Although transplantation of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs) alleviates post-myocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction, there are no reliable methods that enable measurement of the absolute number of CSCs that persist in the recipient heart. To overcome this limitation, we developed a highly sensitive and accurate method to quantify the absolute number of murine CSCs after transplantation. This method has two unique features: i) real-time PCR-based detection of a novel male-specific, multiple-copy gene, Rbmy, which significantly increases the sensitivity of detection of male donor cells in a female recipient, and ii) an internal standard, which permits quantification of the absolute number of CSCs as well as the total number of cells in the recipient organ. Female C57BL/6 mice underwent coronary occlusion and reperfusion; 2 days later, 105 male mouse CSCs were injected intramyocardially. Tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR at serial time points. In the risk region, >75% of CSCs present at 5 min were lost in the ensuing 24 h; only 7.6±2.1% of the CSCs present at 5 min could still be found at 7 days after transplantation and only 2.8±0.5% (i.e., 1,224±230 cells/heart) at 35 days. Thus, even after direct intramyocardial injection, the total number of CSCs that remain in the murine heart is minimal (at 24 h, ~10% of the cells injected; at 35 days, ~1%). This new quantitative method of stem cell detection, which enables measurement of absolute cell number, should be useful to optimize cell-based therapies, not only for CSCs but also for other stem cells and other organs.
Stem cells; Stem cell therapy; Myocardial infarction; Quantitative PCR
The histidine-rich Ca2+-binding protein (HRC) is located in the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and exhibits high capacity Ca2+ binding properties. Overexpression of HRC in the heart resulted in impaired SR Ca2+ uptake and depressed relaxation through its interaction with SERCA2a. However, the functional significance of HRC in overall regulation of calcium cycling and contractility is not currently well defined. To further elucidate the role of HRC in vivo under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, we generated and characterized HRC-knockout (KO) mice. The KO mice were morphologically and histologically normal compared to wild type (WT) mice. At the cellular level, ablation of HRC resulted in significantly enhanced contractility, Ca2+ transients, and maximal SR Ca2+ uptake rates in the heart. However, after-contractions were developed in 50% of HRC-KO cardiomyocytes, compared to 11% in WT mice under stress conditions of high frequency stimulation (5 Hz) and isoproterenol application. A parallel examination of the electrical activity revealed significant increases in the occurrence of Ca2+ spontaneous SR Ca2+ release and delayed after depolarizations (DADs) with ISO in HRC-KO, compared to WT cells. The frequency of Ca2+ sparks was also significantly higher in HRC-KO cells with ISO, consistent with the elevated SR Ca2+ load in the KO cells. Furthermore, HRC-KO cardiomyocytes showed significantly deteriorated cell contractility and Ca2+-cycling caused possibly by depressed SERCA2a expression after transverse-aortic constriction (TAC). Also HRC null mice exhibited severe cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, pulmonary edema and decreased survival after TAC. Our results indicate that ablation of HRC is associated with poorly regulated SR Ca2+-cycling, and severe pathology under pressure-overload stress, suggesting an essential role of HRC in maintaining the integrity of cardiac function.
Calcium cycling; sarcoplasmic reticulum; hypertrophy; fibrosis; heart failure; pulmonary edema
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is characterized by an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand, most frequently caused by coronary artery disease (CAD) that reduces myocardial perfusion. In some patients, IHD is ascribed to microvascular dysfunction (MVD): microcirculatory disturbances that reduce myocardial perfusion at the level of myocardial pre-arterioles and arterioles. In a minority of cases, chest pain and reductions in myocardial flow reserve may even occur in patients without any other demonstrable systemic or cardiac disease. In this topical review, we address whether these findings might be caused by impaired myocardial oxygen extraction, caused by capillary flow disturbances further downstream. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) increases approximately linearly with oxygen utilization, but efficient oxygen extraction at high MBF values is known to depend on the parallel reduction of capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH). Consequently, changes in capillary wall morphology or blood viscosity may impair myocardial oxygen extraction by preventing capillary flow homogenization. Indeed, a recent re-analysis of oxygen transport in tissue shows that elevated CTH can reduce tissue oxygenation by causing a functional shunt of oxygenated blood through the tissue. We review the combined effects of MBF, CTH, and tissue oxygen tension on myocardial oxygen supply. We show that as CTH increases, normal vasodilator responses must be attenuated in order to reduce the degree of functional shunting and improve blood-tissue oxygen concentration gradients to allow sufficient myocardial oxygenation. Theoretically, CTH can reach levels such that increased metabolic demands cannot be met, resulting in tissue hypoxia and angina in the absence of flow-limiting CAD or MVD. We discuss these predictions in the context of MVD, myocardial infarction, and reperfusion injury.
Microvascular dysfunction (MVD); Ischemic heart disease (IHD); Microcirculation; Oxygen transport; Myocardial blood flow (MBF); Capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH); Reperfusion injury; Myocardial capillaries; Glycocalyx; Connexins; Pericyte
Systolic function is often evaluated by measuring ejection fraction and its preservation is often assimilated with the lack of impairment of systolic left ventricular (LV) function. Considering the left ventricle as a muscular pump, we explored LV function during chronic hypertension independently from increased afterload conditions. Fourteen conscious and chronically instrumented pigs received continuous infusion of either angiotensin II (n=8) or saline (n=6) during 28 days. Hemodynamic recordings were regularly performed in the presence and 1h after stopping angiotensin II infusion to evaluate intrinsic LV function. Throughout the protocol, mean arterial pressure steadily increased by 55±4 mmHg in angiotensin II-treated animals. There were no significant changes in stroke volume, LV fractional shortening or LV wall thickening, indicating the lack of alterations in LV ejection. In contrast, we observed maladaptive changes with 1) the lack of reduction in isovolumic contraction and relaxation durations with heart rate increases, 2) abnormally blunted isovolumic contraction and relaxation responses to dobutamine and 3) a linear correlation between isovolumic contraction and relaxation durations. None of these changes were observed in saline-infused animals. In conclusion, we provide evidence of impaired LV function with concomitant isovolumic contraction and relaxation abnormalities during chronic hypertension while ejection remains preserved and no sign of heart failure is present. The evaluation under unloaded conditions shows intrinsic LV abnormalities.
Angiotensin II; Animals; Diastole; Female; Hemodynamics; Hypertension; physiopathology; Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular; chemically induced; Myocardial Contraction; Swine; Ventricular Function, Left; isovolumic contraction; isovolumic relaxation; hypertension; left ventricular function
Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) has previously been associated with immuno-mediated inflammation in diet-induced obesity and type 1 diabetes. This study sought to define the role of IFNγ-induced adipose tissue inflammation in endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. We examined mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) inflammation, and endothelial function of small mesenteric artery (SMA) in control mice (m Leprdb), diabetic mice (Leprdb), m Leprdb treated with IFNγ, and Leprdb treated with anti-IFNγ or anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (anti-MCP-1). mRNA and protein expression of IFNγ and MCP-1 were increased in MAT of Leprdb, accompanied by increased T-lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration. Anti-IFNγ reduced MAT inflammatory cell infiltration and inflammatory cytokine expression in Leprdb, while IFNγ treatment showed the opposite effects in m Leprdb. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation of SMA was impaired in Leprdb versus m Leprdb, but sodium nitro-prusside (SNP)-induced vasorelaxation was comparable. Both anti-IFNγ and anti-MCP-1 improved endothelial function of Leprdb, while IFNγ treatment impaired endothelial function of m Leprdb. Superoxide production was higher in both MAT and SMA of Leprdb mice, and anti-IFNγ reduced MAT and SMA superoxide production. Macrophage accumulation in the adventitia of SMA, and mRNA expression of MCP-1 in SMA were increased in Leprdb and IFNγ-treated m Leprdb, but reduced in anti-IFNγ treated Leprdb. These findings suggest IFNγ has a key role in the regulation of visceral adipose tissue inflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
Adipose; Diabetes; Endothelial function; Inflammation; Oxidative stress
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is partly mediated by thrombin. In support, the functional inhibition of thrombin has been shown to decrease infarct size after I/R. Several cellular responses to thrombin are mediated by a G-protein coupled protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1). However, the role of PAR1 in myocardial I/R injury has not been well characterized. Therefore, we hypothesized that PAR1 inhibition will reduce the amount of myocardial I/R injury. After we detected the presence of PAR1 mRNA and protein in the rat heart by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, we assessed the potential protective role of SCH 79797, a selective PAR1 antagonist, in two rat models of myocardial I/R injury. SCH 79797 treatment immediately before or during ischemia reduced myocardial necrosis following I/R in the intact rat heart. This response was dose-dependent with the optimal dose being 25 μg/kg IV. Likewise, SCH 79797 treatment before ischemia in the isolated heart model reduced infarct size and increased ventricular recovery following I/R in the isolated heart model with an optimal concentration of 1 μM. This reduction was abolished by a PAR1 selective agonist. SCH 79797-induced resistance to myocardial ischemia was abolished by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3 kinase; L-NMA, a NOS inhibitor; and glibenclamide, a nonselective KATP channel blocker. PAR1 activating peptide, wortmannin, L-NMA and glibenclamide alone had no effect on functional recovery or infarct size. A single treatment of SCH 79797 administered prior to or during ischemia confers immediate cardioprotection suggesting a potential therapeutic role of PAR1 antagonist in the treatment of injury resulting from myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.
myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury; protease-activated receptors; thrombin receptor antagonist
Exercise results in beneficial adaptations of the heart that can be directly observed at the ventricular myocyte level. However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for these adaptations are not well understood. Interestingly, signaling via neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) within myocytes results in similar effects as exercise.
Thus, the objective was to define the role NOS1 plays in the exercise-induced beneficial contractile effects in myocytes.
Methods and Results
After an 8 week aerobic interval training program, exercise-trained (Ex) mice had higher VO2max and cardiac hypertrophy compared to sedentary (Sed) mice. Ventricular myocytes from Ex mice had increased NOS1 expression and nitric oxide production compared to myocytes from Sed mice. Remarkably, acute NOS1 inhibition normalized the enhanced contraction (shortening and Ca2+ transients) in Ex myocytes to Sed levels. The NOS1 effect on contraction was mediated via greater Ca2+cycling that resulted from increased phospholamban phosphorylation. Intriguingly, a similar aerobic interval training program on NOS1 knockout mice failed to produce any beneficial cardiac adaptations (VO2max, hypertrophy, and contraction).
These data demonstrate that the beneficial cardiac adaptations observed after exercise training were mediated via enhanced NOS1 signaling. Therefore, it is likely that beneficial effects of exercise may be mimicked by the interventions that increase NOS1 signaling. This pathway may provide a potential novel therapeutic target in cardiac patients who are unable or unwilling to exercise.
myocyte; Ca2+; sarcoplasmic reticulum; high intense treadmill training; nitric oxide
Cardiac ageing is manifested as cardiac remodeling and contractile dysfunction although precise mechanisms remain elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in ageing-associated myocardial morphological and contractile defects. Echocardiographic and cardiomyocyte contractile properties were evaluated in young (5–6 mo) and old (26–28 mo) C57BL/6 wild-type and cardiomyocyte-specific ETA receptor knockout (ETAKO) mice. Cardiac ROS production and histology were examined. Our data revealed that ETAKO mice displayed an improved survival. Ageing increased plasma levels of ET-1 and Ang II, compromised cardiac function (fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/ relengthening and prolonged relengthening) and intracellular Ca2+ handling (reduced intracellular Ca2+ release and decay), the effects of which with the exception of ET-1 and Ang II levels was improved by ETAKO. Histological examination displayed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis associated with cardiac remodeling in aged C57 mice, which were alleviated in ETAKO mice. Ageing promoted ROS generation, protein damage, ER stress, upregulated GATA4, ANP, NFATc3, and the autophagosome cargo protein p62, downregulated intracellular Ca2+ regulatory proteins SERCA2a and phospholamban as well as the autophagic markers Beclin-1, Atg7, Atg5 and LC3BII, which were ablated by ETAKO. ET-1 triggered a decrease in autophagy and increased hypertrophic markers in vitrothe effect of which were reversed by the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 and the autophagy inducer rapamycin. Antagonism of ETA but not ETB receptor rescued cardiac ageing, which was negated by autophagy inhibition. Taken together, our data suggest that cardiac ETA receptor ablation protects against ageing-associated myocardial remodeling and contractile dysfunction possibly through autophagy regulation.
ETA receptor; myocardial; cardiomyocyte; contraction; morphology; autophagy
Major nuclear envelope abnormalities, such as disruption and/or presence of intranuclear organelles, have rarely been described in cardiomyocytes from dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients. In this study, we screened a series of 25 unrelated DCM patient samples for (a) cardiomyocyte nuclear abnormalities and (b) mutations in LMNA and TMPO as they are two DCM-causing genes that encode proteins involved in maintaining nuclear envelope architecture. Among the 25 heart samples investigated, we identified major cardiomyocyte nuclear abnormalities in 8 patients. Direct sequencing allowed the detection of three heterozygous LMNA mutations (p.D192G, p.Q353K and p.R541S) in three patients. By multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification (MLPA)/quantitative real-time PCR, we found a heterozygous deletion encompassing exons 3–12 of the LMNA gene in one patient. Immunostaining demonstrated that this deletion led to a decrease in lamin A/C expression in cardiomyocytes from this patient. This LMNA deletion as well as the p.D192G mutation was found in patients displaying major cardiomyocyte nuclear envelope abnormalities, while the p.Q353K and p.R541S mutations were found in patients without specific nuclear envelope abnormalities. None of the DCM patients included in the study carried a mutation in the TMPO gene. Taken together, we found no evidence of a genotype–phenotype relationship between the onset and the severity of DCM, the presence of nuclear abnormalities and the presence or absence of LMNA mutations. We demonstrated that a large deletion in LMNA associated with reduced levels of the protein in the nuclear envelope suggesting a haploinsufficiency mechanism can lead to cardiomyocyte nuclear envelope disruption and thus underlie the pathogenesis of DCM.
PMID: 20127487 CAMSID: cams3909
Lamin A/C; Thymopoietin; Mutation; Dilated cardiomyopathy; Cardiomyocyte; Nucleus ultrastructure
Interrupting myocardial reperfusion with intermittent episodes of ischemia (i.e., postconditioning) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) has been suggested to protect myocardium in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Nevertheless, trials provide inconsistent results and any advantage in long-term outcomes remains elusive. Using a retrospective study design, we evaluated the impact of balloon inflations during PPCI on enzymatic infarct size (IS) and long-term outcomes. We included 634 first-time STEMI patients undergoing PPCI with an occluded infarct-related artery and adequate reperfusion thereafter and divided these into: patients receiving 1–3 inflations in the infarct-related artery [considered minimum for patency/stent placement (controls); n = 398] versus ≥4 [average cycles in clinical protocols (postconditioning analogue); n = 236]. IS, assessed by peak creatine kinase, was lower in the postconditioning analogue group compared with controls [median (interquartile range) 1,287 (770–2,498) vs. 1,626 (811–3,057) UI/L; p = 0.02], corresponding to a 21 % IS reduction. This effect may be more pronounced in women, patients without diabetes/hypercholesterolemia, patients presenting within 3–6 h or with first balloon re-occlusion ≤1 min. No differences were observed in 4-year mortality or MACCE between groups. Four or more inflations during PPCI reduced enzymatic IS in STEMI patients under well-defined conditions, but did not translate into improved long-term outcomes in the present study. Large-scale randomized trials following strict postconditioning protocols are needed to clarify this effect.
Postconditioning; Primary percutaneous coronary intervention; Reperfusion injury; ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and (Cys-18)-atrial natriuretic factor (4–23) amide (C-ANF), are cytoprotective under conditions of ischemia–reperfusion, limiting infarct size. ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) opening is also cardioprotective, and although the KATP activation is implicated in the regulation of cardiac natriuretic peptide release, no studies have directly examined the effects of natriuretic peptides on cardiac KATP activity. Normoxic cardiomyocytes were patch clamped in the cell-attached configuration to examine sarcolemmal KATP (sKATP) activity. The KATP opener pinacidil (200 μM) increased the open probability of the patch (NPo; values normalized to control) at least twofold above basal value, and this effect was abolished by HMR1098 10 μM, a selective KATP blocker (5.23 ± 1.20 versus 0.89 ± 0.18; P < 0.001). We then examined the effects of BNP, CNP, C-ANF and 8Br-cGMP on the sKATP current. Bath application of BNP (≥10 nM) or CNP (≥0.01 nM) suppressed basal NPo (BNP: 1.00 versus 0.56 ± 0.09 at 10 nM, P < 0.001; CNP: 1.0 versus 0.45 ± 0.16, at 0.01 nM, P < 0.05) and also abolished the pinacidil-activated current at concentrations ≥10 nM. C-ANF (≥10 nM) enhanced KATP activity (1.00 versus 3.85 ± 1.13, at 100 nM, P < 0.05). The cGMP analog 8Br-cGMP 10 nM dampened the pinacidil-activated current (2.92 ± 0.60 versus 1.53 ± 0.32; P < 0.05). Natriuretic peptides modulate sKATP current in ventricular cardiomyocytes. This may be at least partially associated with their ability to augment intracellular cGMP concentrations via NPR-A/B, or their ability to bind NPR-C with high affinity. Although the mechanism of modulation requires elucidation, these preliminary data give new insights into the relationship between natriuretic peptide signaling and sKATP in the myocardium.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00395-014-0402-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Natriuretic peptides; Cardiomyocytes; Electrophysiology; Ion channels
Myocyte apoptosis is considered a major mechanism in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Accordingly, manipulations that inhibit apoptosis are assumed to preserve cardiac function by maintaining myocyte numbers. We tested this assumption by examining the effects of caspase inhibition (CI) on cardiac structure and function in C57BL/6 mouse with pressure overload model induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). CI preserved left ventricular (LV) function following TAC compared with the vehicle. TAC increased apoptosis in non-myocytes more than in myocytes and these increases were blunted more in non-myocytes by CI. Total myocyte number, however, did not differ significantly among control and TAC groups and there was no correlation between myocyte number and apoptosis, but there was a strong correlation between myocyte number and an index of myocyte proliferation, Ki67-positive myocytes. Despite comparable pressure gradients, LV hypertrophy was less in the CI group, likely attributable to decreased wall stress. Since changes in myocyte numbers did not account for protection from TAC, several other CI-mediated mechanisms were identified including: (a) lessening of TAC-induced fibrosis, (b) augmentation of isolated myocyte contractility, and (c) increased angiogenesis and Ki67-positive myocytes, which were due almost entirely to the non-myocyte apoptosis, but not myocyte apoptosis, with CI. CI maintained LV function following TAC not by protecting against myocyte loss, but rather by augmenting myocyte contractile function, myocyte proliferation, and angiogenesis resulting in reduced LV wall stress, hypertrophy, and fibrosis.
Apoptosis inhibition; Cardiac hypertrophy; Fibrosis; Angiogenesis; Myogenesis
This study aimed to analyze the role of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-derived angiogenic factors and chemokines in the multistep process driving angiogenesis with a focus on the recently discovered macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)/chemokine receptor axis. Primary murine and murine embryonic EPCs (eEPCs) were analyzed for the expression of angiogenic/chemokines and components of the MIF/CXC chemokine receptor axis, focusing on the influence of hypoxic versus normoxic stimulation. Hypoxia induced an upregulation of CXCR2 and CXCR4 but not CD74 on EPCs and triggered the secretion of CXCL12, CXCL1, MIF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These factors stimulated the transmigration activity and adhesive capacity of EPCs, with MIF and VEGF exhibiting the strongest effects under hypoxia. MIF-, VEGF-, CXCL12-, and CXCL1-stimulated EPCs enhanced tube formation, with MIF and VEGF exhibiting again the strongest effect following hypoxia. Tube formation following in vivo implantation utilizing angiogenic factor-loaded Matrigel plugs was only promoted by VEGF. Coloading of plugs with eEPCs led to enhanced tube formation only by CXCL12, whereas MIF was the only factor which induced differentiation towards an endothelial and smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype, indicating an angiogenic and differentiation capacity in vivo. Surprisingly, CXCL12, a chemoattractant for smooth muscle progenitor cells, inhibited SMC differentiation. We have identified a role for EPC-derived proangiogenic MIF, VEGF and MIF receptors in EPC recruitment following hypoxia, EPC differentiation and subsequent tube and vessel formation, whereas CXCL12, a mediator of early EPC recruitment, does not contribute to the remodeling process. By discerning the contributions of key angiogenic chemokines and EPCs, these findings offer valuable mechanistic insight into mouse models of angiogenesis and help to define the intricate interplay between EPC-derived angiogenic cargo factors, EPCs, and the angiogenic target tissue.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF); angiogenesis; hypoxia; embryonic endothelial progenitor cell (eEPC); chemokine; CXC
Sirt3 is a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase that governs mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. Sirt3 deficiency has been reported to accelerate the development of the metabolic syndrome. However, the role of Sirt3 in atherosclerosis remains enigmatic. We aimed to investigate whether Sirt3 deficiency affects atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability, and metabolic homeostasis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) and LDLR/Sirt3 double-knockout (Sirt3−/−LDLR−/−) mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet (1.25 % w/w) for 12 weeks. Atherosclerosis was assessed en face in thoraco-abdominal aortae and in cross sections of aortic roots. Sirt3 deletion led to hepatic mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation. Unexpectedly, though plasma malondialdehyde levels were elevated in Sirt3-deficient mice, Sirt3 deletion affected neither plaque burden nor features of plaque vulnerability (i.e., fibrous cap thickness and necrotic core diameter). Likewise, plaque macrophage and T cell infiltration as well as endothelial activation remained unaltered. Electron microscopy of aortic walls revealed no difference in mitochondrial microarchitecture between both groups. Interestingly, loss of Sirt3 was associated with accelerated weight gain and an impaired capacity to cope with rapid changes in nutrient supply as assessed by indirect calorimetry. Serum lipid levels and glucose tolerance were unaffected by Sirt3 deletion in LDLR−/− mice. Sirt3 deficiency does not affect atherosclerosis in LDLR−/− mice. However, Sirt3 controls systemic levels of oxidative stress, limits expedited weight gain, and allows rapid metabolic adaptation. Thus, Sirt3 may contribute to postponing cardiovascular risk factor development.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00395-013-0399-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
SIRTUIN 3; Atherosclerosis; Metabolism; Oxidative stress
The mechanisms that are responsible for the development of myocardial fibrosis in the inflammatory cardiomyopathy are unknown. Previously we have generated lines of transgenic mice with cardiac restricted overexpression of tumor necrosis factor (MHCsTNF mice), a pro-inflammatory cytokine. The MHCsTNF mice develop a heart failure phenotype that is characterized by progressive myocardial fibrosis, as well as increase levels transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA and protein. In order to determine whether TGF-β mediated signaling was responsible for the myocardial fibrosis observed in the MHCsTNF mice, we treated MHCsTNF and littermate control mice from 4 to 12 weeks of age with a novel orally available TGF-β receptor antagonist (NP-40208). At the time of terminal study myocardial collagen content was determined using the picrosirius red technique, and LV systolic and diastolic function were determined using the Langendorff method. Treatment with NP-40208 resulted in a significant decrease in the nuclear translocation of Smad 2/3, a decrease in heart-weight to body-weight ratio, decreased fibrillar collagen content and decreased LV chamber stiffness in the MHCsTNF mice when compared to diluent treated controls. Treatment with NP-40208 had no discernable effect on LV systolic function, nor any effect on fetal gene expression in the MHCsTNF mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that sustained pro-inflammatory signaling in the adult heart is associated with a pro-fibrotic phenotype that arises, at least in part, from TGF-β mediated signaling, with resultant activation of Smad 2/3, leading to increased myocardial fibrosis and increased LV diastolic chamber stiffness.
Tumor necrosis factor; transforming growth factor; myocardial fibrosis; transgenesi
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (NOS3) plays a central role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Subsets of circulating blood cells, including red blood cells (RBCs), carry a NOS3 and contribute to blood pressure regulation and RBC nitrite/nitrate formation. We hypothesized that the circulating blood born NOS3 also modulates the severity of myocardial infarction in disease models. We cross-transplanted bone marrow in wild-type and NOS3−/− mice with wild-type mice, producing chimeras expressing NOS3 only in vascular endothelium (BC−/EC+) or in both blood cells and vascular endothelium (BC+/EC+). After 60-min closed-chest coronary occlusion followed by 24 h reperfusion, cardiac function, infarct size (IS), NOx levels, RBCs NO formation, RBC deformability, and vascular reactivity were assessed. At baseline, BC−/EC+ chimera had lower nitrite levels in blood plasma (BC−/EC+: 2.13 ± 0.27 μM vs. BC+/EC+ 3.17 ± 0.29 μM; *p < 0.05), reduced DAF FM associated fluorescence within RBCs (BC−/EC+: 538.4 ± 12.8 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) vs. BC+/EC+: 619.6 ± 6.9 MFI; ***p < 0.001) and impaired erythrocyte deformability (BC−/EC+: 0.33 ± 0.01 elongation index (EI) vs. BC+/EC+: 0.36 ± 0.06 EI; *p < 0.05), while vascular reactivity remained unaffected. Area at risk did not differ, but infarct size was higher in BC−/EC+ (BC−/EC+: 26 ± 3 %; BC+/EC+: 14 ± 2 %; **p < 0.01), resulting in decreased ejection fraction (BC−/EC+ 46 ± 2 % vs. BC+/EC+: 52 ± 2 %; *p < 0.05) and increased end-systolic volume. Application of the NOS inhibitor S-ethylisothiourea hydrobromide was associated with larger infarct size in BC+/EC+, whereas infarct size in BC−/EC+ mice remained unaffected. Reduced infarct size, preserved cardiac function, NO levels in RBC and RBC deformability suggest a modulating role of circulating NOS3 in an acute model of myocardial I/R in chimeric mice.
Electronic supplementary material
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Nitric oxide; Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion; Circulating NOS3
Conventionally, ischemic heart disease (IHD) is equated with large vessel coronary disease. However, recent evidence has suggested a role of compromised microvascular regulation in the etiology of IHD. Because regulation of coronary blood flow likely involves activity of specific ion channels, and key factors involved in endothelium-dependent dilation, we proposed that genetic anomalies of ion channels or specific endothelial regulators may underlie coronary microvascular disease. We aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding for ion channels expressed in the coronary vasculature and the possible correlation with IHD resulting from microvascular dysfunction. 242 consecutive patients who were candidates for coronary angiography were enrolled. A prospective, observational, single-center study was conducted, analyzing genetic polymorphisms relative to (1) NOS3 encoding for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS); (2) ATP2A2 encoding for the Ca2+/H+-ATPase pump (SERCA); (3) SCN5A encoding for the voltage-dependent Na+ channel (Nav1.5); (4) KCNJ8 and KCNJ11 encoding for the Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunits of K-ATP channels, respectively; and (5) KCN5A encoding for the voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv1.5). No significant associations between clinical IHD manifestations and polymorphisms for SERCA, Kir6.1, and Kv1.5 were observed (p > 0.05), whereas specific polymorphisms detected in eNOS, as well as in Kir6.2 and Nav1.5 were found to be correlated with IHD and microvascular dysfunction. Interestingly, genetic polymorphisms for ion channels seem to have an important clinical impact influencing the susceptibility for microvascular dysfunction and IHD, independent of the presence of classic cardiovascular risk factors.
Ion channels; Genetic polymorphisms; Coronary microcirculation; Endothelium; Atherosclerosis; Ischemic heart disease
Ionizing radiation (IR) is an integral part of modern multimodal anti-cancer therapies. IR involves the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in targeted tissues. This is associated with subsequent cardiac dysfunction when applied during chest radiotherapy. We hypothesized that IR (i.e., ROS)-dependently impaired cardiac myocytes’ Ca handling might contribute to IR-dependent cardiocellular dysfunction. Isolated ventricular mouse myocytes and the mediastinal area of anaesthetized mice (that included the heart) were exposed to graded doses of irradiation (sham 4 and 20 Gy) and investigated acutely (after ~1 h) as well as chronically (after ~1 week). IR induced a dose-dependent effect on myocytes’ systolic function with acutely increased, but chronically decreased Ca transient amplitudes, which was associated with an acutely unaltered but chronically decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load. Likewise, in vivo echocardiography of anaesthetized mice revealed acutely enhanced left ventricular contractility (strain analysis) that declined after 1 week. Irradiated myocytes showed persistently increased diastolic SR Ca leakage, which was acutely compensated by an increase in SR Ca reuptake. This was reversed in the chronic setting in the face of slowed relaxation kinetics. As underlying cause, acutely increased ROS levels were identified to activate Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Accordingly, CaMKII-, but not PKA-dependent phosphorylation sites of the SR Ca release channels (RyR2, at Ser-2814) and phospholamban (at Thr-17) were found to be hyperphosphorylated following IR. Conversely, ROS-scavenging as well as CaMKII-inhibition significantly attenuated CaMKII-activation, disturbed Ca handling, and subsequent cellular dysfunction upon irradiation. Targeted cardiac irradiation induces a biphasic effect on cardiac myocytes Ca handling that is associated with chronic cardiocellular dysfunction. This appears to be mediated by increased oxidative stress and persistently activated CaMKII. Our findings suggest impaired cardiac myocytes Ca handling as a so far unknown mediator of IR-dependent cardiac damage that might be of relevance for radiation-induced cardiac dysfunction.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00395-013-0385-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Irradiation; Excitation–contraction coupling; Calcium; Free radicals; CaMKII
To determine whether the myocardial response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury varies depending on genetic background, gender, age, body temperature, and arterial blood pH, we studied 1074 mice from 19 strains (including 129S6/SvEvTac (129S6), B6/129P2-Ptgs2tm1Unc, B6/129SvF2/J, B6/129/D2, B6/CBAF1, B6/DBA/1JNcr, BALB/c, BPH2/J, C57BL/6/J (B6/J), C3H/DBA, C3H/FB/FF, C3H/HeJ-Pde6brd1, FVB/N/J [FVB/N], FVB/B6, FVB/ICR and Crl:ICR/H [ICR]) and distributed them into 69 groups depending on strain and: (i) two phases of ischemic preconditioning (PC); (ii) coronary artery occlusion (O) time; (iii) gender; (iv) age; (v) blood transfusion; (vi) core body temperature; and (vii) arterial blood pH. Mice underwent O either without (non-preconditioned [naïve]) or with prior cyclic O/reperfusion (R) (PC stimulus) consisting of six 4-min O/4-min R cycles 10 min (early PC, EPC) or 24 h (late PC, LPC) prior to 30 or 45-min O and 24 h R. In B6/J and B6/129/D2 mice, almost the entire risk region was infarcted after a 60-min O. Of the naïve mouse hearts, B6/ecSODWT and FVB/N mice had infarct sizes significantly smaller than those of the other mice. All strains except FVB/N benefited from the cardioprotection afforded by the early phase of PC; in contrast, development of LPC was inconsistent amongst groups and was strain-dependent. Female gender (i) was associated with reduced infarct size in ICR mice, (ii) determined whether LPC developed in ICR mice, and (iii) limited the protection afforded by EPC in 129S6 mice. Importantly, mild hypothermia (1 °C decrease in core temperature) and mild acidosis (0.18 decrease in blood pH) resulted in a striking cardioprotective effect in ICR mice: 67.5% and 43.0% decrease in infarct size, respectively. Replacing blood losses with crystalloid fluids (instead of blood) during surgery also reduced infarct size. To our knowledge, this is the largest analysis of the determinants of infarct size in mice ever published. The results demonstrate that genetic background, gender, age (but not in ICR), body temperature and arterial blood pH have a major impact on infarct size, and thus need to be carefully measured and/or taken into account when designing a study of myocardial infarction in mice; failure to do so makes results uninterpretable. For example, core temperature and blood pH need to be measured, respiratory acidosis (or alkalosis) and hypothermia (or hyperthermia) must be avoided, and comparisons cannot be made between mouse strains or genders that exhibit different susceptibility to I/R injury (e.g., FVB/N male mice and ICR female mice are inherently protected against I/R injury).
myocardial infarction; cardioprotection; ischemia/reperfusion injury; strain; gender; age; blood transfusion; core body temperature; pH
Although the murine late pregnant (LP) heart is speculated to be a better functioning heart during physiological conditions, the susceptibility of LP hearts to I/R injury is still unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the cardiac vulnerability of LP rodents to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and to explore its underlying mechanisms. In-vivo female rat hearts (non-pregnant (NP) or LP) or ex-vivo Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were subjected to I/R.. The infarct size was ~4-fold larger in LP animals compared to NP both in-vivo and ex-vivo. The heart functional recovery was extremely poor in LP mice compared to NP (~10% recovery in LP vs. 80% recovery in NP at the end of reperfusion, P < 0.01). Interestingly, the poor functional recovery and the larger infarct size in LP were partially restored one day post-partum and almost fully restored one week post-partum to their corresponding NP levels. Mitochondrial respiratory function and the threshold for opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore were significantly lower in LP compared to NP when they both were subjected to myocardial I/R injury (Respiratory control ratio=1.9±0.1 vs. 4.0±0.5 in NP, P<0.05; calcium retention capacity(CRC)=167±10 vs. 233±18 nmol/mg protein in NP, P<0.01). Cardiac ROS generation, as well mitochondrial superoxide production, were ~2-fold higher in LP compared to NP following I/R. The phosphorylation levels of Akt, ERK1/2 and STAT3, but not GSK3β, were significantly reduced in the hearts from LP subjected to I/R. In conclusion, increased mitochondrial ROS generation, decreased CRC as well as impaired activation of Akt/ERK/STAT3 at reperfusion are the possible underlying mechanisms for higher vulnerability of LP hearts to I/R.
Pregnancy; ischemia/reperfusion; heart hypertrophy; mPTP; ROS
The activity of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor-1 (I-1) is antithetically modulated by the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+-protein kinase C (PKC) signaling axes. β-adrenergic (β-AR) stimulation results in PKA-phosphorylation of I-1 at threonine 35 (Thr35) and depressed PP1 activity, while PKC phosphorylation at serine 67 (Ser67) and/or Thr75 increases PP1 activity. In heart failure, pThr35 is decreased while pSer67 and pThr75 are elevated. However, the role of Ser67/Thr75 phosphorylation in vivo and its effects on Ca2+-cycling are not known. Thus, our aim was to investigate the functional significance of Ser67 and Thr75 phosphorylation in intact hearts. We generated transgenic mice (TG) with cardiac-specific overexpression of constitutively phosphorylated I-1 at Ser67 and Thr75 (S67D/T75D) and evaluated cardiac function. The S67D/T75D cardiomyocytes exhibited significantly depressed Ca2+-kinetics and contractile parameters, compared with wild-type (WT) cells. The decreased Ca2+-cycling was associated with a 27 % increase in PP1 activity, no alterations in PP2 activity and impaired phosphorylation of myosin-binding protein-C (MyBPC). Upon aging, there was cardiac remodeling associated with increases in systolic and diastolic left ventricular internal diameter dimensions (at 16 months), compared with WTs. The results indicate that phosphorylation of I-1 at Ser67 and Thr75 is associated with increased PP1 activity and depressed cardiomyocyte Ca2+-cycling, which manifests in geometrical alterations over the long term. Thus, hyper-phosphorylation of these sites in failing hearts may contribute to deteriorative remodeling.
Protein phosphatase 1; Inhibitor-1; Calcium cycling; Cardiac function
The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-conditioning with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) may change cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-dependent inflammation and modulates infarct size and cardiac performance. WT and TLR9-deficient mice were pre-treated with 1668-, 1612- and H154-thioate or D-Gal as control. Priming with 1668-thioate significantly induced inflammatory mediators in the serum and a concomitant increase of immune cells in the blood and spleen of WT mice. Furthermore, it induced myocardial pattern recognition receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines peaking 2 h after priming and a continuous increase of IL-10. 16 h after pre-conditioning, myocardial ischemia was induced for 1 h. Infarct size determined after 24 h of I/R was reduced by 75 % due to pre-conditioning with 1668-thioate but not in the other groups. During reperfusion, cytokine expression in 1668-thioate primed mice increased further with IL-10 exceeding the other mediators by far. These changes were observed neither in animals pre-treated with 1612- or H154-thioate nor in TLR9-deficient mice. The 1668-thioate-dependent increase of IL-10 was further supported by results of a micro-array analysis 3 h after begin of reperfusion. Block of IL-10 signaling increased I/R size and prevented influence of priming. In the group pre-treated with 1668-thioate, cardiac function was preserved 24 h, 14 days and 28 days after I/R, whereas animals without pre-conditioning exhibited impaired heart function 24 h and 14 days after I/R. The excessive 1668-thioate-dependent IL-10 up-regulation during pre-conditioning and after I/R seems to be the key factor for reducing infarct size and improving cardiac function. This is in agreement with the finding that IL-10 block prevents cardioprotection by pre-conditioning.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00395-013-0376-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Preconditioning; CpG-ODN; Ischemia/reperfusion; Heart; TLR9; IL-10
The mechanisms responsible for coronary pressure-flow autoregulation, a critical physiologic phenomenon that maintains coronary blood flow relatively constant in the presence of changes in perfusion pressure, remain poorly understood. This investigation tested the hypothesis that voltage-sensitive K+ (KV) and Ca2+ (CaV1.2) channels play a critical role in coronary pressure-flow autoregulation in vivo. Experiments were performed in open-chest, anesthetized Ossabaw swine during step changes in coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) from 40 to 140 mmHg before and during inhibition of KV channels with 4-aminopyridine (4AP, 0.3 mM, ic) or CaV1.2 channels with diltiazem (10 μg/min, ic). 4AP significantly decreased vasodilatory responses to H2O2 (0.3–10 μM, ic) and coronary flow at CPPs = 60–140 mmHg. This decrease in coronary flow was associated with diminished ventricular contractile function (dP/dT) and myocardial oxygen consumption. However, the overall sensitivity to changes in CPP from 60 to 100 mmHg (i.e. autoregulatory gain; Gc) was unaltered by 4-AP administration (Gc = 0.46 ± 0.11 control vs. 0.46 ± 0.06 4-AP). In contrast, inhibition of CaV1.2 channels progressively increased coronary blood flow at CPPs > 80 mmHg and substantially diminished coronary Gc to −0.20 ± 0.11 (P < 0.01), with no effect on contractile function or oxygen consumption. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that (1) KV channels tonically contribute to the control of microvascular resistance over a wide range of CPPs, but do not contribute to coronary responses to changes in pressure; (2) progressive activation of CaV1.2 channels with increases in CPP represents a critical mechanism of coronary pressure-flow autoregulation.
Autoregulation; Coronary blood flow; Potassium channel; Calcium channel; Swine
Although NO donors have been shown to confer late preconditioning (PC) against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in healthy rabbits, it is unknown whether concurrent systemic disorders affect NO donor-induced cardioprotection. Since many patients with coronary artery disease have hypercholesterolemia (HC), we examined the effect of this condition on late PC induced by the NO donor diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide (DETA/NO). Chronically instrumented rabbits were fed a normal diet (normocholesterolemia, NC) or a diet enriched with 1% cholesterol (HC) for 4 weeks. Plasma cholesterol levels were significantly elevated and the arterial pressure response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator bradykinin was blunted in cholesterol diet-fed rabbits. Conscious rabbits underwent a 30-minute coronary occlusion followed by 3 days of reperfusion. When NC rabbits were pretreated with DETA/NO (0.1 mg/kg, i.v. × 4, group II, n = 7) 24 hours before the 30-minute occlusion, infarct size was reduced by 52% (29.7 ± 3.4% versus 62.4 ± 4.0% of the region at risk in NC controls [group I, n = 5], P < 0.05), indicating that DETA/NO induced a late PC effect against myocardial infarction. In contrast, when HC rabbits were pretreated with the same dose of DETA/NO (group IV, n = 6), infarct size was not significantly reduced (61.0 ± 5.7% versus 68.1 ± 4.5% of the region at risk in HC [group III, n = 5], P = NS), suggesting that DETA/NO failed to induce a delayed cardioprotective effect. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that HC blunts NO donor-induced late PC against myocardial infarction, implying that the inhibitory effects of HC on ischemia-induced and NO donor-induced late PC are caused by disruption of biochemical pathways distal to the generation of NO that triggers these adaptations.
Myocardial ischemia; myocardial reperfusion; diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide; NO donor
Ischemic preconditioning (PC) occurs in two phases: an early phase, which lasts 2–3 h, and a late phase, which begins 12–24 h later and lasts 3–4 days. The mechanism for the late phase of PC has been the focus of intense investigation. We have recently proposed the “NO hypothesis of late PC”, which postulates that NO plays a prominent role both in initiating and in mediating this cardioprotective response. The purpose of this essay is to review the evidence supporting the NO hypothesis of late PC and to discuss its implications. We propose that, on day 1, a brief ischemic stress causes increased production of NO (probably via eNOS) and •O2−, which then react to form ONOO−. ONOO− , in turn, activates the ε isoform of protein kinase C (PKC), either directly or via its reactive byproducts such as •OH. Both NO and secondary species derived from •O2− could also stimulate PKC ε independently. PKC ε activation triggers a complex signaling cascade that involves tyrosine kinases (among which Src and Lck appear to be involved) and probably other kinases, the transcription factor NF-κB, and most likely other as yet unknown components, resulting in increased transcription of the iNOS gene and increased iNOS activity on day 2, which is responsible for the protection during the second ischemic challenge. Tyrosine kinases also appear to be involved on day 2, possibly by modulating iNOS activity. According to this paradigm, NO plays two completely different roles in late PC: on day 1, it initiates the development of this response, whereas on day 2, it protects against myocardial ischemia. We propose that two different NOS isoforms are sequentially involved in late PC, with eNOS generating the NO that initiates the development of the PC response on day 1 and iNOS then generating the NO that protects against recurrent ischemia on day 2. The NO hypothesis of late PC puts forth a comprehensive paradigm that can explain both the initiation and the mediation of this complex phenomenon. Besides its pathophysiological implications, this hypothesis has potential clinical reverberations, since NO donors (i.e., nitrates) are widely used clinically and could be used to protect the ischemic myocardium in patients.
Ischemic preconditioning; nitric oxide; reactive oxygen species; protein kinase C; nuclear factor kappa B; tyrosine kinase