Serum antibody to the hemagglutinin (HA) surface protein of influenza virus induced by influenza vaccinations is a correlate of protection against influenza. The neuraminidase (NA) protein is also on the surface of the virus; antibody to it has been shown to impair virus release from infected cells and to reduce the intensity of influenza infections in animal models and in humans challenged with infectious virus. Recently we have shown that NA inhibiting antibody can independently contribute to immunity to naturally-occurring influenza immunity in the presence of antibody to the HA.
The present study was conducted to evaluate induction of antibody to the NA and the HA by commercially available influenza vaccines.
Healthy young adults were vaccinated with one of five commercially available trivalent inactivated vaccines or live influenza vaccine. Frequencies of serum antibody and fold geometric mean titer (GMT) increases four weeks later were measured to each of the three vaccine viruses (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) in hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) and neutralization (neut) assays. Frequency and fold GMT increase in neuraminidase-inhibition (NI) antibody titers were measured to the influenza A viruses (A/H1N1, A/H3N2).
No significant reactogenicity occurred among the vaccinated subjects. The Fluvirin inactivated vaccine induced more anti-HA antibody responses and a higher fold GMT increase than the other inactivated vaccines but there were no major differences in response frequencies or fold GMT increase among the inactivated vaccines. Both the frequency of antibody increase and fold GMT increase were significantly lower for live vaccine than for any inactivated vaccine in HAI and neut assays for all three vaccine viruses. Afluria inactivated vaccine induced more N1 antibody and Fluarix induced more N2 antibody than the other vaccines but all inactivated vaccines induced serum NI antibody. The live vaccine failed to elicit any NI responses for the N2 NA of A/H3N2 virus and frequencies were low for the N1 of A/H1N1 virus.
Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines with similar HA dosage induce similar serum anti-HA antibody responses in healthy adults. Current inactivated vaccines all induce serum anti-NA antibody to the N1 and N2 NA proteins but some are better than others for N1 or N2. The live vaccine, Flumist, was a poor inducer of either anti-HA or anti-NA serum antibody compared to inactivated vaccine in the healthy adults. In view of the capacity for contributing to immunity to influenza in humans, developing guidelines for NA content and induction of NA antibody is desirable.
Influenza; Vaccination; Antibody; Hemagglutinin; Neuraminidase; Randomized
We previously demonstrated that Cervarix® elicits antibody responses against vaccine-related types for which clinical efficacy was demonstrated (HPV-31 and -45). Here, we evaluated the kinetics of neutralization titers and avidity of Cervarix®-induced antibodies up to 36 months of follow-up in unexposed and HPV infected women.
A subset of women who participated in the Cost Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial had pre- and post-vaccination sera tested for antibody responses to HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, and -58 using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay, and HPV-16 antibody avidity using an HPV-16 L1 VLP (virus-like particle)-based ELISA developed in our laboratory.
In uninfected women, neutralizing antibody titers did not reach significance until after the 3rd dose for HPV-31 (month 12, p=0.009) and HPV-45 (month 12, p=0.003), but then persisted up to month 36 (HPV-31, p=0.01; HPV-45, p=0.002). Individuals infected with HPV-16 or HPV-31 at enrollment developed a significantly higher median antibody response to the corresponding HPV type after one dose, but there was not a difference between median titers after three doses compared to the HPV negative group. Median HPV-16 antibody avidity and titer increased over time up to month 12; however, the HPV-16 avidity did not correlate well with HPV-16 neutralizing antibody titers at each time point examined, except for month 6. The median avidity levels were higher in HPV-16 infected women at month 1 (p=0.04) and lower in HPV-16 infected women at month 12 (p=0.006) compared to the HPV negative women.
The persistence of cross-neutralization titers at month 36 suggests cross-reactive antibody responses are likely to persist long-term and are not influenced by infection status at enrollment. However, the weak correlation between avidity and neutralization titers emphasizes the need for examining avidity in efficacy studies to determine if high avidity antibodies play a critical role in protection against infection.
Human papillomavirus; antibody; vaccine; avidity
Immunotherapy for tobacco addiction may offer a safe, alternative treatment if the immunogenicity of the current nicotine vaccines can be improved. We show here that intradermal (ID) immunization induces the production of antibody directed against nicotine (NicAb) at a much higher level than conventional intramuscular (IM) immunization. The magnitude and duration of NicAb production was further increased robustly by non-inflammatory laser vaccine adjuvant (LVA), slightly inflammatory monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) or a combination of MPL and CpG adjuvants. Consequently, significantly fewer vaccination doses were required to attain a high level of NicAb production for an extended period of time and reduce nicotine entry into the brain in the presence of LVA, MPL or MPL/CpG adjuvant, respectively. Yet, the potency of these adjuvants to augment ID nicotine vaccine immunogenicity came at the expense of local skin reactogenicity, with LVA causing little skin reaction and MPL/CpG stimulating overt skin irritation. These observations underscore a necessity of a balance between optimal adjuvant potency and undesired local reactogenicity. In summary, our study presents a novel approach to significantly improve nicotine vaccine immunogenicity by a combination of safe cutaneous vaccine adjuvants with ID immunization.
nicotine vaccine; adjuvant; intradermal delivery; immunogenicity; addiction; immunotherapy
The impact of anti-vector immunity on the elicitation of insert-specific immune responses is important to understand in vaccine development. HVTN 055 was a 150 person phase I randomized, controlled HIV vaccine trial of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) and fowlpox (rFPV) with matched HIV-1 inserts which demonstrated increased CD8+ T-cell immune responses in the heterologous vaccine group. The controls used in this study were the empty vectors (MVA and FPV).
Anti-MVA and anti-vaccinia neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were measured and compared with cellular and humoral HIV-1-specific immune responses.
Elicitation of anti-vector responses increased with increasing dose of MVA and up to 2 administrations. Further inoculations of MVA (up to 5) did not increase the magnitude of the anti-MVA response but did delay the anti-vector NAb titre decay. There was no evidence that the insert impaired the anti-vector response, nor that anti-vector immunity attenuated the insert-specific responses.
Two doses of MVA may be ideal for the elicitation of orthopoxvirus immune responses with further doses maintaining increased titres against the vector. We found no evidence that eliciting HIV insert- or MVA vector-specific immune responses interfered with elicitation of immune responses to the other.
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ Identifier: NCT00083603
Immunogenicity; Dose; MVA; Fowlpoxvirus; HIV vaccine; Prime-boost
There are a number of related goals of influenza vaccination, including elicitation of protective antibodies and induction of cellular CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. Because CD4 T cell expansion and functionality are influenced by peptide specificity and T cell gene expression can be modified by repeated re-stimulations, it is important to evaluate how frequent influenza vaccinations affect CD4 T cell dependent functions in protective immunity to influenza. Trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) have production of neutralizing antibodies to HA as their primary goal and main criteria for efficacy. Accordingly, they are not characterized for any other viral components. In the current study, we evaluated whether other influenza virus proteins were present in commercial TIV at levels sufficient for immunogenicity in vivo. Mice that differed with regard to their expressed class II molecules were used in concert with peptide-stimulated cytokine EliSpot assays to comprehensively evaluate the CD4 T cell antigen specificity induced by the TIV. Our studies revealed that NA, NP, M1 and NS1 were present in sufficient quantities in the TIV to prime and boost CD4 T cells. These results suggest that in humans, the broad CD4 T cell repertoire induced by live infection is continually boosted and maintained throughout life by regular vaccination with licensed intramuscular split vaccines. The implications raised by our findings on CD4 T cell functionality in influenza are discussed.
vaccine; immmunodominance; CD4 T cell; epitope; immune response
The investigational vaccine, NDV-3, contains the N-terminal portion of the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (Als3p) formulated with an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in phosphate-buffered saline. Preclinical studies demonstrated that the Als3p vaccine antigen protects mice from oropharyngeal, vaginal and intravenous challenge with C. albicans and other selected species of Candida as well as both intravenous challenge and skin and soft tissue infection with Staphylococcus aureus. The objectives of this first-in-human Phase I clinical trial were to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of NDV-3 at two different antigen levels compared to a saline placebo. Forty healthy, adult subjects were randomized to receive one dose of NDV-3 containing either 30 or 300 μg of Als3p, or placebo. NDV-3 at both dose levels was safe and generally well-tolerated. Anti-Als3p total IgG and IgA1 levels for both doses reached peak levels by day 14 post vaccination, with 100% seroconversion of all vaccinated subjects. On average, NDV-3 stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) production of both IFN-γ and IL-17A, which peaked at day 7 for subjects receiving the 300 μg dose and at day 28 for those receiving the 30 μg dose. Six months after receiving the first dose of NDV-3, nineteen subjects received a second dose of NDV-3 identical to their first dose to evaluate memory B- and T-cell immune responses. The second dose resulted in a significant boost of IgG and IgA1 titers in >70% of subjects, with the biggest impact in those receiving the 30 μg dose. A memory T-cell response was also noted for IFN-γ in almost all subjects and for IL-17A in the majority of subjects. These data support the continued investigation of NDV-3 as a vaccine candidate against Candida and S. aureus infections.
vaccine; phase 1; first-in-human; Als3p; Candida; Staphylococcus aureus
Development of successful vaccines against glycotopes remains a major challenge. In the current studies, we have successfully developed a novel carrier protein for glycotopes based on the concept of antigen clustering and specific stimulation of T helper cells to mount strong antibody response to glycotopes. The bipartite carrier protein consists of a tandem repeat of a cysteine-rich peptide for docking of clustered glycotopes to effectively activate B cells and an Fc domain for antigen delivery to antigen presenting cells (APCs). To demonstrate its utility, we conjugated the tumor-specific monosaccharide antigen Tn to this novel carrier protein and successfully developed a Tn vaccine against cancer in animal models. The Tn vaccine effectively elicited high-titer IgG1 antibodies against Tn in immunized mice, and effectively suppressed the development of prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. Our results suggest that this novel bipartite carrier protein could be effectively used for developing anti-glycotope vaccines such as the anticancer Tn vaccine.
Glycotope; carrier protein; vaccine; tumor immunotherapy; Tn antigen
HIV genomic sequence variability has complicated efforts to generate an effective globally relevant vaccine. Regions of the viral genome conserved in sequence and across time may represent the “Achilles’ heel” of HIV. In this study, highly conserved T-cell epitopes were selected using immunoinformatics tools combining HLA-A2 supertype binding predictions with relative global conservation. Analysis performed in 2002 on 10,803 HIV-1 sequences, and again in 2009, on 43,822 sequences, yielded 38 HLA-A2 epitopes. These epitopes were experimentally validated for HLA binding and immunogenicity with PBMCs from HIV-infected patients in Providence, Rhode Island, and/or Bamako, Mali. Thirty-five (92%) stimulated an IFNγ response in PBMCs from at least one subject. Eleven of fourteen peptides (79%) were confirmed as HLA-A2 epitopes in both locations. Validation of these HLA-A2 epitopes conserved across time, clades, and geography supports the hypothesis that such epitopes could provide effective coverage of virus diversity and would be appropriate for inclusion in a globally relevant HIV vaccine.
The recently licensed quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (QIV) may provide better protection than the traditional trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) as it includes one more influenza B strain. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation model to determine the economic value of a QIV compared to the TIV for ten influenza seasons (1999–2009). The addition of the influenza B strain to convert the TIV into a QIV could result in substantial cost savings to society (median of $3.1 billion) and third party payers (median of $292 million), even when the cost of QIV is significantly higher
Influenza; Quadrivalent Vaccine; Trivalent Vaccine; Economics
Although previous studies have found minimal changes in CD4 T cell responses after vaccination of adults with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, daily sampling and monitoring of the proliferation marker Ki-67 have now been used to reveal that a substantial fraction of influenza-specific CD4 T cells respond to vaccination. At 4–6 days after vaccination, there is a sharp rise in the numbers of Ki-67-expressing PBMC that produce IFNγ, IL-2 and/or TNFα in vitro in response to influenza vaccine or peptide. Ki-67+ cell numbers then decline rapidly, and ten days after vaccination, both Ki-67+ and overall influenza-specific cell numbers are similar to pre-vaccination levels. These results provide a tool for assessing the quality and quantity of CD4 T cell responses to different influenza vaccines, and raise the possibility that the anti-influenza T cell memory response may be substantially reshaped by vaccination, even if the overall memory cell numbers do not change significantly.
Ki-67; influenza vaccine; CD4 T cell
In this paper we give guidance for the design and conduct of vaccine trials against Plasmodium vivax malaria. The paper supplements earlier guidelines on the planning of vaccine trials against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [WHO. Guidelines for the evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum vaccines in populations exposed to natural infections. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997, http://www.who.int/vaccine_research/feuill_1_4-2.pdf], with further considerations in two later documents [Moorthy VS, Reed Z, Smith PG. Measurement of malaria vaccine efficacy in phase III trials: report of a WHO consultation. Vaccine 2007 July 9;25(28):5115-23; Moorthy V, Reed Z, Smith P. MALVAC 2008: measures of efficacy of malaria vaccines in phase 2b and phase 3 trials – scientific, regulatory and public health perspectives. Vaccine 2009 January 29;27(5):624-8]. We deal specifically with study design and methodological issues for the assessment of pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage vaccines against P. vivax. The role of vaccines in blocking transmission of P. vivax is not considered as the methodological issues are similar to those for P. falciparum, though longer follow-up would be required because of the potential for relapse discussed below. In this paper we discuss the rationale and background to trials of P. vivax vaccines, requirements for Phase IIb and Phase III field trials, implementation of clinical trials, methods of measurement and analysis, and ethical aspects.
Plasmodium vivax malaria; Vaccine
In this study, we have characterized the immune mechanisms elicited by antigenic candidates, TcG2 and TcG4, delivered by a DNA-prime/MVA-boost approach, and evaluated the host responses to T. cruzi infection in C57BL/6 mice. Immunization of mice with antigenic candidates elicited antigen-specific, high-avidity, trypanolytic antibody response (IgG2b>IgG1) and CD8+T cells that exhibited type-1 cytolytic effector (CD8+CD107a+IFN-γ+Perforin+) phenotype. The extent of TcG2-dependent type 1 B and T cell immunity was higher than that noted in TcG4-immunized mice, and expanded accordingly in response to challenge infection with T. cruzi. The progression of chronic phase in immunized mice was associated with persistence of IgGs, 55–90% reduction in the frequency of proinflammatory (IFN-γ+ or TNF-α+) CD8+T cells, and an increase or emergence of immunoregulatory (IL-10+) CD4/CD8 T cells. The tissue parasitism, infiltration of inflammatory infiltrate, parasite persistence, and fibrosis were decreased by 82–92% in heart and skeletal muscle of immunized/chronically-infected mice. Control mice exhibited a significantly low antibody response, consistent activation of effector CD8+T cells dominated by pro-inflammatory phenotype and mixed cytokine profile (IFN-γ+TNF-α>IL-4+IL-10), parasite persistence and pathologic damage in chagasic hearts. We conclude that delivery of TcG2or TcG4by DNA-rMVA approach elicits effective antibody and CD8+T cell mediated immunity against T. cruzi and Chagas disease. The emergence of type 2 cytokine and T cell responsein chronic phase was indicative of prevention of clinical disease.
Chagas disease; Trypanosoma cruzi; DNA-prime/MVA-boost approach; antigenic candidates; effector B and T cell responses
Anti-vector immunity mitigates immune responses induced by recombinant adenovirus vector vaccines, limiting their prime-boost capabilities. We have developed a novel gene delivery and expression platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) that induces immune responses despite preexisting and/or developed concomitant Ad5 immunity. In the present study, we evaluated if this new Ad5 platform could overcome the adverse condition of pre-existing Ad5 immunity to induce effective immune responses in prime-boost immunization regimens against two different infectious diseases in the same animal. Ad5 immune rhesus macaques (RM) were immunized multiple times with the Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] platform expressing antigens from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Immunized RM developed cell-mediated immunity against SIV antigens Gag, Pol, Nef and Env as well as antibody against Env. Vaccinated and vector control RMs were challenged intra-rectally with homologous SIVmac239. During a 7-week follow-up, there was perturbation of SIV load in some immunized RM. At 7 weeks post-challenge, eight immunized animals (53%) did not have detectable SIV, compared to two RM controls (13%) (P<0.02; log-rank Mantel-Cox test). There was no correlation of protective MHC contributing to infection control. The RM without detectable circulating SIV, now hyper immune to Ad5, were then vaccinated with the same Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] platform expressing H1N1 influenza hemaglutinin (HA). Thirty days post Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-HA vaccination, significant levels of influenza neutralizing antibody were induced in all animals that increased after an Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-HA homologous boost. These data demonstrate the versatility of this new vector platform to immunize against two separate disease targets in the same animal despite the presence of immunity against the delivery platform, permitting homologous repeat immunizations with an Ad5 gene delivery platform.
HIV vaccine; Ad5 immunity; Adenovirus vector; SIVmac239; Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]
This chapter addresses the natural history of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cervical infections are the best understood HPV infection. Cervical HPV persistence is the known necessary event for the development of cervical cancer. New infections appearing at any age are benign unless they persist. Several long-term natural history studies have now shed light on the very low risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3+ in women past the peak of HPV acquisition (e.g., 30 or older) who are HPV-negative or clear their HPV. Although data on transmission of HPV are finally emerging, rates of transmission between heterosexual couples vary widely among studies. Factors that affect the calculations of these rates include a) intervals between testing points, b) rates of concordance or discordance at baseline, and c) difficulty in defining established infections versus contamination. Both cervix to anus and anus to cervix autoinoculation in the same woman appears to be quite common. Whether either site serves as a long-term reservoir is unknown. Studies show that anal infections in women and in men who have sex with men are quite common with cumulative rates up to 70–90%. Similarly, clearance of anal HPV is also common, with few individuals showing persistence unless they are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected. HIV strongly influences the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The few studies on the natural history of AIN in HIV-infected men suggest that high-grade AIN is a precursor to invasive anal cancer. Although no natural history studies of AIN are available in women, women with other HPV-associated lesions, including CIN3+ and vulvar cancer, have higher rates of anal cancer. Data on the natural history of HPV of the male genitalia are also emerging, although penile intraepithelial neoplasia is poorly understood. Cumulative rates of HPV are extremely high in men and risks are associated with sexual behavior. Unlike women, prevalence rates are steady across all ages, suggesting that men do not develop protection against reinfection.
HPV; Natural history; Transmission; Male infections; Anal disease
Over the last five years, prophylactic vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in pre-adolescent females has been introduced in most developed countries, supported by modeled evaluations which have almost universally found vaccination of pre-adolescent females to be cost-effective. Studies to date suggest that vaccination of pre-adolescent males may also be cost-effective at a cost per vaccinated individual ~US$400–500 if vaccination coverage in females cannot be increased above ~50%; but if it is possible, increasing coverage in females appears to be a better return on investment. Comparative evaluation of the quadrivalent (HPV16,18,6,11) and bivalent (HPV16,18) vaccines centers around the potential tradeoff between protection against anogenital warts and vaccine-specific levels of cross-protection against infections not targeted by the vaccines. Future evaluations will also need to consider the cost-effectiveness of a next generation nonavalent vaccine designed to protect against ~90% of cervical cancers. The timing of the effect of vaccination on cervical screening programs will be country-specific and will depend on vaccination catch-up age range and coverage and the age at which screening starts. Initial evaluations suggest that if screening remains unchanged it will be less cost-effective in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated women but, in the context of current vaccines, will remain an important prevention method. Comprehensive evaluation of new approaches to screening will need to consider the population-level effects of vaccination over time. New screening strategies of particular interest include delaying the start age of screening, increasing the screening interval and switching to primary HPV screening. Future evaluations of screening will also need to focus on the effects of disparities in screening and vaccination uptake, the potential effects of vaccination on screening participation, and the effects of imperfect compliance with screening recommendations.
HPV; Intraepithelial neoplasia; Uterine cervical neoplasms; Vulvar; vaginal; anal; oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer; Anogenital warts; Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatoses; Vaccines; Mathematical models; Cervical cancer screening; Cost-effectiveness analysis; Developed countries
Vaccines against human norovirus are currently under development. We developed a simulation model to determine their potential economic value. Vaccination prevented 100–6,125 norovirus gastroenteritis cases per 10,000 vaccinees. Low vaccine cost (≤$50) garnered cost-savings and a more expensive vaccine led to costs per case averted comparable to other vaccines. In the US, vaccination could avert approximately 1.0–2.2 million cases (efficacy 50%, 12 month duration), costing an additional $400 million to $1.0 billion, but could save ≤$2.1 billion (48 month duration). Human norovirus vaccination can offer economic value while averting clinical outcomes, depending on price, efficacy, and protection duration.
Norovirus; Vaccine; Economics
Poliomyelitis is nearing universal eradication; in 2011, there were 650 cases reported globally. When wild polio is eradicated, global oral polio vaccine (OPV) cessation followed by universal use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is believed to be the safest vaccination strategy as IPV does not mutate or run the risk of vaccine derived outbreaks that OPV does. However, IPV is significantly more expensive than OPV. One strategy to make IPV more affordable is to reduce the dose by adding adjuvants, compounds that augment the immune response to the vaccine. No adjuvants are currently utilized in stand-alone IPV; however, several have been explored over the past six decades. From aluminum, used in many licensed vaccines, to newer and more experimental adjuvants such as synthetic DNA, a diverse group of compounds has been assessed with varying strengths and weaknesses. This review summarizes the studies to date evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjuvants used with IPV.
In order to establish a human challenge model of Shigella related disease for vaccine testing, a dose-escalating inpatient trial was performed. Three groups of 12 healthy adult volunteers were orally challenged with 93,440 and 1680 CFU of Shigella sonnei strain 53G. Subjects were admitted to the Vaccine Trial Centre (VTC) at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand. The primary purpose of this study was to identify the dose of S. sonnei 53G required to elicit clinical disease in at least 70% of Thai adult subjects. At the highest dose of 1680 CFU, the attack rate was 75%, while at the two lower doses, the attack rate was approximately 50%. This human challenge model, which is the first of its kind in an endemic region, will provide an opportunity for S. sonnei vaccine evaluation in endemic populations.
Shigella; Human challenge model; Shigella vaccine
Here we describe studies in the guinea pig model of genital herpes to evaluate a novel plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine encoding the HSV-2 glycoprotein D and UL46 and UL47 genes encoding tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP 13/14 (gD2/UL46/UL47), formulated with a cationic lipid-based adjuvant Vaxfectin®. Prophylactic immunization with Vaxfectin®-gD2/UL46/UL47 significantly reduced viral replication in the genital tract, provided complete protection against both primary and recurrent genital skin disease following intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, and significantly reduced latent HSV-2 DNA in the dorsal root ganglia compared to controls. We also examined the impact of therapeutic immunization of HSV-2 infected animals. Here, Vaxfectin®-gD2/UL46/UL47 immunization significantly reduced both the frequency of recurrent disease and viral shedding into the genital tract compared to controls. This novel adjuvanted pDNA vaccine has demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in the guinea pig model of genital herpes and warrants further development.
Herpes simplex virus type 2; DNA vaccine; Vaxfectin®; therapeutic vaccine
Serotype-specific protective immunity of pediatric patients with invasive
pneumococcal disease (IPD) has not been fully investigated. To determine the
protective immunity to the infecting serotype, the serotype-specific
immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) titers were
examined in twenty-four pediatric patients whose serum was collected within one
month of IPD episode in between May 2008 and June 2011 in Japan. The median age
(range) of IPD patients was 17 (10–108) months and 63% were boys. The
levels of serotype-specific IgG to the infecting serotype were higher than 0.2
μg/ml in all of 17 patients tested. By contrast, the OPA titers were
< 8 to the infecting serotype in all of 17 patients tested. The avidities
of 19F or 6B-specific IgG level higher than 5.0 μg/ml, but undetectable
OPA titers, were confirmed to be lower than those with high OPA titers. Our data
demonstrated that although the levels of serotype-specific IgG to the infecting
serotype were higher than 0.2 μg/ml in sera of pediatric patients with
IPD, the OPA titers were low during one month after the IPD episode. Impaired
opsonic activities in these patients may be, in part, explained by the low
avidities of serotype-specific IgG. Impaired serum opsonic activity in children
immediately after the episode of IPD suggests their susceptibility to the
infecting serotype of pneumococci.
invasive pneumococcal diseases; serotype-specific IgG; opsonophagocytic activity; pneumococcal vaccine; children
Schistosomiasis is a major health problem in the developing world and for international travelers to the endemic countries. Existing strategies to control schistosomiasis have had limited successes so far. The addition of an effective vaccine in existing control measures would be greatly beneficial in reducing the impact of the disease. In this regard, Sm-p80 mediated protection against intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni has been observed to be promising in two animal models of infection and disease. In this study, the role of antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxcity (ADCC) was deciphered in Sm-p80-mediated protection especially in the elimination of lung stage schistosomula. This was achieved using lung lavage cells and lung cells that were isolated from mice immunized with and without Sm-p80 formulated in a recombinant vaccine formulation. Significant differences were observed in cytotoxicity assays using immune sera with the lung lavage cells which showed 51% more killing of schistosomula and elevated levels of nitric oxide in the supernatants were detected compared to controls.
Schistosoma; schistosomiasis; vaccine; lung lavage cells; lung cells; antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxcity; nitric oxide
The efficacy of 15 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) coated with Yersinia pestis F1-antigen, as an immunogen in mice, has been assessed. The nanoparticles were decorated with F1-antigen using N-hydroxysuccinimide and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Mice given AuNP-F1 in alhydrogel generated the greatest IgG antibody response to F1-antigen when compared with mice given AuNP-F1 in PBS or given unconjugated F1-antigen in PBS or alhydrogel. Compared with unconjugated F1-antigen, the IgG2a response was enhanced in mice dosed with AuNP-F1 in PBS (p < 0.05) but not in mice immunised with AuNP-F1 in alhydogel. All treatment groups developed a memory response to F1-antigen, the polarity of which was inflenced by formulation in alhydrogel. The sera raised against F1-antigen coupled to AuNPs was able to competitively bind to rF1-antigen, displacing protective macaque sera.
Plague; Y. pestis; gold nanoparticle; vaccine; carbodiimide
Currently available influenza vaccines provide suboptimal protection. In order to improve the quality of protective immune responses elicited following vaccination, we developed an oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE)-based adjuvant for an intranasally-delivered inactivated influenza vaccine. Using a prime-boost vaccination regimen, we show that intranasal vaccines containing the W805EC NE elicited higher titers of serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI) antibody and influenza-specific IgG and IgA titers compared to vaccines that did not contain the NE. Similarly, vaccines containing the W805EC NE resulted in higher influenza-specific IgA levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and nasal wash when compared to vaccines formulated without NE. The higher antibody titers in mice immunized with the NE-containing vaccines correlated with reduced viral loads in the lungs and nasal turbinates following a high dose viral challenge. Mice immunized with vaccines containing the W805EC NE also showed a reduction in body weight loss following challenge compared to mice immunized with equivalent vaccines produced without NE. Taken together, our results show that the W805EC NE substantially improves the magnitude of protective influenza-specific antibody responses and is a promising mucosal adjuvant for influenza vaccines and vaccines against other mucosal pathogens.
Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses are important in protection against measles. Non-response to vaccination has been associated with specific HLA-DR and HLA-DQ alleles; however, little is known about the relative importance of these alleles in the cellular immune response induced by measles virus vaccine. To investigate the role of HLA-DR/DQ class II restriction, a small pilot study was conducted. Lymphoproliferation assays using class II DR and DQ-specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) were performed at one week and two weeks post immunization with MMRII vaccine. The mean stimulation index (SI) was 4.4 and 5.3 at one and two weeks with reductions in SI of 47.6% and 70.2%, respectively, following the addition of DR-specific MoAb (p<0.001). These results clearly show that a significant proportion of the cell-mediated immune response to measles virus vaccine, as measured by SI, is HLA-DR restricted.
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI); Vaccine; HLA-restriction; Measles Virus; Immunity; Monoclonal Antibody; Immune memory