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1.  The role of mentoring in academic career progression: a cross-sectional survey of the Academy of Medical Sciences mentoring scheme 
Summary
Objectives
To describe a successful mentoring scheme designed for mid-career clinician scientists and to examine factors associated with mentee report of positive career impact.
Design
Mixed methods study including in-depth interviews and cross-sectional data collection via an online survey.
Setting
Academy of Medical Sciences mentoring scheme set up in 2002 and evaluated in 2010.
Participants
One hundred and forty-seven of 227 mentees took part in the study (response rate of 65%). Ten mentees, three mentors and eight stakeholders/scheme staff were selected to participate in in-depth interviews.
Main outcome measures
Qualitative data: Interviews were transcribed, and free text was analysed to identify themes and subthemes in the narrative. Quantitative data: We examined the associations of reported positive career impact of mentoring by performing simple and multiple logistic regression analysis.
Results
Mentoring success was determined by a variety of factors including reasons for selection (e.g. presence of a personal recommendation), mentee characteristics (e.g. younger age), experience and skills of the mentor (e.g. ‘mentor helped me to find my own solutions’) and the quality of the relationship (e.g. ‘my mentor and I set out clear expectations early on’).
Conclusions
Our evaluation demonstrates that both mentor and mentee value mentoring and that careful planning of a scheme including preparation, training and ongoing support of both mentor and mentee addressing expectations, building rapport and logistics are likely to be helpful in ensuring success and benefit from the intervention.
doi:10.1177/0141076814530685
PMCID: PMC4128076  PMID: 24739382
mentoring; mentor; career; research; medicine; academic
2.  The friends and family test: a qualitative study of concerns that influence the willingness of English National Health Service staff to recommend their organisation 
Objectives
The views of practitioners at the ‘sharp end’ of care provision are increasingly recognised as important indicators of quality of care. The National Health Service (NHS) Staff Survey in England has quantified employees' views on how far they would be happy with the standard of care provided by their organisation if a friend or family member needed treatment. We aimed to characterise the concerns that might affect the willingness of staff to recommend their own organisations.
Design
Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews. Data analysis based on the constant comparative method.
Participants
Members of clinical and managerial staff in four NHS organisations (n = 70), and senior stakeholders across the NHS including clinicians, managers and others with a strategic or senior-level perspective (n = 98).
Setting
One hundred and sixty-eight interviews were conducted: 70 in four case study organisations and 98 across the wider English NHS.
Main outcome measures
Not applicable.
Results
Asking study participants the ‘if a friend…’ question offered insider views on the quality of care. Some staff had no concerns, but others, identified significant problems with consistency, reliability and behaviour of staff. Participants identified reasons for poor care that included inadequate organisational systems; structural problems of understaffing and under-resourcing; weaknesses in professional cultures and professional competence and failure to deal with problems such as unacceptable conduct. Participants emphasised that staff were not always able to deliver high-quality care because they worked in difficult conditions.
Conclusions
Asking staff to give accounts of their willingness to recommend their organisation to family and friends elicits important insights into quality and safety of care. Such accounts might be able to provide warning signs that could signal organisational decline and avert healthcare scandals, but use outside a research context requires further evaluation.
doi:10.1177/0141076814532392
PMCID: PMC4128077  PMID: 24781160
quality of care; net promoter; staff concerns; soft intelligence; National Health Service
3.  Systematic analysis of funding awarded for norovirus research to institutions in the United Kingdom, 1997–2010 
Objectives
Norovirus infections pose great economic and disease burden to health systems around the world. This study quantifies the investments in norovirus research awarded to UK institutions over a 14-year time period.
Design
A systematic analysis of public and philanthropic infectious disease research investments awarded to UK institutions between 1997 and 2010.
Participants
None
Setting
UK institutions carrying out infectious disease research.
Main outcome measures
Total funding for infectious disease research, total funding for norovirus research, position of norovirus research along the R&D value chain.
Results
The total dataset consisted of 6165 studies with sum funding of £2.6 billion. Twelve norovirus studies were identified with a total funding of £5.1 million, 0.2% of the total dataset. Of these, eight were categorized as pre-clinical, three as intervention studies and one as implementation research. Median funding was £200,620.
Conclusions
Research funding for norovirus infections in the UK appears to be unacceptably low, given the burden of disease and disability produced by these infections. There is a clear need for new research initiatives along the R&D value chain: from pre-clinical through to implementation research, including trials to assess cost-effectiveness of infection control policies as well as clinical, public health and environmental interventions in hospitals, congregate settings and in the community.
doi:10.1177/0141076813511450
PMCID: PMC3938121  PMID: 24262891
norovirus; research; funding; investments; UK
4.  Intersex and the Olympic Games 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080086
PMCID: PMC2500237  PMID: 18687862
5.  The lingering death of the autopsy 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080139
PMCID: PMC2500240  PMID: 18687860
6.  Hope and hopelessness: theory and reality 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080193
PMCID: PMC2500241  PMID: 18687867
7.  The diagnosis of art: Dr Péan's operation 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.08k001
PMCID: PMC2500243  PMID: 18788145
8.  Geriatric surgery is about disease, not age 
Summary
Maintaining life span and quality of life remains a valid aim of surgery in elderly people. Surgery can be an effective way of restoring both length and quality of life to older people. Minimally invasive techniques and surgery under local anaesthesia make fewer demands on geriatric physiology; given that co-morbidity is a stronger predictor of outcome from surgery than age, this is a significant consideration.
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080035
PMCID: PMC2500244  PMID: 18687864
10.  Who should pay for cancer drugs? 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.08k005
PMCID: PMC2500246  PMID: 18687858
11.  ‘Medical tourism’ initiatives should exclude commercial organ transplantation 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080058
PMCID: PMC2500247  PMID: 18687861
12.  Colin Bouwer: Professor of Psychiatry and murderer 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2007.071003
PMCID: PMC2500248  PMID: 18687863
14.  The challenge of quality and patient safety 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.nh8003
PMCID: PMC2442132  PMID: 18591685
15.  Doctors, managers and the battle for quality 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.nh8005
PMCID: PMC2442133  PMID: 18591680
17.  Acknowledging a persistent truth: domestic violence in pregnancy 
Summary
Violence against women has a devastating effect on women's sexual and reproductive health, and also affects the health of their children. Such behaviour is rooted in gender inequality, which is sadly persistent, arguably throughout all societies. This phenomenon is a serious health and development concern, in addition to a violation of a woman's human rights. Violence can begin or escalate in pregnancy and has significant consequences for the woman, fetus and child. Questioning pregnant women about the presence of violence and offering referral to a secondary agency can help to break the pattern of abuse.
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080002
PMCID: PMC2442136  PMID: 18591689
18.  The NHS at 60: the next 60 years 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.nh8006
PMCID: PMC2442137  PMID: 18591687
19.  Medical professionalism in 60 years of the NHS 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.nh8001
PMCID: PMC2442138  PMID: 18591679
21.  The NHS: ‘losing my religion’ 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.nh8002
PMCID: PMC2442141  PMID: 18591681
23.  NHS 60 – a GP's view 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.nh8007
PMCID: PMC2442144  PMID: 18591684
24.  The jigsaw of child protection 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080106
PMCID: PMC2442145  PMID: 18591683
25.  Evidence-based medicine and the NHS: a commentary 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.nh8004
PMCID: PMC2442146  PMID: 18591686

Results 1-25 (13417)