Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanolic root bark extract of Leucophyllum frutescens (Berl.) I.M. Johnst. led to the identification of leubethanol (1), a new serrulatane-type diterpene with activity against both multi drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Leubethanol (1) was identified by 1D/2D NMR data, as a serrulatane closely related to erogorgiane (2), and exhibited anti-TB activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range 6.25–12.50 µg/mL. Stereochemical evidence for 1 was gleaned from 1D and 2D NOE experiments, 1H-NMR full spin analysis, as well as by comparison of the experimental vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectrum to density functional theory calculated VCD spectra of two diastereomers.
Leucophyllum frutescens; Scrophulariaceae; diterpenes; structure elucidation; anti-tuberculosis activity; drug-resistant; full spin analysis; circular dichroism
The development of an efficient diastereoselective method that permits rapid construction of the tetracyclic core 17 of the Strychnos-Aspidosperma alkaloids is described. Enaminone 16, synthesized in high yield, has been cyclized under the influence of a Brønsted acid to provide the core tetracyclic framework 17 of the Strychnos alkaloids in optically active form or alternatively to the β-ketoester tetrahydro-β-carboline (THBC) unit 18, by varying the equivalents of acid and the molar concentration. Attempts to utilize 18 to form the C(7)-C(16) bond of the akuammiline related alkaloids represented by strictamine (22), using metal-carbenoid chemistry are also described.
Ascidians (tunicates) are rich sources of structurally elegant, pharmaceutically potent secondary metabolites and more recently, potential biofuels. It has been demonstrated that some of these compounds are made by symbiotic bacteria and not by the animals themselves, and for a few other compounds evidence exists supporting a symbiotic origin. In didemnid ascidians, compounds are highly variable even in apparently identical animals. Recently, we have explained this variation at the genomic and metagenomic levels and have applied the basic scientific findings to drug discovery and development. This review discusses what is currently known about the origin and variation of symbiotically derived metabolites in ascidians, focusing on Family Didemnidae, where most research has occurred. Applications of our basic studies are also described.
Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. Its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycles, metacridamides A (1) and B (2), which consist of a Phe unit condensed with a nonaketide. Planar structures were elucidated by a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR techniques. Following hydrolysis of 1, chiral amino acid analysis assigned the L-configuration to the Phe unit. A crystal structure established the absolute configuration of the eight remaining stereogenic centers in 1. Metacridamide A (1) showed cytotoxicity to three cancer lines with IC50s of 6.2, 11.0, and 10.8 µM against Caco-2 (epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and HepG2/C3A (hepatoma) cell lines, respectively. In addition, metacridamide B (2) had an IC50 of 18.2 µM against HepG2/C3A, although it was inactive at 100 µM against Caco-2 and MCF-7. Neither analogue showed antimicrobial, phytotoxic, or insecticidal activity.
The structure elucidation of the palau'amine congener tetrabromostyloguanidine (1), which used interproton distances from ROESY spectra as restraints in a computational approach, the so-called fc-rDG/DDD method, led to a revision of the relative configuration of palau'amine (2) and its congeners in 2007. The recent total synthesis of (±)-palau'amine (2) subsequently confirmed the computed structural revision of the relative configuration. In order to test a broader application range of the fc-rDG/DDD method, the present study investigated two additional dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, axinellamine A (3) and 3,7-epi-massadine chloride (4). These calculations allowed the simultaneous assignment of the relative configuration for all eight stereogenic centers of compounds 3 and 4 without using any information from the reported configurations. In contrast to the palau'amine congeners, the fc-rDG/DDD method confirmed the relative configuration originally described for axinellamine A (3) and 3,7-epi-massadine chloride (4).
Two new drimane sesquiterpene lactones and one new tricarboxylic acid derivative were isolated from the Berkeley Pit extremophilic fungus Penicillium solitum. The structures of these compounds were deduced by spectroscopic analysis. Berkedrimanes A and B inhibited the signal transduction enzymes caspase-1 and caspase-3 and mitigated the production of interleukin 1-β in the induced THP-1 (promonocytic leukemia cell line) assay.
Botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies are widely used for health promotion and disease prevention. Due to the high chemical complexity of these natural products, it is essential to develop new analytical strategies to guarantee their quality and consistency. In particular, the precise characterization of multiple botanical markers remains a challenge. This study demonstrates how a combination of computer-aided spectral analysis and 1D quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy (qHNMR) generates the analytical foundation for innovative means of simultaneously identifying and quantifying botanical markers in complex mixtures. First, comprehensive 1H NMR profiles (fingerprints) of selected botanical markers were generated via 1H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA) with PERCH. Next, the 1H fingerprints were used to assign specific 1H resonances in the NMR spectra of reference materials, enriched fractions and crude extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves. These 1H fingerprints were then used to verify the assignments by 2D NMR. Subsequently, a complete purity and composition assessment by means of 1D qHNMR was conducted. As its major strengths, this tandem approach enables the simultaneous quantification of multiple constituents without the need for identical reference materials, the semi-quantitative determination of particular sub-classes of components, and the detection of impurities and adulterants.
A significant challenge in natural product discovery is the initial discrimination of discrete secondary metabolites alongside functionally similar primary metabolic cellular components within complex biological samples. A property that has yet to be fully exploited for natural product identification and characterization is the gas phase collision cross section, or, more generally, the mobility-mass correlation. Peptide natural products possess many of the properties that distinguish natural products as they are frequently characterized by a high degree of intramolecular bonding, and possess extended and compact conformations among other structural modifications. This report describes a rapid structural mass spectrometry technique based on ion mobility-mass spectrometry for the comparison of peptide natural products to their primary metabolic congeners using mobility-mass correlation. This property is empirically determined using ion mobility-mass spectrometry, applied to the analysis of linear versus modified peptides, and used to discriminate peptide natural products in a crude microbial extract. Complementary computational approaches are utilized to understand the structural basis for the separation of primary metabolism derived linear peptides from secondary metabolite cyclic and modified cyclic species. These findings provide a platform for enhancing the identification of secondary metabolic peptides with distinct mobility-mass ratios within complex biological samples.
Credneramides A (1) and B (2), two vinyl chloride-containing metabolites, were isolated from a Papua New Guinea collection of cf. Trichodesmium sp. nov and expand a recently described class of vinyl chloride-containing natural products. The precursor fatty acid, credneric acid (3), was isolated from both the aqueous and organic fractions of the parent fraction as well as from another geographically and phylogenetically distinct cyanobacterial collection (Panama). Credneramides A and B inhibited spontaneous calcium oscillations in murine cerebrocortical neurons at low micromolar concentrations (1, IC50 4.0 μM; 2, IC50 3.8 μM).
Numerous marine-derived pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids (PIAs), ostensibly derived from the simple precursor oroidin, 1a, have been reported and have garnered intense synthetic interest due to their complex structures and in some cases biological activity; however very little is known regarding their biosynthesis. We describe a concise synthesis of 7-15N-oroidin (1d) from urocanic acid and a direct method for measurement of 15N incorporation by pulse labeling and analysis by 1D 1H-15N HSQC NMR and FTMS. Using a mock pulse labeling experiment, we estimate the limit of detection (LOD) for incorporation of newly biosynthesized PIA by 1D 1H-15N HSQC to be 0.96 μg equivalent of 15N oroidin (2.4 nmole) in a background of 1500 μg unlabeled oroidin (about 1 part per 1600). 7-15N-Oroidin will find utility in biosynthetic feeding experiments with live sponges to provide direct information to clarify the pathways leading to more complex pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids.
A high throughput (HT) paradigm generating LC-MS-UV-ELSD based natural product libraries to discover compounds with new bioactivities and or molecular structures is presented. To validate this methodology an extract of the Indo Pacific marine sponge Cacospongia mycofijiensis was evaluated using assays involving cytoskeletal profiling, tumor cell lines, and parasites. Twelve known compounds were identified including the latrunculins (1–4, 10), fijianolides (5, 8–9), mycothiazole (11), the aignopsanes (6–7) and sacrotride A (13). Compounds 1–4, 5, 8–11 exhibited bioactivity not previously reported against the parasite T. brucei, while 11 showed selectivity for lymphoma (U937) tumor cell lines. Four new compounds were also discovered including: aignopsanoic acid B (13), apo latrunculin T (14), 20-methoxy-fijianolide A (15) and aignopsane ketal (16). Compounds 13 and 16 represent important derivatives of the aignopsane class, 14 exhibited inhibition of T. brucei without disrupting microfilament assembly and 15 demonstrated modest microtubule stabilizing effects. The use of removable well plate libraries to avoid false positives from extracts enriched with only 1–2 major metabolites is also discussed. Overall, these results highlight the advantages of applying modern methods in natural products-based research to accelerate the HT discovery of therapeutic leads and or new molecular structures using LC-MS-UV-ELSD based libraries.
Fourteen new withanolides 1-14, named withalongolides A-N, respectively, were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis longifolia together with eight known compounds (15-22). The structures of compounds 1-14 were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods. In addition, the structures of withanolides 1, 2, 3, and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Using a MTS viability assays, eight withanolides (1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 15, 16, and 19) and four acetylated derivatives (1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b) showed potent cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (JMAR and MDA-1986), melanoma (B16F10 and SKMEL-28), and normal fetal fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC50 values in the range between 0.067 and 9.3 μM.
A bioactivity-guided approach was taken to identify the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 220.127.116.11) inhibitory agent in a Magnolia x soulangiana extract using a microplate enzyme assay with Ellman’s reagent. This permitted the isolation of the alkaloids taspine (1) and (−)-asimilobine (2), which were detected for the first time in this species. Compound 1 showed a significantly higher effect on AChE than the positive control galanthamine and selectively inhibited the enzyme in a long-lasting and concentration-dependent fashion with an IC50 value of 0.33 ± 0.07 μM. Extensive molecular docking studies were performed with human and Torpedo californica-AChE employing Gold software to rationalize the binding interaction. The results suggested ligand 1 to bind in an alternative binding orientation when compared to galanthamine. While this is located in close vicinity to the catalytic amino acid triad, the 1–AChE complex was found to be stabilized by (i) sandwich-like π-stacking interactions between the planar aromatic ligand (1) and the Trp84 and Phe330 of the enzyme, (ii) an esteratic site anchoring with the amino side chain, and (iii) a hydrogen-bonding network.
A lipophilic extract of an eastern Caribbean collection of Lyngbya majuscula yielded two new halogenated fatty acid amides, grenadamides B (1) and C (2), and two new depsipeptides, itralamides A (3) and B (4), along with the known compounds hectochlorin and deacetylhectochlorin. The recently reported depsipeptide carriebowmide (5) was also present in the extract and isolated as its sulfone artifact (6). Compounds 1–4 were identified by spectroscopic methods. The configurations of the amino acid residues of 3, 4, and 6 were determined by LC-MS analyses of diastereomeric derivatives of the acid hydrolysates (advanced Marfey’s method). Based on the configurational analysis of 6, in direct comparison with authentic carriebowmide (5), a minor structural revision of 5 is proposed. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed marginal activity against the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). Compounds 1–4, and 6 were assessed for general cell toxicity in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Only itralamide B (4) displayed significant cytotoxicity, showing an IC50 value of 6 ± 1 μM.
Over eight different families of natural products, consisting of nearly seventy secondary metabolites, which contain the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane ring system, have been isolated from various Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Malbranchea species. Since 1968, these secondary metabolites have been the focus of numerous biogenetic, synthetic, taxonomic, and biological studies, and, as such, have made a lasting impact across multiple scientific disciplines. This review covers the isolation, biosynthesis, and biological activity of these unique secondary metabolites containing the bridging bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane ring system. Furthermore, the diverse fungal origin of these natural products is closely examined and, in many cases, updated to reflect the currently accepted fungal taxonomy.
Bioactivity guided fractionation of an extract of Burkholderia thailandensis led to the isolation and identification of a new cytotoxic depsipeptide and its dimer. Both compounds potently inhibited the function of histone deacetylases 1 and 4. The monomer, spiruchostatin C (2), was tested side-by-side with the clinical depsipeptide FK228 (1, Istodax®, romidepsin) in a murine hollow fiber assay consisting of 12 implanted tumor cell lines. Spiruchostatin C (2) showed good activity towards LOX IMVI melanoma cells and NCI-H522 non small cell lung cancer cells. Overall, however, FK228 (1) showed a superior in vivo antitumor profile compared to the new compound.
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer drugs, with one synthetic compound, SAHA (vorinostat, Zolinza®; 1), and one natural product, FK228 (depsipeptide, romidepsin, Istodax®; 2), approved by FDA for clinical use. Our studies of FK228 biosynthesis in Chromobacterium violaceum No. 968 led to the identification of a cryptic biosynthetic gene cluster in the genome of Burkholderia thailandensis E264. Genome mining and genetic manipulation of this gene cluster further led to the discovery of two new products, thailandepsin A (6) and thailandepsin B (7). HDAC inhibition assays showed that thailandepsins have selective inhibition profiles different from that of FK228, with comparable inhibitory activities to those of FK228 toward human HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC6, HDAC7 and HDAC9, but weaker inhibitory activities than FK228 toward HDAC4 and HDAC8, the later of which could be beneficial. NCI-60 anticancer screening assays showed that thailandepsins possess broad-spectrum antiproliferative activities with GI50 for over 90% of the tested cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations, and potent cytotoxic activities towards certain types of cell lines, particularly for those derived from colon, melanoma, ovarian and renal cancers. Thailandepsins thus represent new naturally produced HDAC inhibitors that are promising for anticancer drug development.
Antiproliferation; Burkholderia thailandensis; genome mining; histone deacetylase inhibitor; thailandepsins
We recently developed 2D 1H-13C HSQC0 approach to quantify individual chemicals in complex mixtures. The HSQC0 approach has been implemented in phase-cycled and gradient selective versions. As in quantitative 1D NMR, the normalized integrated signal intensities in HSQC0 are proportional to the concentrations of individual chemicals in the mixture. We applied the HSQC0 approaches to selectively quantify thiocoraline present at a level of 1% w/w in an extract from a Verrucosispora sp. isolated from the sponge Chondrilla caribensis f. caribensis. We expect that this approach can be used to quantify other natural products of interest in extracts without prior purification.
Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted on a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Piper sarmentosum collected in Vietnam, monitored by a mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) assay using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This led to the isolation of four new C-benzylated dihydroflavones, sarmentosumins A-D (1-4), as well as 14 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Among these compounds, 1-4 as well as five known C-benzylated dihydroflavones (5-9), and pipercallosine, a piperamide (11), were found to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells by moderately reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), with ED50 values ranging from 1.6 to 13.6 μM. Furthermore, 7-methoxydichamanetin (8) and pinocembrin (10) exhibited proteasome inhibitory activities in a human 20S proteasome bioassay with IC50 values of 3.45 ± 0.18 μM and 2.87 ± 0.26 μM, respectively. This is the first time that C-benzylated dihydroflavones have been reported to demonstrate an apoptotic effect associated with disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential.
The Berkeley Pit, an acid mine waste lake, is a source of extremophilic microorganisms that produce interesting bioactive compounds. We have previously reported the isolation of berkeleydione 1, berkeleytrione 2, the berkeleyacetals and the berkeleyamides from the Pit Lake fungus Penicillium rubrum. In this paper we report the isolation and characterization of berkeleyones A-C (4, 5 and 7) as well as previously described preaustinoid A (3) and A1(6) from this same fungus. These compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of the signaling enzyme caspase-1 and as potential inhibitors of interleukin 1-β production by inflammasomes in induced THP-1 cell line assays.
Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined via NOESY data. The isolation of guangomide A was of particular interest, since it was reported previously from a marine derived fungus.
NMR-guided fractionation of two independent collections of the marine cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula obtained from Papua New Guinea and Oscillatoria sp. collected in Panama led to the isolation of the new lipids, serinolamide A (3) and propenediester (4). Their structures were determined by NMR and MS data analysis. Serinolamide A (3) exhibited a moderate agonist effect and selectivity for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (EC50 2.3 µM, >10-fold), and represents the newest addition to the known cannabinomimetic natural products of marine origin.
Five new isopimarane diterpenes, smardaesidins A – E (1 – 5) and two new 20-nor-isopimarane diterpenes, smardaesidins F (6) and G (7) together with sphaeropsidins A (8), and C – F (10 – 13) were isolated from an endophytic fungal strain, Smardaea sp. AZ0432, occurring in living photosynthetic tissue of the moss Ceratodon purpureus. Of these, smardaesidins B (2) and C (3) were obtained as an inseparable mixture of isomers. Chemical reduction of sphaeropsidin A (8) afforded sphaeropsidin B (9) whereas catalytic hydrogenation of 8 yielded 7-O-15,16-tetrahydrosphaeropsidin A (14), and its new derivative, 7-hydroxy-6-oxo-isopimara-7-en-20-oic acid (15). Acetylation and diazomethane reaction of sphaeropsidin A (8) afforded two of its known derivatives, 6-O-acetylsphaeropsidin A (16) and 8,14-methylenesphaeropsidin A methyl ester (17), respectively. Methylation of 10 yielded sphaeropsidin C methyl ester (18). The planar structures and relative configurations of the new compounds 1 – 7, and 15 were elucidated using MS, and 1D and 2D NMR experiments while the absolute configurations of the stereocenters of 4 and 6 – 8 were assigned using modified Mosher’s ester method, CD spectra, and comparison of specific rotation data with literature values. Compounds 1 – 18 were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity using several cancer cell lines and cells derived from normal human primary fibroblasts. Of these, compounds 8, 11, and 16 showed significant cytotoxic activity. More importantly, sphaeropsidin A (8) showed cell-type selectivity in cytotoxicity assay and inhibited migration of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells at sub-cytotoxic concentrations.