This systematic review describes human molecular imaging studies which have investigated alterations in extracellular DA levels during performance of behavioral tasks. Whilst heterogeneity in experimental methods limits meta-analysis, we describe the advantages and limitations of different methodological approaches. Interpretation of experimental results may be limited by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes, head movement and choice of control conditions. We revisit our original study of striatal DA release during video-game playing (Koepp et al., 1998) to illustrate the potentially confounding influences of head movement and alterations in rCBF. Changes in [11C]raclopride binding may be detected in extrastriatal as well as striatal brain regions – however we review evidence which suggests that extrastriatal changes may not be clearly interpreted in terms of DA release. Whilst several investigations have detected increases in striatal extracellular DA concentrations during task components such as motor learning and execution, reward-related processes, stress and cognitive performance, the presence of potentially biasing factors should be carefully considered (and, where possible, accounted for) when designing and interpreting future studies.
Dopamine; PET; SPET; striatum; D2/3 receptor; [11C]raclopride; cognition; reward; stress; motor
Much research shows early life manipulations have enduring behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. However, findings of learning and memory performance vary widely across studies. We reviewed studies in which pre-weaning rat pups were exposed to stressors and tested on learning and memory tasks in adulthood. Tasks were classified as aversive conditioning, inhibitory learning, or spatial/relational memory. Variables of duration, type, and timing of neonatal manipulation and sex and strain of animals were examined to determine if any predict enhanced or impaired performance. Brief separations enhanced and prolonged separations impaired performance on spatial/relational tasks. Performance was impaired in aversive conditioning and enhanced in inhibitory learning tasks regardless of manipulation duration. Opposing effects on performance for spatial/relational memory also depended upon timing of manipulation. Enhanced performance was likely if the manipulation occurred during postnatal week 3 but performance was impaired if it was confined to the first two postnatal weeks. Thus, the relationship between early life experiences and adulthood learning and memory performance is multifaceted and decidedly task-dependent.
early life stress; neonatal isolation; maternal separation; neonatal handling; aversive conditioning; spatial memory; hippocampus; development
Depression is a major contributor to the global burden of disease and disability, yet it is poorly understood. Here we review data supporting a novel theoretical model for the biology of depression. In this model, a stressful life event leads to microdamage in the brain. This damage triggers an injury repair response consisting of a neuroinflammatory phase to clear cellular debris, and a spontaneous tissue regeneration phase involving neurotrophins and neurogenesis. During healing, released inflammatory mediators trigger sickness behavior and psychological pain via mechanisms similar to those that produce physical pain during wound healing. The depression remits if the neuronal injury repair process resolves successfully. Importantly, however, the acute psychological pain and neuroinflammation often transition to chronicity and develop into pathological depressive states. This hypothesis for depression explains substantially more data than alternative models, including why emerging data show that analgesic, anti-inflammatory, pro-neurogenic and pro-neurotrophic treatments have antidepressant effects. Thus, an acute depressive episode can be conceptualized as a normally self-limiting but highly error-prone process of recuperation from stress-triggered neuronal microdamage.
life event; stress; emotionally traumatic brain injury; eTBI; remodeling; neuroinflammation; cytokines; psychological hyperalgesia; sickness behavior; central sensitization; psychological nociceptors; psychological hyperalgesic priming; depression; antidepressants; neurogenesis; neurotrophins
To behave adaptively, we must learn from the consequences of our actions. Studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have been informative with respect to the question of how such learning occurs. These studies have revealed a frontocentral negativity termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN) that appears after negative feedback. According to one prominent theory, the FRN tracks the difference between the values of actual and expected outcomes, or reward prediction errors. As such, the FRN provides a tool for studying reward valuation and decision making. We begin this review by examining the neural significance of the FRN. We then examine its functional significance. To understand the cognitive processes that occur when the FRN is generated, we explore variables that influence its appearance and amplitude. Specifically, we evaluate four hypotheses: (1) the FRN encodes a quantitative reward prediction error; (2) the FRN is evoked by outcomes and by stimuli that predict outcomes; (3) the FRN and behavior change with experience; and (4) the system that produces the FRN is maximally engaged by volitional actions.
Feedback-related negativity (FRN); Error-related negativity (ERN); Event-related potentials (ERPs); Temporal difference learning; Anterior cingulate cortex
Here we describe a model of medial temporal lobe organization in which parallel “what” and “where” processing streams converge within the hippocampus to represent events in the spatio-temporal context in which they occurred; this circuitry also mediates the retrieval of context from event cues and vice versa, which are prototypes of episodic recall. Evidence from studies in animals are reviewed in support of this model, including experiments that distinguish characteristics of episodic recollection from familiarity, neuropsychological and recording studies that have identified a key role for the hippocampus in recollection and in associating events with the context in which they occurred, and distinct roles for parahippocampal region areas in separate “what” and “where” information processing that contributes to recollective and episodic memory.
episodic memory; hippocampus; recollection; familiarity; context; place cells
Emotional arousal influences the consolidation of long-term memory. This review discusses experimental approaches and relevant findings that provide the foundation for current understanding of coordinated interactions between arousal activated peripheral hormones and the brain processes that modulate memory formation. Rewarding or aversive experiences release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenalin) and glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands into the bloodstream. The effect of these hormones on memory consolidation depends upon binding of norepinephrine to beta-adrenergic receptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). Much evidence indicates that the stress hormones influence release of norepinephrine in the BLA through peripheral actions on the vagus nerve which stimulates, through polysynaptic connections, cells of the locus coeruleus to release norepinephrine. The BLA influences memory storage by actions on synapses, distributed throughout the brain, that are engaged in sensory and cognitive processing at the time of amygdala activation. The implications of the activation of these stress-activated memory processes are discussed in relation to stress-related memory disorders.
stress; emotion; plasticity; modulation; synapse; amygdala; epinephrine; norepinephrine; vagus nerve
Over the course of natural history, countless animal species have evolved adaptive behavioral systems to cope with dangerous situations and promote survival. Emotional memories are central to these defense systems because they are rapidly acquired and prepare organisms for future threat. Unfortunately, the persistence and intrusion of memories of fearful experiences are quite common and can lead to pathogenic conditions, such as anxiety and phobias. Over the course of the last thirty years, neuroscientists and psychologists alike have attempted to understand the mechanisms by which the brain encodes and maintains these aversive memories. Of equal interest, though, is the neurobiology of extinction memory formation as this may shape current therapeutic techniques. Here we review the extant literature on the neurobiology of fear and extinction memory formation, with a strong focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes.
fear conditioning; extinction; memory; amygdala; prefrontal cortex; hippocampus; long-term potentiation; synaptic plasticity; rat
A growing body of literature considers the development of episodic memory systems in the brain; the majority are neuroimaging studies conducted during memory encoding in order to explore developmental trajectories in memory formation. This review considers evidence from behavioral studies of memory development, neural correlates of memory formation in adults, and structural brain development, all of which form the foundation of a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to memory development. I then aim to integrate the current evidence from developmental functional neuroimaging studies of memory formation with respect to three hypotheses. First, memory development reflects the development in the use of memory strategies, linked to prefrontal cortex. Second, developmental effects within the medial temporal lobes are more complex, and correspond to current notions about the nature in which the MTL support the formation of memory. Third, neurocognitive changes in content representation influence memory. Open issues and current directions are discussed.
Episodic memory; Cognitive development; functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI; Prefrontal cortex; Medial temporal lobe; MTL
Concussion (mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)) is a significant pediatric public health concern. Despite increased awareness, a comprehensive understanding of the acute and chronic effects of concussion on central nervous system structure and function remains incomplete. Here we review the definition, epidemiology, and sequelae of concussion within the developing brain, during childhood and adolescence, with current data derived from studies of pathophysiology and neuroimaging. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the neurological consequences of traumatic brain injuries, which in turn, may lead to the development of brain biomarkers to improve identification, management and prognosis of pediatric patients suffering from concussion.
Children; TBI; concussion; adolescents; brain; cortex; cognitive; hypothalamus; autonomic; brain imaging; fMRI
DE WIT, H., T.J. Phillips. Do initial responses to drugs predict future use or abuse? Individuals vary in their initial reactions to drugs of abuse, in ways that may contribute to the likelihood of subsequent drug use. In humans, most drugs of abuse produce positive subjective states such as euphoria and feelings of wellbeing, which may facilitate repeated use. In nonhumans, many drugs initially increase locomotor activity and produce discriminative stimulus effects, both of which have been considered to be models of human stimulant and subjective states. Both humans and nonhumans vary in their sensitivity to early acute drug effects, in ways that may predict future use or self-administration, and some of these variations appear to be genetic in origin. However, it is not known exactly how the initial responses to drugs in either humans or nonhumans relate to subsequent use or abuse. In humans, positive effects of drugs facilitate continued use of a drug while negative effects discourage use, and in nonhumans, greater genetic risk for drug intake is predicted by reduced sensitivity to drug aversive effects; but whether these initial responses affect escalation of drug use, and the development of dependence is currently unknown. Although early use of a drug is a necessary step in the progression to abuse and dependence, other variables may be of greater importance in the transition from use to abuse. Alternatively, the same variables that predict initial acute drug effects and early use may significantly contribute to continued use, escalation and dependence. Here we review the existing evidence for relations between initial direct drug effects, early use, and continued use. Ultimately, these relations can only be determined from systematic longitudinal studies with comprehensive assessments from early drug responses, to progression of problem drug use. In parallel, additional investigation of initial responses in animal models as predictors of drug use will shed light on the underlying mechanisms.
drug abuse; initiation; acute drug effects; predictors; risk; human; nonhuman
The discovery of gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease has enabled researchers to reproduce in transgenic mice several hallmarks of this disorder, notably Aβ accumulation, though in most cases without neurofibrillary tangles. Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal fragments of APP exhibit variations in exploratory activity reminiscent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzeimer dementia (BPSD). In particular, open-field, spontaneous alternation, and elevated plus-maze tasks as well as aggression are modified in several APP transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic controls. However, depending on the precise murine models, changes in open-field and elevated plus-maze exploration occur in either direction, either increased or decreased relative to controls. It remains to be determined which neurotransmitter changes are responsible for this variability, in particular with respect to GABA, 5HT, and dopamine.
amyloid; Alzheimer's disease; open-field; spontaneous alternation; elevated plus-maze; emergence test; GABA; aggression
Tobacco is a highly addictive drug and is one of the most widely abused drugs in the world. The first part of this review explores the role of stressors and stress-associated psychiatric disorders in the initiation of smoking, the maintenance of smoking, and relapse after a period of abstinence. The reviewed studies indicate that stressors facilitate the initiation of smoking, decrease the motivation to quit, and increase the risk for relapse. Furthermore, people with depression or an anxiety disorder are more likely to smoke than people without these disorders. The second part of this review describes animal studies that investigated the role of brain stress systems in nicotine addiction. These studies indicate that corticotropin-releasing factor, Neuropeptide Y, the hypocretins, and norepinephrine play a pivotal role in nicotine addiction. In conclusion, the reviewed studies indicate that smoking briefly decreases subjective stress levels but also leads to a further dysregulation of brain stress systems. Drugs that decrease the activity of brain stress systems may diminish nicotine withdrawal and improve smoking cessation rates.
Tobacco; nicotine; addiction; dependence; depression; anxiety; CRF; NPY; hypocretin; norepinephrine
Athletes, body builders, and military personnel use dietary creatine as an ergogenic aid to boost physical performance in sports involving short bursts of high-intensity muscle activity. Lesser known is the essential role creatine, a natural regulator of energy homeostasis, plays in brain function and development. Creatine supplementation has shown promise as a safe, effective, and tolerable adjunct to medication for the treatment of brain-related disorders linked with dysfunctional energy metabolism, such as Huntington’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. Impairments in creatine metabolism have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, leaving clinicians, researchers and patients alike wondering if dietary creatine has therapeutic value for treating mental illness. The present review summarizes the neurobiology of the creatine-phosphocreatine circuit and its relation to psychological stress, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. While present knowledge of the role of creatine in cognitive and emotional processing is in its infancy, further research on this endogenous metabolite has the potential to advance our understanding of the biological bases of psychopathology and improve current therapeutic strategies.
creatine; creatine kinase; phosphocreatine; ATP; energy metabolism; psychiatry; mental illness; CAM therapy; antidepressant; neuroleptics; sex differences
Memory of past experience is essential for guiding goal-related behavior. Being able to control accessibility of memory through modulation of retrieval enables humans to flexibly adapt to their environment. Understanding the specific neural pathways of how this control is achieved has largely eluded cognitive neuroscience. Accordingly, in the current paper I review literature that examines the overt control over retrieval in order to reduce accessibility. I first introduce three hypotheses of inhibition of retrieval. These hypotheses involve: i) attending to other stimuli as a form of diversionary attention, ii) inhibiting the specific individual neural representation of the memory, and iii) inhibiting the hippocampus and retrieval process more generally to prevent reactivation of the representation. I then analyze literature taken from the White Bear Suppression, Directed Forgetting and Think/No-Think tasks to provide evidence for these hypotheses. Finally, a neuroanatomical model is developed to indicate three pathways from PFC to the hippocampal complex that support inhibition of memory retrieval. Describing these neural pathways increases our understanding of control over memory in general.
Anatomy; Hippocampus; Inhibition; Memory; Neuroimaging; Retrieval
Persistent, unwanted memories are believed to be key contributors to drug addiction and the chronic relapse problem over the lifetime of the addict. Contrary to the long-held idea that memories are static and fixed, new studies in the last decade have shown that memories are dynamic and changeable. However, they are changeable only under specific conditions. When a memory is retrieved (reactivated), it becomes labile for a period of minutes to hours and then is reconsolidated to maintain long-term memory. Recent findings indicate that even well-established long-term memories may be susceptible to disruption by interfering with reconsolidation through delivery of certain amnestic agents during memory retrieval. Here I review the growing literature on memory reconsolidation in animal models of addiction, including sensitization, conditioned place preference and self-administration. I also discuss (a) several issues that need to be considered in interpreting the findings from reconsolidation studies and (b) future challenges and directions for memory reconsolidation studies in the field of addiction. The findings indicate promise for using this approach as a therapy for disrupting the long-lasting memories that can trigger relapse.
Addiction; Alcohol; Amnesia; Cocaine; Conditioned place preference; Drug abuse; Memory; Morphine; Reconsolidation; Self-administration
The underconnectivity theory of autism attributes the disorder to lower anatomical and functional systems connectivity between frontal and more posterior cortical processing. Here we review evidence for the theory and present a computational model of an executive functioning task (Tower of London) implementing the assumptions of underconnectivity. We make two modifications to a previous computational account of performance and brain activity in typical individuals in the Tower of London task (Newman et al., 2003): (1) the communication bandwidth between frontal and parietal areas was decreased and (2) the posterior centers were endowed with more executive capability (i.e., more autonomy, an adaptation is proposed to arise in response to the lowered frontal-posterior bandwidth). The autism model succeeds in matching the lower frontal-posterior functional connectivity (lower synchronization of activation) seen in fMRI data, as well as providing insight into behavioral response time results. The theory provides a unified account of how a neural dysfunction can produce a neural systems disorder and a psychological disorder with the widespread and diverse symptoms of autism.
autism; connectivity; underconnectivity; 4CAPS; computational model; fMRI
The rapid rise in obesity prevalence in the modern world parallels a significant reduction in restorative sleep (Agras et al., 2004; Dixon et al., 2007; Dixon et al., 2001; Gangwisch and Heymsfield, 2004; Gupta et al., 2002; Sekine et al., 2002; Vioque et al., 2000; Wolk et al., 2003). Reduced sleep time and quality increases the risk for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear (Gangwisch et al., 2005; Hicks et al., 1986; Imaki et al., 2002; Jennings et al., 2007; Moreno et al., 2006). A majority of the theories linking human sleep disturbances and obesity rely on self-reported sleep. However, studies with objective measurements of sleep/wake parameters suggest a U-shaped relationship between sleep and obesity. Studies in animal models are needed to improve our understanding of the association between sleep disturbances and obesity. Genetic and experimenter-induced models mimicking characteristics of human obesity are now available and these animal models will be useful in understanding whether sleep disturbances determine propensity for obesity, or result from obesity. These models exhibit weight gain profiles consistently different from control animals. Thus a careful evaluation of animal models will provide insight into the relationship between sleep disturbances and obesity in humans.
In this review we first briefly consider the fundamentals of sleep and key sleep disturbances, such as sleep fragmentation and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), observed in obese individuals. Then we consider sleep deprivation studies and the role of circadian alterations in obesity. We describe sleep/wake changes in various rodent models of obesity and obesity resistance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms linking sleep disturbances with obesity.
Sleep; obesity; sleep fragmentation; REM sleep; EDS; SWS-delta power; circadian clock; animal models
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are key components of neural signaling, playing roles in synaptic transmission and in the synaptic plasticity thought to underlie learning and memory. NMDAR activation can also have neurotoxic consequences contributing to several forms of neurodegeneration. Additionally, NMDARs can modulate neuronal function and regulate the ability of synapses to undergo synaptic plasticity. Evidence gathered over the past 20 years strongly supports the idea that untimely activation of NMDARs impairs the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) by a form of metaplasticity. This metaplasticity can be triggered by multiple stimuli including physiological receptor activation, and metabolic and behavioral stressors. These latter findings raise the possibility that NMDARs contribute to cognitive dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper examines NMDAR metaplasticity and its potential role in cognition. Recent studies using NMDAR antagonists for therapeutic purposes also raise the possibility that metaplasticity may contribute to clinical effects of certain drugs.
Synaptic plasticity; metaplasticity; delirium; dementia; hippocampus; ketamine; neurosteroids
The use of addictive drugs can have profound short- and long-term consequences on social behaviors. Similarly, social experiences and the presence or absence of social attachments during early development and throughout life can greatly influence drug intake and the susceptibility to drug abuse. The following review details this reciprocal interaction, focusing on common drugs of abuse (e.g., psychostimulants, opiates, alcohol and nicotine) and social behaviors (e.g., maternal, sexual, play, aggressive and bonding behaviors). The neural mechanisms underlying this interaction are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the involvement of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system.
Maternal behavior; social play; pair bonding; aggression; sexual behavior; drug addiction; psychostimulants; cocaine; amphetamine; opiates; morphine; alcohol; mesolimbic; dopamine; nucleus accumbens; prefrontal cortex; ventral tegmental area
The central auditory system consists of the lemniscal and nonlemniscal systems. The thalamic lemniscal and non-lemniscal auditory nuclei are different from each other in response properties and neural connectivities. The cortical auditory areas receiving the projections from these thalamic nuclei interact with each other through corticocortical projections and project down to the subcortical auditory nuclei. This corticofugal (descending) system forms multiple feedback loops with the ascending system. The corticocortical and corticofugal projections modulate auditory signal processing and play an essential role in the plasticity of the auditory system. Focal electric stimulation -- comparable to repetitive tonal stimulation -- of the lemniscal system evokes three major types of changes in the physiological properties, such as the tuning to specific values of acoustic parameters of cortical and subcortical auditory neurons through different combinations of facilitation and inhibition. For such changes, a neuromodulator, acetylcholine, plays an essential role. Electric stimulation of the nonlemniscal system evokes changes in the lemniscal system that is different from those evoked by the lemniscal stimulation. Auditory signals ascending from the lemniscal and nonlemniscal thalamic nuclei to the cortical auditory areas appear to be selected or adjusted by a “differential” gating mechanism. Conditioning for associative learning and pseudo-conditioning for nonassociative learning respectively elicit tone-specific and nonspecific plastic changes. The lemniscal, corticofugal and cholinergic systems are involved in eliciting the former, but not the latter. The current article reviews the recent progress in the research of corticocortical and corticofugal modulations of the auditory system and its plasticity elicited by conditioning and pseudo-conditioning.
Conditioning; Plasticity; Pseudo-conditioning; Reorganization; Tonotopic map
Alcohol use disorders are characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking, loss of control in limiting intake, and withdrawal syndrome in the absence of drug. The central amygdala (CeA) and neighboring regions (extended amygdala) mediate alcohol-related behaviors and chronic alcohol-induced plasticity. Acute alcohol suppresses excitatory (glutamatergic) transmission whereas chronic alcohol enhances glutamatergic transmission in CeA. Acute alcohol facilitates inhibitory (GABAergic) transmission in CeA, and chronic alcohol increases GABAergic transmission. Electrophysiology techniques are used to explore the effects of neuropeptides/neuromodulators (CRF, NPY, nociceptin, dynorphin, endocannabinoids, galanin) on inhibitory transmission in CeA. In general, pro-anxiety peptides increase, and anti-anxiety peptides decrease CeA GABAergic transmission. These neuropeptides facilitate or block the action of acute alcohol in CeA, and chronic alcohol produces plasticity in neuropeptide systems, possibly reflecting recruitment of negative reinforcement mechanisms during the transition to alcohol dependence. A disinhibition model of CeA output is discussed in the context of alcohol dependence- and anxiety-related behaviors.
Central Amygdala; GABA; Glutamate; CRF; NPY; Nociceptin; Dynorphin; Galanin; Cannabinoids; Neuropeptides; Alcohol Dependence
It is well-established that psychological stress promotes immune dysregulation in nonpregnant humans and animals. Stress promotes inflammation, impairs antibody responses to vaccination, slows wound healing, and suppresses cell-mediated immune function. Importantly, the immune system changes substantially to support healthy pregnancy, with attenuation of inflammatory responses and impairment of cell-mediated immunity. This adaptation is postulated to protect the fetus from rejection by the maternal immune system. Thus, stress-induced immune dysregulation during pregnancy has unique implications for both maternal and fetal health, particularly preterm birth. However, very limited research has examined stress-immune relationships in pregnancy. The application of psychoneuroimmunology research models to the perinatal period holds great promise for elucidating biological pathways by which stress may affect adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal health, and fetal development.
psychoneuroimmunology; pregnancy; perinatal; stress; immune function; inflammation; fetal development; adverse birth outcomes; preterm birth; maternal health
BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice have emerged as strong candidates to serve as models of a range of autism-relevant behaviors, showing deficiencies in social behaviors; reduced or unusual ultrasonic vocalizations in conspecific situations; and enhanced, repetitive self grooming. Recent studies have described their behaviors in a seminatural Visible Burrow System (VBS); a social proximity test in which avoidance of a conspecific is impossible; and in an object approach and investigation test evaluating attention to specific objects and potential stereotypies in the order of approaching/investigating objects. VBS results confirmed strong BTBR avoidance of conspecifics and in the social proximity test, BTBR showed dramatic differences in several close-in behaviors, including specific avoidance of a nose-to-nose contact that may potentially be related to gaze-avoidance. Diazepam normalized social avoidance by BTBRs in a three-chamber test, and some additional behaviors –but not nose to nose avoidance- in the social proximity test. BTBR also showed higher levels of preference for particular objects, and higher levels of sequences investigating 3- or 4- objects in the same order. Heparan sulfate (HS) associated with fractal structures in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles was severely reduced in BTBR. HS may modulate the functions of a range of growth and guidance factors during development, and HS abnormalities are associated with relevant brain (callosal agenesis) and behavioral (reductions in sociality) changes; suggesting the value of examination of the dynamics of the HS system in the context of autism.
Autism; Heparan Sulfate; BTBR T+tf/J; Social Behavior; VBS; Social Proximity; Object preference; stereotypy; diazepam; gaze aversion
The primate amygdala is composed of multiple subnuclei that play distinct roles in amygdala function. While some nuclei have been areas of focused investigation, others remain virtually unknown. One of the more obscure regions of the amygdala is the paralaminar nucleus (PL). The PL in humans and non-human primates is relatively expanded compared to lower species. Long considered to be part of the basal nucleus, the PL has several interesting features that make it unique. These features include a dense concentration of small cells, high concentrations of receptors for corticotropin releasing hormone and benzodiazepines, and dense innervation of serotonergic fibers. More recently, high concentrations of immature-appearing cells have been noted in the primate PL, suggesting special mechanisms of neural plasticity. Following a brief overview of amygdala structure and function, this review will provide an introduction to the history, embryology, anatomical connectivity, immunohistochemical and cytoarchitectural properties of the PL. Our conclusion based on the following information, is that the PL is a unique subregion of the amygdala that may yield important clues about the normal growth and function of the amygdala, particularly in higher species.
basal nucleus; depression; anxiety; intercalated neurons; neurogenesis; ganglionic eminence; contextual fear learning; lateral paracapsular island; plasticity; stress; basolateral nucleus
Ray, R. and D. Zald. Anatomical insights into the interaction of emotion and cognition in the prefrontal cortex. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 36(X) XXX-XXX, 2011. -Psychological research increasingly indicates that emotional processes interact with other aspects of cognition. Studies have demonstrated both the ability of emotional stimuli to influence a broad range of cognitive operations, and the ability of humans to use top-down cognitive control mechanisms to regulate emotional responses. Portions of the prefrontal cortex appear to play a significant role in these interactions. However, the manner in which these interactions are implemented remains only partially elucidated. In the present review we describe the anatomical connections between ventral and dorsal prefrontal areas as well as their connections with limbic regions. Only a subset of prefrontal areas are likely to directly influence amygdalar processing, and as such models of prefrontal control of emotions and models of emotional regulation should be constrained to plausible pathways of influence. We also focus on how the specific pattern of feedforward and feedback connections between these regions may dictate the nature of information flow between ventral and dorsal prefrontal areas and the amygdala. These patterns of connections are inconsistent with several commonly expressed assumptions about the nature of communications between emotion and cognition.
dorsolateral; ventrolateral; orbitofrontal; functional connectivity; emotion regulation; attention; working memory