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1.  Diet-gene interactions underlie metabolic individuality and influence brain development: Implications for clinical practice 
Annals of nutrition & metabolism  2012;60(0 3):19-25.
One of the underlying mechanisms for metabolic individuality is genetic variation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of metabolic pathways can create metabolic inefficiencies that alter the dietary requirement for, and responses to nutrients. These SNPS can be detected using genetic profiling and the metabolic inefficiencies they cause can be detected using metabolomic profiling. Studies on the human dietary requirement for choline illustrate how useful these new approaches can be, as this requirement is influenced by SNPs in genes of choline and folate metabolism. In adults, these SNPs determine whether people develop fatty liver, liver damage and muscle damage when eating diets low in choline. Because choline is very important for fetal development, these SNPs may identify women who need to eat more choline during pregnancy. Some of the actions of choline are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms that permit “retuning” of metabolic pathways during early life.
doi:10.1159/000337310
PMCID: PMC3894784  PMID: 22614815
Choline; development; single nucleotide polymorphism; epigenetic; methylation
2.  Exercise training with weight loss and either a high or low glycemic diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults 
Annals of nutrition & metabolism  2012;61(2):135-141.
Background
The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low or high glycemic diet on metabolic syndrome severity (Z-score).
Methods
Twenty-one adults (66.2 ± 1.1 yr; BMI = 35.3 ± 0.9 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 minutes/d for 5 d/week at ~85% HRmax) and provided a low-glycemic (n=11; LoGIx) or high glycemic (n=10; HiGIx) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed.
Results
LoGIx and HiGIx decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (p < 0.05). LoGIx and HiGIx decreased the Z-score similarly, as each intervention decreased blood pressure, TG, FPG, and WC (p < 0.05). HiGIx tended to suppress NEFA during insulin stimulation compared to LoGIx (p = 0.06).
Conclusions
Our findings highlight that exercise with weight loss reduces metabolic syndrome severity whether individuals were randomized to a high or low glycemic index diet.
doi:10.1159/000342084
PMCID: PMC3586384  PMID: 23036993
aging; obesity; lifestyle modification; diabetes; impaired glucose tolerance
3.  Diet, Breakfast, and Academic Performance in Children 
Annals of nutrition & metabolism  2002;46(0 1):24-30.
Objective
To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP).
Methods
Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of <50% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) and/or 2 or more micronutrients of <50% of RDA were considered to be at nutritional risk.
Results
Prior to the USBP, 33% of all study children were classified as being at nutritional risk. Children who were at nutritional risk had significantly poorer attendance, punctuality, and grades at school, more behavior problems, and were less likely to eat breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk.
Conclusion
Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger.
PMCID: PMC3275817  PMID: 12428078
School breakfast; Low-income children; Psychosocial functioning; Nutrition; Dietary intake

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