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1.  Newborn Screening for SCID Identifies Patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(3):540-549.
Purpose
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by failure of T lymphocyte development and absent or very low T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), DNA byproducts of T cell maturation. Newborn screening for TRECs to identify SCID is now performed in several states using PCR of DNA from universally collected dried blood spots (DBS). In addition to infants with typical SCID, TREC screening identifies infants with T lymphocytopenia who appear healthy and in whom a SCID diagnosis cannot be confirmed. Deep sequencing was employed to find causes of T lymphocytopenia in such infants.
Methods
Whole exome sequencing and analysis were performed in infants and their parents. Upon finding deleterious mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, we confirmed the diagnosis of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) in two infants and then tested archival newborn DBS of additional AT patients for TREC copy number.
Results
Exome sequencing and analysis led to 2 unsuspected gene diagnoses of AT. Of 13 older AT patients for whom newborn DBS had been stored, 7 samples tested positive for SCID under the criteria of California’s newborn screening program. AT children with low neonatal TRECs had low CD4 T cell counts subsequently detected (R=0.64).
Conclusions
T lymphocytopenia in newborns can be a feature of AT, as revealed by TREC screening and exome sequencing. Although there is no current cure for the progressive neurological impairment of AT, early detection permits avoidance of infectious complications, while providing information for families regarding reproductive recurrence risks and increased cancer risks in patients and carriers.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9846-1
PMCID: PMC3591536  PMID: 23264026
ataxia telangiectasia; SCID; newborn screening; TREC; whole exome sequencing
2.  Tofacitinib, a janus kinase inhibitor demonstrates efficacy in an IL-15 transgenic mouse model that recapitulates pathologic manifestations of celiac disease 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(3):586-594.
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the small intestines with a defined genetic etiological component associated with the expression of HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 haplotypes. The dietary consumption of gluten-rich cereals triggers a gluten-specific immune response in genetically susceptible individuals leading to a spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from an inapparent subclinical disease, to overt enteropathy that can in some individuals progress to enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL). The tissue-destructive pathologic process of CD is driven by activated NK-like intraepithelial CD8+ lymphocytes and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-15 has emerged to be pivotal in orchestrating this perpetual tissue destruction and inflammation. Moreover, transgenic mice that over-express human IL-15 from an enterocyte-specific promoter (T3b-hIL-15 Tg) recapitulate many of the disease-defining T and B cell-mediated pathologic features of CD, further supporting the evolving consensus that IL-15 represents a valuable target in devising therapeutic interventions against the form of the disease that is especially refractory to gluten-free diet. In the present study, we evaluated the potential efficacy of tofacitinib, a pan-JAK inhibitor that abrogates IL-15 signaling, as a therapeutic modality against CD using T3b-hIL-15 Tg mice. We demonstrate that tofacitinib therapy leads to a lasting reversal of pathologic manifestations in the treated mice, thereby highlighting the potential value of tofacitininb as a therapeutic modality against refractory CD for which no effective therapy exists currently. Additionally, the visceral adiposity observed in the tofacitinib-treated mice underscores the importance of continued evaluation of the drug's impact on the lipid metabolism.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9849-y
PMCID: PMC3594487  PMID: 23269601
3.  Major Hepatectomy Induces Phenotypic Changes in Circulating Dendritic Cells and Monocytes 
Journal of clinical immunology  2009;29(5):568-581.
Patients undergoing major hepatectomy are at increased risk for post-operative morbidity and mortality, and changes in the phenotype of effector cells may predispose these patients to infectious sequelae. To better understand post-hepatectomy immune responses, peripheral blood from fifteen hepatectomy patients was drawn immediately before and after liver resection and on post-operative days one, three and five. Circulating monocytes and dendritic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for quantity, phenotype, activation status, HLA-DR expression, and toll-like receptor-2 and 4 expression. Major hepatectomy increased the numbers of activated CD16bright blood monocytes and the percentage of activated dendritic cells, although monocyte HLA-DR expression was reduced. These results may represent both dysfunctional antigen presentation and pending anergy, as well as cellular priming of immune effector cells. Better understanding of the alterations in innate immunity induced by hepatectomy may identify strategies to reduce infectious outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s10875-009-9291-y
PMCID: PMC3971576  PMID: 19387804
inflammation; dendritic cell maturation; monocyte activation; hepatectomy; innate immunity
4.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen 85A Induces Th-1 Immune Responses in Systemic Sarcoidosis 
Journal of clinical immunology  2007;27(4):445-454.
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by a Th-1 immunophenotype. Although humoral immune responses by sarcoidosis subjects to mycobacterial proteins have been detected, mycobacterial antigens capable of inducing cellular immune responses in sarcoidosis subjects have not been reported. We used the enzyme-linked immunospot assay to assess for recognition of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolyl transferase, Antigen 85A, by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 25 sarcoidosis subjects, 22 PPD− (purified protein derivative) healthy volunteers, and 16 PPD+ healthy subjects. Reactivity to Ag85A whole protein was observed in 15 of 25 sarcoidosis subjects compared to 2 of 22 PPD− subjects (p = 0.0006, Fisher’s exact test) and to 14 of 16 PPD+ subjects (p = 0.084, Fisher’s exact test). Monoclonal antibody against HLA-DR inhibited recognition. In addition to immune recognition of Ag85A whole protein, peptide-mapping studies identified four immunogenic Ag85A peptides, which induced Th-1 immune responses in individual sarcoidosis subjects, suggesting that multiple epitopes from a mycobacterial protein may have a role in sarcoidosis immunopathogenesis.
doi:10.1007/s10875-007-9080-4
PMCID: PMC3962023  PMID: 17357846
Sarcoidosis; mycobacteria; antigen; Th-1 immunophenotype
5.  A Novel Missense Mutation in the Nuclear Factor-κB Essential Modulator (NEMO) Gene Resulting in Impaired Activation of the NF-κB Pathway and a Unique Clinical Phenotype Presenting as MRSA Subdural Empyema 
Journal of clinical immunology  2010;30(6):881-885.
Introduction
We describe a previously unreported 437 T→G missense mutation producing a V146G substitution in the first coiled-coil (CC1) domain of nuclear factor-κB essential modulator (NEMO) in a 9-month-old boy with ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency who presented with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus subdural empyema. We performed in vitro experiments to determine if this novel mutation resulted in impaired NF-κB signaling.
Methods
IκBα phosphorylation experiments were performed using a Jurkat T cell line lacking endogenous NEMO expression that was transfected with vectors containing either the wild type or the patient’s V146G mutation. The cells were stimulated with TNF-α to activate the NF-κB pathway. Phosphorylated IκBα was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-IκBα antibodies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patient were stimulated with TNF-α or anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. Impaired IκBα degradation was detected using antibodies against the IκBα protein.
Results
While TNF-α stimulation resulted in IκBα phosphorylation in NEMO-deficient Jurkat cells reconstituted with wild-type NEMO, cell transfected with the V146G mutant exhibited a 75% reduction in phospho-IκBα. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patient showed impaired degradation of IκBα after stimulation when compared with normal controls.
Conclusions
The patient’s V146G mutation results in impaired NF-κB activation in vitro. The mutation extends the known N-terminal boundary within the CC1 domain that produces an ectodermal dysplasia phenotype, and defines an infectious susceptibility previously unappreciated in ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (methicillin-resistant S. aureus subdural empyema), broadening the clinical spectrum associated with the disease.
doi:10.1007/s10875-010-9445-y
PMCID: PMC3951109  PMID: 20652730
NEMO; immunodeficiency; ectodermal; dysplasia; mutation; MRSA
6.  Efficacy and Safety of IgPro20, a Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin, in Japanese Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases 
Purpose
Intravenous (IVIG) and subcutaneous (SCIG) immunoglobulin infusions are widely used for the treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) worldwide. This prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm Phase III study evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of IgPro20 (Hizentra®; L-proline–stabilized 20 % human SCIG) in adult and pediatric Japanese patients with PID.
Methods
Patients received three IVIG infusions at 3–4-week intervals followed by a dose-equivalent switch to weekly SCIG infusions. A 12-week wash-in/wash-out period was followed by a 12-week SCIG efficacy period. The primary efficacy endpoint was the comparison of total serum IgG trough levels during the IVIG and SCIG efficacy periods by calculating the geometric mean ratio (GMR).
Results
The GMR of IgG trough levels on SCIG versus IVIG was 1.09 (2-sided 90 % confidence interval: 1.06–1.13). No serious bacterial infections were reported. Eleven patients (52.4 %) had infectious episodes with an overall rate of 2.98 infections/patient/year; 7 patients (33.3 %) missed school/work/daycare due to infection (3.48 days/patient/year). Sixteen patients (76.2 %) were treated with antibiotics for an adverse event (AE; 47.6 %) or prophylaxis (23.8 %), resulting in 167.42 days/patient/year of antibiotic use. During SCIG treatment, 24 patients (96.0 %) had 269 AEs (0.461 AEs per/infusion) including local reactions as the most common AE (20 patients, 80.0 %). Local tolerability of IgPro20 was assessed as “very good” or “good” after 85.4 % of SCIG infusions. One patient (4.0 %) experienced a serious AE of moderate severity (bacterial infection) that was considered unrelated to study medication.
Conclusion
IgPro20 was effective and well tolerated in Japanese patients with PID.
doi:10.1007/s10875-013-9985-z
PMCID: PMC3937544  PMID: 24504846
Primary immunodeficiency; PID; primary antibody deficiency; SCIG; Hizentra®; IgPro20; Japan
7.  Rituximab-Treated Patients Have a Poor Response to Influenza Vaccination* 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(2):388-396.
The efficacy of influenza vaccination in patients treated with rituximab is a clinically important question. Rheumatology clinics are populated with patients receiving rituximab for a broad array of disorders. Although several studies have explored the efficacy of other vaccines in rituximab-treated populations, results have been conflicting. We wished to define influenza vaccine efficacy in a rituximab-treated cohort. We examined 17 evaluable subjects treated with rituximab for rheumatologic conditions. T cell subsets, B cells subsets, T cell function, and B cell function were evaluated at specific time points along with hemagglutinination inhibition titers after receiving the standard inactivated influenza vaccine. T cell subset counts were significantly different than controls but did not change with rituximab. B cells depleted in all patients but were in various stages of recovery at the time of vaccination. Influenza vaccine responsiveness was poor overall, with only 16% of subjects having a four-fold increase in titer. Pre-existing titers were retained throughout the study, however. The ability to respond to the influenza vaccine appeared to be related to the degree of B cell recovery at the time of vaccination. This study emphasizes that antibody responses to vaccine are impaired in subjects treated with rituximab and supports the concept that B cell recovery influences influenza vaccine responsiveness.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9813-x
PMCID: PMC3565069  PMID: 23064976
Rituxmab; influenza; antibody; HAI titer; B cell
8.  Immunomodulatory effect of vancomycin on Treg in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(2):397-406.
Vancomycin has been shown to affect tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathways as an immunomodulator; this is thought to be separate from its function as an antibiotic [1]. Previous studies have shown that oral vancomycin (OV) is an effective treatment for concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children [2, 3]. Since both diseases are associated with immune dysfunction, we hypothesized that vancomycin’s therapeutic effect in IBD and PSC occurs through immunomodulation. Therefore, we examined the in vivo immunological changes that occur during OV treatment of 14 children with PSC and IBD. Within 3 months of OV administration, peripheral gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations, white blood cell (WBC) counts, and neutrophil counts normalized from elevated levels before treatment. Patients also demonstrated improved biliary imaging studies, liver biopsies and IBD symptoms and biopsies. Additionally, plasma transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) levels were increased without concurrent shifts in Th1- or Th2-associated cytokine production. Peripheral levels of CD4+CD25hiCD127lo and CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells also increased in OV-treated PSC+IBD patients compared to pretreatment levels. A unique case study shows that the therapeutic effects of OV in the treatment of PSC+IBD do not always endure after OV discontinuation, with relapse of PSC associated with a decrease in blood Treg levels; subsequent OV retreatment was then associated with a rise in blood Treg levels and normalization of liver function tests (LFTs). Taken together, these studies support immune-related pathophysiology of PSC with IBD, which is responsive to OV.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9801-1
PMCID: PMC3565076  PMID: 23054338
vancomycin; inflammatory bowel disease; primary sclerosing cholangitis; regulatory T cell
9.  A rapid ex vivo clinical diagnostic assay for Fas receptor-induced T lymphocyte apoptosis 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(2):479-488.
Deleterious mutations in genes involved in the Fas apoptosis pathway lead to Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS). Demonstration of an apoptosis defect is critical for the diagnosis and study of ALPS. The traditional in vitro apoptosis assay, however, requires a week of experimental procedures. Here, we show that defects in Fas-induced apoptosis in PBMCs can be evaluated directly ex vivo using multicolor flow cytometry to analyze the apoptosis of effector memory T cells, a Fas-sensitive subset of PBMCs. This method allowed us to sensitively quantify defective apoptosis in ALPS patients within a few hours. Some ALPS patients (ALPS-sFAS) without germline mutations have somatic mutations in Fas specifically in double-negative αβ T cells (DNTs), an unusual lymphocyte population that is characteristically expanded in ALPS. Since DNTs have been notoriously difficult to culture, defective apoptosis has not been previously demonstrated for ALPS-sFAS patients. Using our novel ex vivo apoptosis assay, we measured Fas-induced apoptosis of DNTs for the first time and found that ALPS-sFAS patients had significant apoptosis defects in these cells compared to healthy controls. Hence, this rapid apoptosis assay can expedite the diagnosis of new ALPS patients, including those with somatic mutations, and facilitate clinical and molecular investigation of these diseases.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9811-z
PMCID: PMC3567298  PMID: 23054345
Apoptosis; Fas; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative syndrome; diagnosis; effector memory T cells; double-negative T cells
10.  Sarcoidosis Th17 Cells are ESAT-6 Antigen Specific but Demonstrate Reduced IFN-γ Expression 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(2):10.1007/s10875-012-9817-6.
Rationale
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Many patients with sarcoidosis demonstrate antigen-specific immunity to mycobacterial virulence factors. Th-17 cells are crucial to the immune response in granulomatous inflammation, and have recently been shown to be present in greater numbers in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF) of sarcoidosis patients than healthy controls. It is unclear whether Th-17 cells in sarcoidosis are specific for mycobacterial antigens, or whether they have similar functionality to control Th-17 cells.
Methods
Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of Th-17 cells present in the peripheral blood and BALF of patients with sarcoidosis, the percentage of Th-17 cells that were specific to the mycobacterial virulence factor ESAT-6, and as well as to assess IFN-γ expression in Th-17 cells following polyclonal stimulation.
Results
Patients with sarcoidosis had greater numbers of Th-17 cells in the peripheral blood and BALF than controls and produced significantly more extracellular IL-17A (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). ESAT-6 specific Th-17 cells were present in both peripheral blood and BALF of sarcoidosis patients (p<0.001 and p=0.03, respectively). After polyclonal stimulation, Th-17 cells from sarcoidosis patients produced less IFN-γ than healthy controls.
Conclusions
Patients with sarcoidosis have mycobacterial antigen-specific Th-17 cells peripherally and in sites of active sarcoidosis involvement. Despite the Th1 immunophenotype of sarcoidosis immunology, the Th-17 cells have reduced IFN-γ expression, compared to healthy controls. This reduction in immunity may contribute to sarcoidosis pathogenesis.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9817-6
PMCID: PMC3850764  PMID: 23073617
Sarcoidosis; Th-17; mycobacterial ESAT-6
11.  Mycobacterium massiliense Induces Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages Through Toll-Like Receptor 2 and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 
Mycobacterium massiliense (Mmass) is an emerging, rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) that belongs to the M. abscessus (Mabc) group, albeit clearly differentiated from Mabc. Compared with M. tuberculosis, a well-characterized human pathogen, the host innate immune response against Mmass infection is largely unknown. In this study, we show that Mmass robustly activates mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), but neither TLR4 nor Dectin-1, are involved in Mmass-induced TNF-α or IL-6 production in BMDMs. Mmass infection also activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs; c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK) pathway. Mmass-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production was dependent on JNK activation, while they were unaffected by either the ERK1/2 or p38 pathway in BMDMs. Additionally, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase-2, and nuclear factor-κB are required for Mmass-induced proinflammatory cytokine generation in macrophages. Furthermore, the S morphotype of Mmass showed lower overall induction of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines than the R morphotype, suggesting fewer immunogenic characteristics for this clinical strain. Together, these results suggest that Mmass-induced activation of host proinflammatory cytokines is mediated through TLR2-dependent JNK and ROS signaling pathways.
doi:10.1007/s10875-013-9978-y
PMCID: PMC3937545  PMID: 24402617
Mycobacterium massiliense; Dectin-1; TLR; MyD88; ROS; NF-kB; TNF-α; IL-6
12.  Mutations of Complement Factor I and Potential Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation in Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(1):162-171.
Purpose
Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is a rare demyelinating disorder of acute onset, rapid deterioration and significant morbidity and mortality. Most often described as a post-infectious complication of an upper respiratory illness, its precise pathophysiology remains unclear. We describe two pediatric patients with AHLE with partial complement factor I (FI) deficiency whose successful treatment included the interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist, anakinra, implicating a role for FI and IL-1 in this disorder.
Methods
Extensive clinical workup of two patients presenting with AHLE revealed complement abnormalities, specifically related to the alternative pathway and its regulator, FI. Aggressive management with steroids, immunoglobulin, and anakinra ultimately led to improvement of clinical status and near return to neurologic baseline in both patients. Genetic sequencing of the FI coding regions of the patients and their families was performed. In vitro protein expression studies and immunohistochemistry of fixed brain tissue was used to investigate pathogenic mechanisms.
Results
Two novel mutations in FI were identified in our patients, which result in failure to secrete FI. Immunohistochemical evaluation of brain tissue demonstrated positive staining for C3, membrane attack complex (MAC) and IL-1.
Conclusions
We propose AHLE is an unreported, rare phenotype for partial FI deficiency. The upregulation of C3, MAC and IL-1 with subsequent demyelination support a pathologic role for complement activation in AHLE, and suggest anakinra as an important adjunctive therapy in this disease.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9767-z
PMCID: PMC3540165  PMID: 22926405
Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis; Complement Factor I; IL-1; IL-1 receptor antagonist
13.  MIF, MIF Alleles, and Prospects for Therapeutic Intervention in Autoimmunity 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(Suppl 1):72-78.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an innate cytokine whose main actions include counter-regulating the immunosuppressive action of glucocorticoids and inhibiting activation-induced apoptosis. MIF is encoded in a functionally polymorphic locus and human genetic studies have shown significant relationships between high-expression MIF alleles, host inflammatory responses, and improved clinical outcome from infections. A recently completed candidate gene association study in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) indicates that individuals with a high-expression MIF allele have reduced incidence of SLE. Among patients with established disease however, those with end-organ complications have increased frequency of high-expression MIF alleles. Plasma MIF levels and Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulated MIF production also reflect the underlying MIF genotype. These data suggest that MIF exerts a dual influence on the immunopathogenesis of SLE: high-expression MIF alleles are associated with a reduced susceptibility to SLE, perhaps by enhancing clearance of autoimmunogenic pathogens; once SLE develops however, low-expression MIF alleles protect from ensuing inflammatory end-organ damage. These data thus provide an example of the potential evolutionary advantage of maintaining an autoimmunity susceptibility gene in the population in that high-expression MIF alleles may allow for a maximal anti-infective response despite risk of autoimmunity. These results also support the clinical feasibility of pharmacologic MIF antagonism as such therapies may be most effectively applied in those individuals who, on the basis of their genotype, manifest a MIF dependent form of autoimmunity.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9781-1
PMCID: PMC3548018  PMID: 22968741
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor; MIF; systemic lupus erythematosus; autoimmunity
14.  The Immunologic Functions of the Neonatal Fc Receptor for IgG 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(Suppl 1):9-17.
Careful regulation of the body’s immunoglobulin G (IgG) and albumin concentrations is necessitated by the importance of their respective functions. As such, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), as a single receptor, is capable of regulating both of these molecules and has become an important focus of investigation. In addition to these essential protection functions, FcRn possesses a number of other functions that are equally as critical and are increasingly coming to attention. During the very first stages of life, FcRn mediates the passive transfer of IgG from mother to offspring both before and after birth. In the adult, FcRn regulates the persistence of both IgG and albumin in the serum as well as the movement of IgG, and any bound cargo, between different compartments of the body via transcytosis across polarized cells. FcRn is also expressed by hematopoietic cells; consistent with this, FcRn regulates MHC class II presentation and MHC class I cross-presentation by dendritic cells. As such, FcRn plays an important role in immune surveillance throughout adult life. The increasing appreciation for FcRn in both homeostatic and pathological conditions is generating an intense interest in the potential for therapeutic modulation of FcRn binding to IgG and albumin.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9768-y
PMCID: PMC3548031  PMID: 22948741
Neonatal Fc receptor; FcRn; maternal IgG; transcytosis
15.  Therapeutics to Promote CNS Repair: A Natural Human Neuron-Binding IgM Regulates Membrane-Raft Dynamics and Improves Motility in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(Suppl 1):50-56.
We have discovered a role for natural autoantibodies in central nervous system repair, remyelination and axon protection. These natural human antibodies are of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) isotype, and they bind to the surface of neural cells. The epitope of the antibody includes sialic acid because treatment with sialidase disrupts the binding. A fully human recombinant form of one of these IgMs, rHIgM12, has the same properties as the serum-derived IgM. rHIgM12 enhanced polarized axonal outgrowth from primary neurons when presented as a substrate in vitro and improved motor functions in chronically Theiler’s virus-infected SJL mice, a model of MS. rHIgM12 bound to neuronal surfaces and induced cholesterol and ganglioside (GM1) clustering, indicating that rHIgM12 functions through a mechanism of axonal membrane stabilization. Our work demonstrates that a natural human neuron-binding IgM can regulate membrane domain dynamics. This antibody has the potential to improve neurologic disease.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9795-8
PMCID: PMC3548056  PMID: 22990667
CNS repair; IgM; Membrane raft; Multiple sclerosis; Motility
16.  Post-Transplantation B Cell Function in Different Molecular Types of SCID 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(1):96-110.
Purpose
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome of diverse genetic cause characterized by profound deficiencies of T, B and sometimes NK cell function. Non-ablative HLA-identical or rigorously T cell-depleted haploidentical parental bone marrow transplantation (BMT) results in thymus-dependent genetically donor T cell development in the recipients, leading to a high rate of long-term survival. However, the development of B cell function has been more problematic. We report here results of analyses of B cell function in 125 SCID recipients prior to and long-term after non-ablative BMT, according to their molecular type.
Methods
Studies included blood immunoglobulin measurements; antibody titers to standard vaccines, blood group antigens and bacteriophage Φ × 174; flow cytometry to examine for markers of immaturity, memory, switched memory B cells and BAFF receptor expression; B cell chimerism; B cell spectratyping; and B cell proliferation.
Results
The results showed that B cell chimerism was not required for normal B cell function in IL7Rα-Def, ADA-Def and CD3-Def SCIDs. In X-linked-SCID, Jak3-Def SCID and those with V-D-J recombination defects, donor B cell chimerism was necessary for B cell function to develop.
Conclusion
The most important factor determining whether B cell function develops in SCID T cell chimeras is the underlying molecular defect. In some types, host B cells function normally. In those molecular types where host B cell function did not develop, donor B cell chimerism was necessary to achieve B cell function. 236 words
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9797-6
PMCID: PMC3549311  PMID: 23001410
B cell function; B cell chimerism; bone marrow transplantation; severe combined immunodeficiency; molecular type; memory B cells
17.  Use of Combination Chemotherapy for Treatment of Granulomatous and Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease (GLILD) in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(1):30-39.
Purpose
A subset of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) develops granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD), a restrictive lung disease associated with early mortality. The optimal therapy for GLILD is unknown. This study was undertaken to see if rituximab and azathioprine (combination chemotherapy) would improve pulmonary function and/or radiographic abnormalities in patients with CVID and GLILD.
Methods
A retrospective chart review of patients with CVID and GLILD who were treated with combination chemotherapy was performed. Complete pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of the chest were done prior to therapy and >6 months later. HRCT scans of the chest were blinded, randomized, and scored independently (in pairs) by two radiologists. The differences between pre- and post-treatment HRCT scores and PFT parameters were analyzed.
Results
Seven patients with CVID and GLILD met inclusion criteria. Post-treatment increases were noted in both FEV1 (p=0.034) and FVC (p=0.043). HRCT scans of the chest demonstrated improvement in total score (p=0.018), pulmonary consolidations (p=0.041), ground-glass opacities (p=0.020) nodular opacities (p=0.024), and both the presence and extent of bronchial wall thickening (p=0.014, 0.026 respectively). No significant chemotherapy-related complications occurred.
Conclusions
Combination chemotherapy improved pulmonary function and decreased radiographic abnormalities in patients with CVID and GLILD.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9755-3
PMCID: PMC3557581  PMID: 22930256
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID); primary immunodeficiency; lung disease; granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD); rituximab; azathioprine
18.  EVER2 Deficiency is Associated with Mild T-cell Abnormalities 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(1):14-21.
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by persistent flat warts or pityriasis versicolor-like lesions caused by betapapillomaviruses (EV-HPVs). Autosomal recessive EVER1 and EVER2 deficiencies account for EV in most patients. The mechanisms by which mutations in these partners of the Zinc transporter ZnT1 impair host defense against EV-HPVs are still poorly understood. Keratinocytes of EVER-deficient patients display an alteration of zinc homeostasis and an enhanced proliferative activity. Since EVER proteins are highly expressed in T lymphocytes, we aimed to assess the impact of EVER2 deficiency on T-cell development and function. We studied circulating lymphocyte populations in three adult EV patients sharing the same EVER2 mutation (T150fsX3). We found a normal count of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a normal proliferative capacity in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. However, we observed a significant increase of memory CD4+ and effector memory CD8+ T cells, a bias of the TCR Vαβ and Vγδ repertoires and an increase of skin-homing CD4+ T-cell subsets. Our findings suggest that EVER2-deficient patients display mild T-cell abnormalities. It remains unclear whether these abnormalities result from EVER deficiency, chronic EV-HPV infection, or both.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9749-1
PMCID: PMC3733103  PMID: 22903682
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis; EVER; immune deficiencies; Tcells
19.  Patterns of Salivary Analytes Provide Diagnostic Capacity for Distinguishing Chronic Adult Periodontitis from Health 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(1):271-279.
Salivary biomarker discovery requires identification of analytes with high discriminatory capacity to distinguish disease from health, including day-to-day variations that occur in analyte levels. In this study, seven biomarkers associated with inflammatory and tissue destructive processes of periodontal disease were investigated. In a prospective cohort study design, analyte expression levels were determined in unstimulated whole saliva samples collected on multiple occasions from 30 healthy adults (i.e., orally and systemically) and 50 chronic adult periodontitis patients. Salivary levels of IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-8, and albumin were significantly elevated (5.4 to 12.6×) and levels of IFNα were consistently lower (8.7×) in periodontitis patients compared with the daily variation observed in healthy adults. ROC analyses of IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-8 yielded areas under the curves of 0.963-0.984 for discriminating periodontitis from health. These results demonstrate that levels of salivary bioanalytes of patients who have periodontitis are uniquely different from normal levels found in healthy subjects, and a panel consisting of IL-1β, MMP-8 and IL-6 shows particular diagnostic potential.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9771-3
PMCID: PMC3788639  PMID: 22926406
saliva; periodontitis; diagnosis; inflammation; analytes
20.  Autoimmunity: homeostasis of innate immunity gone awry 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;32(6):1148-1152.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9815-8
PMCID: PMC3529793  PMID: 23054347
21.  Quantitative Salivary Proteomic Differences in Oral Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;32(6):1390-1399.
Purpose
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a severe immunological complication that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although oral cGVHD occurs in >25 % of cGVHD patients and leads to decreased quality of life, its etiology is poorly understood. The present retrospective cross-sectional analysis of oral cGVHD patients sought to (1) test the feasibility of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify protein biomarkers of oral cGVHD and (2) to gain a clearer understanding of salivary proteins impacted by oral cGVHD.
Methods
Using unstimulated whole saliva, we compared pooled saliva from five patients with a diagnosis of moderate or severe oral cGVHD, with a gender-and age- matched pool of five cGVHD patients with no oral mucosal findings. LC-MS/MS was used to identify salivary proteins, followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Selected mass spectrometric findings, including lactotransferrin, lactoperoxidase, and albumin, were confirmed by targeted label-free quantification.
Results
LC-MS/MS led to confident identification of 180 proteins. Of these proteins, 102 changed in abundance at least 2 fold, including 12 proteins identified only in the No oral cGVHD group. Downregulation of ~0.4 fold was confirmed for both lactotransferrin and lactoperoxidase in Oral cGVHD saliva using targeted label-free quantification. IPA analysis implicated pathways involved in cellular metabolism and immunoregulation.
Conclusions
Reduction of salivary lactoperoxidase, lactotransferrin, and several cysteine proteinase inhibitor family proteins suggests impaired oral antimicrobial host immunity in cGVHD patients. This shotgun proteomic analysis of oral cGVHD saliva using targeted label-free quantification of select proteins supports the use of mass spectrometry for future validation in a large patient population as noninvasive tests for screening, early detection, and monitoring of cGVHD.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9738-4
PMCID: PMC3805145  PMID: 22806177
Saliva; oral; GVHD; biomarker; proteomics; label-free quantitation; transplant; graft versus host
22.  Attending to Warning Signs of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Across the Range of Clinical Practice 
Purpose
Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) may present with recurrent infections affecting different organs, organ-specific inflammation/autoimmunity, and also increased cancer risk, particularly hematopoietic malignancies. The diversity of PIDD and the wide age range over which these clinical occurrences become apparent often make the identification of patients difficult for physicians other than immunologists. The aim of this report is to develop a tool for educative programs targeted to specialists and applied by clinical immunologists.
Methods
Considering the data from national surveys and clinical reports of experiences with specific PIDD patients, an evidence-based list of symptoms, signs, and corresponding laboratory tests were elaborated to help physicians other than immunologists look for PIDD.
Results
Tables including main clinical manifestations, restricted immunological evaluation, and possible related diagnosis were organized for general practitioners and 5 specialties. Tables include information on specific warning signs of PIDD for pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, dermatologists, hematologists, and infectious disease specialists.
Conclusions
This report provides clinical immunologists with an instrument they can use to introduce specialists in other areas of medicine to the warning signs of PIDD and increase early diagnosis. Educational programs should be developed attending the needs of each specialty.
doi:10.1007/s10875-013-9954-6
PMCID: PMC3930833  PMID: 24241582
Primary immunodeficiency; PIDD; recurrent infections; inflammation; autoimmunity; cancer; warning signs
23.  Elevated Serum anti-Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, anti-I2 and anti-OmpW Antibody Levels in Patients with Suspicion of Celiac Disease 
Journal of clinical immunology  2008;28(5):10.1007/s10875-008-9200-9.
Objectives
Expression of anti-Saccharomyces Cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) identifies patients and individuals at risk for Crohn’s disease and has also been reported in 40–60% of Celiac disease (CD) cases, suggesting a role of host response to enteric microbiota in the development of inflammatory lesions. In this prospective study in patients with suspicion of CD, we evaluate the frequency and association of ASCA to serological responses for other host microbial targets formally associated with Crohn’s disease, including the P.fluorescens associated sequence I2 and a Bacteroides caccae TonB-linked outermembrane protein, OmpW.
Methods
Small bowel mucosal biopsies were taken from 242 patients with CD suspicion, their sera were tested for antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (tTG), ASCA, I2 and OmpW. 80 adult healthy blood donors were used as controls.
Results
The diagnosis of CD was confirmed on biopsy in 134 cases. The occurence of ASCA and I2 positivity was significantly higher in adult CD patients as compared to patients with non-CD disease. Anti-I2 levels in the sera were significantly higher in adult CD patients compared to non-CD disease or the controls and anti-OmpW levels in CD and non-CD patients when compared to controls. Positive seroreactivity to OmpW seemed to increase with the age. 90% of CD patients were seropositive for at least one microbial antigen tested.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates a mosaic of disease-related serological responses to microbial antigens in patients with CD. Immune responses to commensal enteric bacteria may play a role in the small intestine mucosal damage in CD.
doi:10.1007/s10875-008-9200-9
PMCID: PMC3818910  PMID: 18496744
tissue transglutaminase; I2; OmpW; ASCA; serology; Celiac disease
24.  A Randomized, Controlled Dose-Finding Phase II Study of the M72/AS01 Candidate Tuberculosis Vaccine in Healthy PPD-Positive Adults 
Journal of Clinical Immunology  2013;33:1360-1375.
Purpose
In this dose-finding Phase II study (NCT00621322), we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of different formulations of the candidate tuberculosis vaccine containing the M72 antigen (10/20/40 μg doses) and the liposome-based AS01 Adjuvant System. We aimed to select the lowest-dose combination of M72 and AS01 that was clinically well tolerated with immunogenicity comparable to that of the previously tested M72/AS01B (40 μg) candidate vaccine.
Methods
Healthy PPD-positive (induration 3–10 mm) adults (18–45 years) in The Philippines were randomized (4:4:4:4:1:1) to receive 2 injections, 1 month apart, of M72/AS01B (40 μg), M72/AS01E (10 μg), M72/AS01E (20 μg), M72/AS02D (10 μg), M72/Saline (40 μg) or AS01B alone, and were followed up for 6 months. AS01E and AS02D contain half the quantities of the immunostimulants present in AS01B. AS02D is an oil-in-water emulsion. Vaccine selection was based on the CD4+ T-cell responses at 1 month post vaccination.
Results
All formulations had a clinically acceptable safety profile with no vaccine-related serious adverse events reported. Two vaccinations of each adjuvanted M72 vaccine induced M72-specific CD4+ T-cell and humoral responses persisting at 6 months post vaccination. No responses were observed with AS01B alone. One month post second vaccination, CD4+ T-cell responses induced by each of the three M72/AS01 vaccine formulations were of comparable magnitudes, and all were significantly higher than those induced by M72/AS02D (10 μg) and M72/Saline.
Conclusions
The formulation with the lowest antigen and adjuvant dose, M72/AS01E (10 μg), fulfilled our pre-defined selection criteria and has been selected for further clinical development.
doi:10.1007/s10875-013-9949-3
PMCID: PMC3825318  PMID: 24142232
Tuberculosis; vaccine; M72 antigen; AS01; CD4+ T cells
25.  Calcitriol Decreases Expression of Importin α3 and Attenuates RelA Translocation in Human Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;32(5):1093-1103.
Purpose
A potent immunomodulatory role of Vitamin D in both innate and adaptive immunity has recently been appreciated. In allergic asthma, activation of NF-κB induces transcription of various cytokines and chemokines involved in allergic airway inflammation. The nuclear import of activated NF-κB p50/RelA subunit is dependent on importin α3 (KPNA4) and importin α4 (KPNA3). In this study, we examined the role of importin α3 in immunomodulatory effect of calcitriol in human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs).
Methods
Cultured HBSMCs were stimulated with calcitriol in the presence and absence of cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10. The mRNA transcripts of importin α3 and α4 were analyzed using qPCR while protein expression of importin α3, α4 and nuclear RelA was analyzed by immunoblotting.
Results
Calcitriol significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of importin α3 as well as nuclear protein expression of NF-κB p65 (RelA). The decreased activation of RelA by calcitriol was confirmed by decreased release of RelA-inducible molecules, including IL-5, IL-6 and IL-8, by HBSMCs upon calcitriol treatment. Calcitriol attenuated the effect of TNF-α and IL-1β to upregulate mRNA and protein expression of importin α3. IL-10 significantly decreased the TNF-α induced expression of importin α3 and this effect was further potentiated by calcitriol.
Conclusions
These data suggest that under inflammatory conditions, calcitriol decreases the expression of importin α3 resulting in decreased nuclear import of activated RelA. This could be a novel mechanism by which calcitriol could exert its immunomodulatory effects to reduce allergic airway inflammation and thus may alleviate the symptoms in allergic asthma.
doi:10.1007/s10875-012-9696-x
PMCID: PMC3444658  PMID: 22526597
Active vitamin D; Allergic airway inflammation; Asthma; Bronchial smooth muscle cells; Calcitriol; Importinα3 (KPNA4); Importinα4 (KPNA3); NF-κB; Vitamin D receptor (VDR)

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