials by searching Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Pub Med, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Japanese database (Japan Science and Technology) as well as hand searches of selected references. Data collection and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of corticosteroids. Our search yielded 11 studies; 7 of which evaluated the effect of corticosteroid for primary therapy in KD, and 4 investigated the effect of corticosteroid therapy in IVIG-resistant patients. Meta-analysis of these studies revealed a significant reduction in the rates of initial treatment failure among patients who received corticosteroid therapy in combination with IVIG compared to IVIG alone (odds ratio (OR) = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32~0.79; p = 0.003). Furthermore, the use of corticosteroids reduced the duration of fever and the time required for C-reactive protein to return to normal. Our data did not show any significant increase in the incidence of coronary artery lesions or coronary aneurysms (OR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.35~1.28; p = 0.23) in the corticosteroid group. Conclusion. Corticosteroid combined with IVIG in primary treatment or as treatment of IVIG-resistant patients improved clinical course without increasing coronary artery lesions in children with acute KD.
Kawasaki disease; Coronary artery lesions; Coronary artery aneurysm; Corticosteroids; Meta-analysis
Intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase for Hunter syndrome has not been demonstrated to and is not predicted to cross the blood–brain barrier. Nearly all published experience with ERT with idursulfase has therefore been in patients without cognitive impairment (attenuated phenotype). Little formal guidance is available on the issues surrounding ERT in cognitively impaired patients with the severe phenotype. An expert panel was therefore convened to provide guidance on these issues. The clinical experience of the panel with 66 patients suggests that somatic improvements (e.g., reduction in liver volume, increased mobility, and reduction in frequency of respiratory infections) may occur in most severe patients. Cognitive benefits have not been seen. It was agreed that, in general, severe patients are candidates for at least a 6–12-month trial of ERT, excluding patients who are severely neurologically impaired, those in a vegetative state, or those who have a condition that may lead to near-term death. It is imperative that the treating physician discuss the goals of treatment, methods of assessment of response, and criteria for discontinuation of treatment with the family before ERT is initiated. Conclusion: The decision to initiate ERT in severe Hunter syndrome should be made by the physician and parents and must be based on realistic expectations of benefits and risks, with the understanding that ERT may be withdrawn in the absence of demonstrable benefits.
Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Hunter syndrome; Enzyme replacement therapy; Idursulfase; Cognitive impairment; Severe phenotype
Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) refers to the combination of findings formerly described as shaken baby syndrome. Although these findings can be caused by shaking, it has become clear that in many cases there may have been impact trauma as well. Therefore a less specific term has been adopted by the American Academy of Pediatrics. AHT is a relatively common cause of childhood neurotrauma with an estimated incidence of 14–40 cases per 100,000 children under the age of 1 year. About 15–23% of these children die within hours or days after the incident. Studies among AHT survivors demonstrate that approximately one-third of the children are severely disabled, one-third of them are moderately disabled and one-third have no or only mild symptoms. Other publications suggest that neurological problems can occur after a symptom-free interval and that half of these children have IQs below the 10th percentile. Clinical findings are depending on the definitions used, but AHT should be considered in all children with neurological signs and symptoms especially if no or only mild trauma is described. Subdural haematomas are the most reported finding. The only feature that has been identified discriminating AHT from accidental injury is apnoea. Conclusion: AHT should be approached with a structured approach, as in any other (potentially lethal) disease. The clinician can only establish this diagnosis if he/she has knowledge of the signs and symptoms of AHT, risk factors, the differential diagnosis and which additional investigations to perform, the more so since parents seldom will describe the true state of affairs spontaneously.
Abusive head trauma; Child abuse; Head injury, closed; Haematoma, subdural
The objectives of this study are to describe the number and nature of adverse events occurring in general pediatric practice, to describe factors contributing to the occurrence of these adverse events, and to report on the experience of pediatricians with reporting adverse events. It is a prospective study on 11 pediatric units in a 3-month period; adverse events were registered for all newly admitted patients. Ninety-four adverse events were registered in 88 of 5,669 patients, amounting to a 1.6 per 100 admissions rate and a 0.4 per 100 patient days rate. Ninety percent of the adverse events did not cause serious harm. Failed diagnostic procedures were most common. Conclusion: Adverse event registration in general pediatric practice is a first step in assessing quality and safety of care. It yields a considerable number of adverse events. Compliance to adverse event registration in daily practice is difficult but also key to optimal monitoring of quality of care.
Adverse events; General pediatrics; Patient safety; Monitoring quality of care
The neutrophilic granulocyte (neutrophil) is the most important cellular component of the innate immune system. A total absence of neutrophils or a significant decrease in their number leads to severe immunodeficiency. A mature neutrophil, released from the bone marrow, should be able to migrate from the blood towards the tissues, following a chemotactic gradient to a pathogen. In order to be neutralized, this pathogen has to be recognized, phagocytosed, and destroyed by lytic enzymes contained in the neutrophil's granules and reactive oxygen species formed by the enzyme complex NADPH oxidase. Rare genetic defects leading to the loss of each one of these biological properties of the neutrophil have been described and are associated with immunodeficiency. This review provides a summary of the normal development and biological functions of neutrophils and describes the diseases caused by defects in neutrophil number and function.
Neutrophilic granulocyte; Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN); Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD); Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD); NADPH oxidase; Immunodeficiency
We report a misleading outcome of colonic transit time (CTT) assessment in an adolescent girl with functional constipation. We found prolonged total and right segmental CTT despite high doses of oral polyethylene glycol 4000 and repeated treatment with polyethylene glycol–electrolyte solution (Klean-Prep®) by nasogastric tube. A colonoscopy aiming at disimpaction of a possible faecal mass revealed an empty colon with dozens of radio-opaque markers adhered to the colonic wall. This report shows that the result of a CTT cannot be accepted blindly. Especially the clustering of many markers within narrow margins might point at entrapment of markers in mucus against the colonic wall.
Constipation; Colonic transit time; Radio-opaque markers