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1.  Antihyperglycemic and Antinociceptive Activity Evaluation of ‘Khoyer’ Prepared from Boiling the Wood of Acacia Catechu in Water 
‘Khoyer’ is prepared by boiling the wood of Acacia catechu in water and then evaporating the resultant brew. The resultant hard material is powdered and chewed with betel leaves and lime with or without tobacco by a large number of the people of Bangladesh as an addictive psycho-stimulating and euphoria-inducing formulation. There are folk medicinal claims that khoyer helps in the relief of pain and is also useful to diabetic patients to maintain normal sugar levels. Thus far no scientific studies have evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive effects of khoyer. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible glucose tolerance efficacy of methanolic extracts of khoyer using glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice, and antinociceptive effects with acetic acid-induced gastric pain models in mice. In antihyperglycemic activity tests, the extract at different doses was administered one hour prior to glucose administration and blood glucose level was measured after two hours of glucose administration (p.o.) using glucose oxidase method. The statistical data indicated the significant oral hypoglycemic activity on glucose-loaded mice at all doses of the extracts tested. Maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity was shown at 400 mg extract per kg body weight, which was less than that of a standard drug, glibenclamide (10 mg/kg body weight). In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract also demonstrated a dose-dependent significant reduction in the number of writhing induced in mice through intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid. Maximum antinociceptive activity was observed at a dose of 400 mg extract per kg body weight, which was greater than that of a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 400 mg per kg body weight. The results validate the folk medicinal use of the plant for reduction of blood sugar in diabetic patients, as well as the folk medicinal use for alleviation of pain.
PMCID: PMC3794383  PMID: 24146493
Acacia catechu; antihyperglycemic; antinociceptive; khoyer
2.  Effect of Four Medicinal Plants on Amyloid-β Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells 
Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder. This study was designed to determine the effect of four medicinal plants used to treat neurodegenerative diseases on Aβ-induced cell death. Cytotoxicity of the ethanol extracts of the plants was determined against SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma) cells which were untreated, as well as toxically induced with Aβ, using the MTT and neutral red uptake assays. Cell viability was reduced to 16% when exposed to 20 µM Aβ25–35 for 72 h. The methanol extract of the roots of Ziziphus mucronata Willd., Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. and Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC., were the least toxic to the SH-SY5Ycells at the highest concentration tested (100 µg/ml). All four plants tested were observed to reduce the effects of Aβ-induced neuronal cell death, indicating that they may contain compounds which may be relevant in the prevention of AD progression.
PMCID: PMC3794384  PMID: 24146494
Amyloid-beta peptide; medicinal plants; neurodegenerative disorders; neurotoxicity; SH-SY5Y cells
3.  Treatment of D-Galactose Induced Mouse Aging with Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides and Its Mechanism Study 
We evaluated the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides LBP) on D-galactose aging model mouse, and explored its possible mechanism. Kunming mice were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, the high-dose LBP group, and the low-dose LBP group. Except the control group, D-galactose was used for modelling. The drug was administrated when modelling. Mouse behavioural, learning and memory changes were observed, and the contents of lipid peroxidation (LPO), lipofuscin (LF) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in mouse brain tissue and the weight of immune organs were measured after 6 weeks. Compared with the control group, mouse weight gain in the model group reduced significantly. Compared with model group, after mice drank LBP, the times of electric shock was less than aging mice (in which, the high-dose LBP group, P<0.05), and electric shock incubation period was longer (P<0.01). On Day 45 after modelling and drug administration, the contents of LPO, LF and MAO-B in mouse brain tissue in the model group increased significantly, while those in the drug administration groups decreased significantly. The thymus index in the aging model group decreased significantly; the thymus index and the spleen index in the high-dose LBP group and the low-dose LBP group rebounded significantly (P<0.01). We concluded that LBP has an anti-aging effect on D-galactose induced aging model mouse, and its mechanism may be related with the alleviation of glucose metabolism disorder and the resistance of the generation of lipid peroxide and other substances, which damage cell membrane lipid.
PMCID: PMC3794385  PMID: 24146495
LBP; D-galactose; anti-aging
4.  The Effects of β-Elemene on the Expression of mTOR, HIF-1A, Survivin in Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell 
The purpose of this manuscript was to study the regulation effects of β-elemene combined with radiotherapy on three different gene expressions in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell. mTOR gene, HIF-1α gene, Survivin gene were included in the gene group. Cell culture and RT-PCR were applied to finish this research. Hypoxia Control group, Hypoxia β-elemene group, Hypoxia β-elemene combined with irradiation group were set to compare the differences of three different gene expressions. The most active effects were found in the group of Hypoxia irradiation combined with β-elemene. In this group, the mTOR gene, HIF-1α gene, Survivin gene expressions were all down-regulated when compared with the single treatment groups, and there were significantly statistical differences.
PMCID: PMC3794386  PMID: 24146496
β-elemene; A549; mTOR; HIF-1α; Survivin; Rhizoma Curcumae
5.  Effect of Chinese Medical Herbs-Huiru Yizeng Yihao on Hyperprolactinemia and Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland in Mice 
The study investigated the pharmacodynamism and mechanism of Chinese medicinal formula-Huiru Yizeng Yihao (NO.1 HRYZ) on the model rats of hyperpro-lactinemia and the model rats of hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG), and studied the internal connection between hyperprolactinemia and HMG.. The hyperprolactinemia rat models were established by injecting metoclopramide dihydrochloride in the back of rats. The model rat of HMG was prepared by injecting estradiol in the thigh muscle of the rats and progesterone consecutively, while the tails of rats were clipped with tongs. Rats were treated with either NO.1 HRYZ or positive control drugs for four weeks. The concentrations of sex hormone in rat serum were examined using ELISA kits, and the morphology of mammary gland tissue in all group rats was observed with microscope. NO.1 HRYZ significantly decreased prolactin (PRL) and increased estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations of hyperprolactinemia rats. It decreased E2, PRL, FSH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and increased P concentrations of HMG rat. It also eliminated hyperplasia of lobules and gland alveolus compared with the model group. Treatment with NO.1 HRYZ could significantly regulate the sex hormone disorder of hyperprolactinemia and HMG rat models, and could eliminate the formation of HMG. Hyperprolactinemia was closely correlated with HMG, and hyperprolactinemia promoted the formation of HMG.
PMCID: PMC3794387  PMID: 24146497
NO.1 HRYZ; hyperprolactinemia; HMG; sex hormone; morphology of mammary gland
6.  Chemotherapeutic Activities of Carthami Flos and Its Reversal Effect on Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells 
Multidrug-resistance (MDR) represents a major cause of failure in cancer chemotherapy. The need for a reduction in MDR by natural-product-based drugs of low toxicity led to the current investigation of applying medicinal herbs in future cancer adjuvant therapy. Carthami Flos (CF), the dried flower of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicinal herbs used to alleviate pain, increase circulation, and reduce blood-stasis syndrome. The drug resistance index of the total extract of CF in MDR KB-V1 cells and its synergistic effects with other chemotherapeutic agents were studied. SRB cell viability assays were used to quantify growth inhibition after exposure to single drug and in combinations with other chemotherapeutic agents using the median effect principle. The combination indexes were then calculated according to the classic isobologram equation. The results revealed that CF showed a drug resistance index of 0.096. In combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, it enhanced their chemo-sensitivities by 2.8 to 4.0 folds and gave a general synergism in cytotoxic effect. These results indicate that CF could be a potential alternative adjuvant antitumour herbal medicine representing a promising approach to the treatment of some malignant and MDR cancers in the future.
PMCID: PMC3794388  PMID: 24146498
Carthami Flos; Safflower; Honghua; Carthamus tinctorius L; KB cells; MDR
7.  Study on the Effect of Polysaccharides from Solanum Nigrum Linne on Cellular Immune Function in Tumour-Bearing Mice 
We investigated the anti-tumour effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne, and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on proliferation of lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice. ELISA assay was also used to detect the levels of IL-2 in mice, and a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on intralymphocytic free calcium ion concentration in tumour-bearing mice. Different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne significantly inhibited the growth of mouse H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular immune function that regulates the body.
PMCID: PMC3794389  PMID: 24146499
Solanum nigrum polysaccharides; tumour-bearing mice; cellular immunity
8.  Dimethoxyflavone Isolated From the Stem Bark of Stereospermum Kunthianum Possesses Antidiarrhoeal Activity in Rodents 
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of 3, 7, 4′-trihydroxy-3′-(8″-acetoxy-7″-methyloctyl)-5, 6-dimethoxyflavone, a flavonoid isolated from the stem bark of Stereospermum kunthianum. The antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated using rodent models with diarrhoea. The normal intestinal transit, castor oil-induced intestinal transit and castor oil-induced diarrhoea tests in mice as well as castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in rats were employed in the study. The animals were pretreated with distilled water (10 ml/kg for mice, 5 ml/kg for rats), dimethoxyflavone (25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg), morphine (10 mg/kg), or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) before induction of diarrhoea with castor oil (0.2ml for mice and 2ml for rats). Dimethoxyflavone dose dependently and significantly reduced (P<0.05) castor oil-induced intestinal motility. Its antimotility effect at the dose of 50 mg/kg was higher compared to that of morphine (10 mg/kg). Dimethoxyflavone (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) caused a delay in the onset of diarrhoea reduction in the number and weight of wet stools and total stools in mice with castor oil-induced diarrhoea compared to the distilled water treated mice. Treatment with dimethoxyflavone (25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) did not produce any remarkable effect on castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in rats and normal intestinal transit in mice. The results indicate that dimethoxyflavone possesses antidiarrhoeal activity due to its intestinal antimotility effect and inhibition of other diarrhoeal pathophysiological processes. In conclusion, dimethoxyflavone reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhoea in the diarrhoeal models studied.
PMCID: PMC3794390  PMID: 24146500
Dimethoxyflavone; Stereospermum kunthianum; flavonoid; antidiarrhoeal activity
9.  Determination of Antimicrobial Effect, Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Contents of Desert Truffle in Turkey 
Terfezia boudieri Chatin (Scop.) Pers., is a famous macrofungus in the world as well as in Turkey for its pleasant aroma and flavour. People believe that this mushroom has some medicinal properties. Therefore, it is consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of T. boudieri were tested to reveal its antimicrobial activity against four Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast using a micro dilution method. In this study, the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was observed with the acetone extract (MIC, 4.8 µg/mL) against Candida albicans. Maximum antimicrobial effect was also determined with the acetone extract (MIC, 39–78 µg/mL). The scavenging effect of T. boudieri on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was measured as 0.031 mg/mL at 5 mg/mL concentration, and its reducing power was 0.214 mg/mL at 0.4 mg/mL. In addition, the phenolic contents were determined as follows: the catechin was 20 mg/g, the ferulic acid was 15 mg/g, the p-coumaric acid was 10 mg/g, and the cinnamic acid was 6 mg/g. The results showed that T. boudieri has antimicrobial activity on the gram negative and positive bacteria as well as yeast, and it also has a high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, T. boudieri can be recommended as an important natural food source.
PMCID: PMC3794391  PMID: 24146501
Gram positive and negative bacteria; medical mushroom; scavenging effect; Terfezia boudieri
10.  Ethno-Botanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Paddar Valley of Jammu and Kashmir, India 
The Paddar Valley, historically known as Sapphire Valley situated in Kishtwar district, is a prime landmark in the Jammu region of J&K state and is known for its rich cultural and plant diversity because of diverse habitats such as rivers, streams, meadows and steep mountain slopes. The area is located in the dry temperate region comprising typical vegetation which disappears completely on the eastern slopes, dominated by a variety of economical species which play an important role in the rural life. The inhabitants are dependent on plant resources for food, fuel, timber, shelter, fodder/forage, household articles and traditional medicines in treating diseases like malaria, cancer, gastro-intestinal ailments, etc. This paper deals with the observations on traditional therapeutic application by the inhabitants of Paddar Valley. The ethno-botanical information on medicinal plants would not only be useful in conservation of traditional cultures and biodiversity but also community health care and drug development. Exploration survey in Paddar Valley has revealed that people collect and sell these medicinal species through local intermediaries / contractors to earn their livelihood. But the scientific cultivation and appropriate post-harvest management would improve employment opportunity and income of local farmers in the region.
PMCID: PMC3794392  PMID: 24146502
Ethno-botanical; medicinal plants; Paddar valley; Jammu and Kashmir
11.  The Inhibitory Effect of Binens Bipinnata L. Extract on U14 Tumour in Mice 
The objective of this paper was to study the in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect of Bidens bipinnata L. extract on growth of cervical carcinoma U14 cells. MTT method was used to determine the inhibitory effect of Bidens bipinnata L. extract on U14 tumour cells, and the effects of Bidens bipinnata L. extract on inhibition rate of solid tumour and life prolongation rate of ascites tumour were observed through the establishment of two animal models of mouse cervical carcinoma U14 solid tumour and ascites tumour. In the in vitro MTT assay, the inhibition rate gradually increased with the increase of dose of Bidens bipinnata L. and the extension of time. Its inhibition rate was 70.44% at a concentration of 80µg/L. Solid tumour inhibition rates in the high- and low-dose groups and cisplatin group were 49.13%, 2.26% and 75.72% respectively; life prolongation rates in each ascites tumour group were 63.63%, 34.86% and 87.34% respectively. The Bidens bipinnata L. extract has a certain inhibitory effect on growth of mouse cervical carcinoma U14.
PMCID: PMC3794393  PMID: 24146503
Bidens bipinnata L. extract; U14; solid tumour; ascites tumour
12.  Effects of Gan Lian Yu Ping Feng Powder on the Antibody Titers to Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccine and Some Nonspecific Immune Indexes in Chickens 
The study was conducted in order to investigate the immuno-enhancing property of the Chinese herbal formula, Gan lian Yu ping feng powder. Three hundred and thirty six 45-day-old chicks were randomly divided into eight groups. The chicks in groups A, B, C were orally given 0.25 g/mL (low-), 0.5 g/mL (middle-) and 1.0 g/mL (high) dose of Gan lian Yu ping feng powder in the drinking water respectively for 3 days consecutively. They were then immunised with infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine (ILTV) on the 4th day. Groups D, E, F were given 0.25 g/mL, 0.5 g/mL and 1.0 g/mL dose of Gan lian Yu ping feng powder respectively after the immunisation for three days consecutively. Group G was Wen du qing (a government approved herbal product for ILT) control group, and group H was blank control group. At 52, 59, 73, 87 days of age, 8 chicks of each group were selected randomly for blood sampling to determine the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and the antibody of ILT. Then the chickens were sacrificed, with the thymus, spleen and Bursa of Fabricius being weighed for the calculation of immune organ indexes. The results showed that high and middle dosages of Gan lian Yu ping feng powder given at the day before immunisation and 3 days after immunisation elevated not only the contents of IFN-γ, the antibody titers of ILT (P<0.01) and the immune organ indexes (P<0.05) significantly, but also reduced the contents of IL-4. There was a significantly different degree of enhancement in the content of IFN-γ, the antibody of ILT (P<0.01) and the immune organ index (P<0.05). The results indicate that Gan lian Yu ping feng powder effectively improves the immunity in chickens.
PMCID: PMC3794394  PMID: 24146504
Gan lian Yu ping feng powder; chicken; Infectious Laryngotracheitis vaccine; immune function
13.  A Comparative Study of Anti-Gastric Cancer Activity Between Aqueous Extract and Ethanol Extract of Folium Cordylines Fruticosae 
The active components in Folium Cordylines Fruticosae were extracted by heat reflux method. The solvents used were distilled water and ethanol. The effects of two types of extracts on gastric cancer cells were compared; dry extract yields were calculated, as well as the inhibition rates of gastric cancer MGC-803 cell proliferation and the colony cell counts. The micro-Kjeldahl method was used to measure the cell protein contents and to make a comprehensive comparison. The results showed that the MGC-803 cell inhibition rates of three different concentrations (32.5, 75 and 150 mg/ml) of ethanol extracts increased with the increase of concentration, which was 48.9% at a concentration of 150 mg/ml; aqueous extract of Folium Cordylines Fruticosae had very low inhibitory activity at a low concentration (32.5 mg/ml), which was remained at about 20%. After being affected by two types of extracts, cells had uneven sizes, with very low brightness, while the normal cells presented a uniform full form, with high definition.
PMCID: PMC3794395  PMID: 24146505
Folium Cordylines Fruticosae; Anti-gastric Cancer MGC-803 cell
14.  Analysis on 113 Cases of Adverse Reactions Caused by β-Lactam Antibiotics 
The objectives of this study were to learn about the characteristics and rules of the occurrence of adverse reactions caused by lactam antibiotics and provide a reference for clinical drug use. Methods: A retrospective study was made to analyse the 113 case reports of adverse reactions caused by β-lactam antibiotics collected in our hospital between 2007 and 2009. Results: 113 cases of ADR involved 17 kinds of β-lactam antibiotics, headed by ceftriaxone sodium. The most common manifestation was skin and accessory damage; nervous system and gastrointestinal system damage were also easier to find, and the administration route was mainly intravenous infusion. Conclusion: The clinical application of β-lactam antibiotics should pay attention to adverse reaction monitoring and rational drug use to reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.
PMCID: PMC3794396  PMID: 24146506
adverse drug reactions; β-lactam antibiotics
15.  A Review of Oxidative Stress in Acute Kidney Injury: Protective Role of Medicinal Plants-Derived Antioxidants 
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the common clinical syndrome which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The severity extends from less to more advanced spectrums which link to biological, physical and chemical agents. Oxidative stress (OS)-related AKI has demonstrated the increasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and the decreasing of endogenous antioxidants. Medicinal plants-derived antioxidants can be ameliorated oxidative stress-related AKI through reduction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and enhancement of activities and levels of endogenous antioxidants. Therefore, medicinal plants are good sources of exogenous antioxidants which might be considered the important remedies to ameliorate pathological alterations in oxidative stress-related AKI.
PMCID: PMC3794397  PMID: 24146507
Acute kidney injury; Medicinal plant; Oxidative stress
16.  Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Pedalium Murex Linn. Fruits 
This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan induced paw oedema in Wistar albino rats; analgesic activity with doses of 280 mg/kg and 560 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice; and antipyretic activity with doses of 110 mg/kg and 220 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbits by injecting gram -ve lipopolysaccharide obtained from E. coli. Results were analysed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnet's multiple comparison test. Pedalium murex Linn. showed significant anti-inflammatory activity from 15 min to 180 min as compared to vehicle treated animals. It was comparable to diclofenac sodium at 180 min. The extract did not prolong the reaction time on hot plate method but significantly reduced the number of writhing after acetic acid administration. Also the extract did not show any antipyretic activity on lipopolysaccharide induced pyrexia. It is therefore concluded that the ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits has an anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic effects.
PMCID: PMC3794398  PMID: 24146508
Anti-inflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic; Pedalium murex Linn.; Carrageenan
17.  Antimicrobial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Five Palestinian Medicinal Plants 
Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms included six bacterial isolates (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginos, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungal isolates (i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). A standard antioxidant assay was performed on the plant extracts to assess their capability in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of the five tested plant extract, only Rosmarinus offcinalis extract contained significant antimicrobial activity against all eight microbial isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from other four plants exhibited a variable antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significant antioxidant activity was detected in all plant extracts. However, extracts from Pisidium guajava leaves contained significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to the other extracts tested. The antimicrobial and scavenging activities detected in this in vitro study in extracts from the five Palestinian medicinal plants suggest that further study is needed to identify active compounds to target diseases caused by a wide-spectrum pathogens.
PMCID: PMC3794399  PMID: 24146509
Antimicrobial activity; plant extract; scavenging activity
18.  General Acteoside of Rehmanniae Leaves in the Treatment of Primary Chronic Glomerulonephritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
The objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of the randomized, parallel, and controlled trial of Traditional Chinese Medicine, general acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves, compared with piperazine ferulate in the treatment of primary chronic glomerulonephritis. Rehmanniae leaves and piperazine ferulate can reduce proteinuria and erythrocyturia effectively in the treatment of primary chronic glomerulonephritis. A total of 400 patients diagnosed with primary chronic glomerulonephritis were recruited from outpatient clinics and were randomly assigned to the treatment group (general acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves, two 200mg tablets, bid) or the control group (piperazine ferulate, four 50-mg tablets, bid ). The primary outcome was 24-h urinary protein. Secondary outcome measures included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), erythrocyturia, and electrolytes. After 8 weeks of treatment, the treatment group and the control group showed a mean reduction in 24-h proteinuria of 34.81% and 37.66%. The 95% CI of difference of the mean reduction in 24-h proteinuria between the two groups was [−11.50%, 5.80%]. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the erythrocyturia reduction. Neither group showed obvious changes between baseline and 8 weeks in eGFR or electrolytes. Adverse events occurred at a similarly low rate in the treatment group (1.5%) and control group (2.5%, P = 0.7238). Both general acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves and piperazine ferulate can reduce proteinuria and erythrocyturia effectively in the treatment of primary chronic glomerulonephritis.
PMCID: PMC3794400  PMID: 24146510
Chronic glomerulonephritis; General acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves; Piperazine ferulate; Randomized controlled trials
19.  The View of Patients with Choronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in Eastern Turkey 
The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of complementary and alternative medicine usage in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients living in the eastern part of Turkey. In this study a descriptive design was used. The study was conducted with 216 patients who were present at the clinic. Data were gathered by the researchers in a comfortable setting through questionnaire method using the data collection form developed by the researcher. Individualised questionnaire-based interviews were also conducted among the 216 adult patients. The questionnaire included demographic information, clinical information, use of conventional therapies, and complementary and alternative therapy. According to the findings obtained in this research, the frequency of CAM use among Turkish COPD patients (72.1%) was close to the highest levels reported in the literature.
PMCID: PMC3794401  PMID: 24146511
Complementary and alternative therapy; COPD; Turkey
20.  Toxicity Studies of the Water Extract from the Calyces of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. in Rats 
Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and differences of the weights or behaviour compared to the control rats were observed. The results indicated that the single oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract in the amount of 5,000 mg/kg body weight does not produce acute toxicity. The chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats daily with the extract at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days. The examinations of signs, animal behaviour and health monitoring showed no defects in the test groups compared to the control groups. Both test and control groups (day 270th) and satellite group (day 298th) were analysed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining haematology, blood clinical chemistry, and microanatomy. Results showed no differences from the control groups. Overall, our study demonstrated that an oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days does not cause chronic toxicity in rat.
PMCID: PMC3794402  PMID: 24146512
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; acute toxicity; chronic toxicity
21.  Moduratory Effect of Thai Traditional Medicine (Yahom Tultavai) on Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Pentobarbital-Induced Sleeping in Mice 
Yahom Tultavai is a Thai traditional medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, dizziness and weakness in aged-people, especially. Its formula contains several medicinal plants, and one of them is Kaempferia galanga L., which has ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) as its major compound. Recently, several herbs and traditional medicines have been reported to demonstrate herbal-drug interaction with conventional medicines. This study aims to investigate the effect of Yahom Tultavai extracts on hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes and pentobarbital-induced sleeping in mice. Three extracts of Yahom Tultavai, using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water as solvents were orally administered for 28 days prior to determine CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 activities. All three extracts significantly inhibited CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP 2E1 activities, but only dichloromethane extract enhanced CYP2B activity. In addition, all three extracts had no effect on CYP3A4 activity. As an indicator for metabolic drug interaction, pentobarbital-induced sleeping time was decreased in connection with the induction of CYP2B activity between 7 and 28 days of dichloromethane extract and EPMC-treated animals when compared to control. In conclusion, Yahom Tultavai extracts affected hepatic microsomal CYP enzyme activities and reduced pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The results suggest that Yahom Tultavai may potentially cause herbal and conventional drug interaction, which can affect the clinical implication of drug action. Therefore, the co-administration of Yahom Tultavai with certain drugs should be carefully considered.
PMCID: PMC3794403  PMID: 24146513
Yahom Tultavai; Thai traditional medicine; cytochrome P450; pentobarbital-induced sleeping; herbal-drug interaction
22.  Cytotoxic and Antibacteriial Actiivity of the Mixture of Olive Oil and Lime Cream in Vitro Conditions 
The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.
PMCID: PMC3794404  PMID: 24146514
Olive oil; lime cream; burn; in vitro; cytotoxic activity; antibacterial activity
23.  Morphological and Anatomical Investigations into the Mechanism of Leaf Pair Unrolling in Uraria Picta (Jacq.) Desv. Ex DC. (Papilionaceae), a Medicinal Plant in Nigeria 
Uraria picta leaf-pair unrolling inside out is a remarkable feat. A leaf-pair was investigated to understand the mechanism of spontaneous reverse inside out act of the plant. The upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) surfaces of the leaf-pair were examined using scanning and light microscopy. The scan showed diversity of hairs varying in shape from straight, pointed, curve, and club to hook. There were deposits of wax on both sides of the leaf-pair. The light microscope showed hairs are restricted to the midrib on the adaxial surface of the leaflets. Hooked hairs dominated the entire abaxial surface of the leaflets. The transverse section of the midrib section showed abundance of structural and mechanical tissues, collenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues. Both morphological and anatomical attributes were used to explain the mechanism and how the plant got its Yoruba vernacular name ‘Alupayida’ as well as its purported use in changing the sex of the unborn child and in breaking up love affairs.
PMCID: PMC3794405  PMID: 24146515
Leaves; Mechanism; Collenchyma; Sclerenchyma; Trichomes; Uraria picta; Wax
24.  The Effects of Maggot Secretions on the Inflammatory Cytokines in Serum of Traumatic Rats 
The objective of this study was to analyse the changes of inflammatory cytokines level in traumatic rat serum after maggot secretions intervention. Acute traumatic rats were randomly divided into three groups that included maggot secretions group, negative group, and the control group. TNF-α, IL-6, SOD, LPO levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The experimental results showed that TNF-α, IL-6, and SOD levels in the model group were significantly increased; LPO level was decreased and showed significant differences. Thus, the content of inflammatory cytokines in acute skin wounds could be reduced by maggot secretions, which play a role in enhancing wound healing.
PMCID: PMC3794406  PMID: 24146516
Maggot secretions; serum; inflammatory cytokines; wounds
25.  Histological and Biochemical Effects of Arteether™ on the Liver of Wistar Rats 
Arteether™ is among the recent drugs that are used to combat chloroquine-resistant malarial parasites. This study examined the effects of arteether™ on enzyme biomarkers of the liver, serum protein concentrations, and liver morphology. Twenty (20) adult albino Wistar rats weighing 200 – 250 g were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) of five animals each, and used in this study. Group A rats were given intramuscular (i. m.) arteether™ (3 mg/kg b. w.) daily for 3 days. Group B rats received i. m. arteether™ (6 mg/kg b. w.) daily for 3 days. Group C rats were given i. m. arteether™ (3 mg/kg b. w.) daily for 3 days. The same dose was repeated at two-weekly intervals for 4 further weeks, while group D rats which received normal saline (0.9 % w/ v, 3 ml/kg b.w.), served as controls. At the end of the experiment, the body weights of the animals were determined and recorded. Serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (ASP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP) and albumin were assayed, and histological studies were performed. Results obtained show no significant difference (P<0.05) in liver enzymes (ALT, ASP, ALP). TP and albumin were significantly reduced in group C rats. Histological studies revealed no cyto-architectural changes. It is concluded that at therapeutic doses, arteether™ is well tolerated in Wistar rats.
PMCID: PMC3794407  PMID: 24146517
Arteether™; Malaria; Liver enzymes; Serum protein concentrations; Morphology; Wistar rats

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