Ischemic renal injury is a formidable clinical problem, the pathophysiology of which is incompletely understood. As the Na/H exchanger-3 (NHE3) mediates the bulk of apical sodium transport and a significant fraction of oxygen consumption in the proximal tubule, we examined mechanisms by which ischemia–reperfusion affects the expression of NHE3. Ischemia–reperfusion dramatically decreased NHE3 protein and mRNA (immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, and RNA blot) in rat kidney cortex and medulla. The decrease in NHE3 protein was uniform throughout all tubules, including those appearing morphologically intact. In the kidney cortex, a decrease in NHE3 surface protein preceded that of NHE3 total protein and mRNA. Kidney homogenates from rats exposed to mild renal ischemia-reduced cell surface NHE3 protein expression in opossum kidney cells in vitro, whereas homogenates from animals with moderate-to-severe ischemia reduced both total NHE3 protein and mRNA. The decrease in total NHE3 protein was dependent on the proteasomal degradation associated with NHE3 ubiquitylation measured by coimmunoprecipitation. The transferable factor(s) from the ischemic homogenate that reduce NHE3 expression were found to be heat sensitive and to be associated with a lipid-enriched fraction, and did not include regulatory RNAs. Thus, transferable factor(s) mediate the ischemia–reperfusion injury-induced decrease in NHE3 of the kidney.
acute kidney injury; epithelial sodium transport; ischemia– reperfusion; Na transport; proximal tubule
Mutations of PKD1 and PKD2 account for
most cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Compared to
PKD2, patients with PKD1 typically have more severe renal disease. Here, we
report a follow-up study of a unique multi-generation family with bilineal ADPKD
(NFL10) in which a PKD1 disease haplotype and a PKD2 (L736X) mutation
co-segregated with 18 and 14 affected individuals, respectively. In our updated
genotype-phenotype analysis of NFL10, we found that PKD1-affected individuals
had uniformly mild renal disease similar to PKD2-affected individuals. By
sequencing all the exons and splice junctions of PKD1, we
identified two missense mutations (Y528C and R1942H) from a PKD1-affected
individual. Although both variants were predicted to be damaging to the mutant
protein, only Y528C co-segregated with all the PKD1-affected individuals in
NFL10. To further establish the pathogenicity of Y528C, we performed
in-vitro studies in stable MDCK cell lines expressing
wild-type and mutant forms of PKD1. We found that MDCK cell
lines expressing the Y528C variant formed cysts in culture and demonstrated
increased rates of growth and apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that
Y528C functions as a hypomorphic PKD1 allele. These findings
have important implications for pathogenic mechanisms and molecular diagnostics
Whether higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with a higher risk for death and/or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well established, and whether the association is confounded by access and barriers to care is unknown. To answer these questions, data of 10,672 individuals identified to have CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) from those participating in a community-based screening program were analyzed. Over a median follow-up of 2.3 years, there was no association between quartiles of serum phosphorus and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio for serum phosphorus over 3.3 to 3.7, over 3.7 to 4.1, and over 4.1 mg/dl, respectively: 1.22 (0.95–1.56), 1.00 (0.76–1.32), and 1.00 (0.75–1.33); reference, serum phosphorus of 3.3 mg/dl and below). Individuals in the highest quartile for serum phosphorus had a significantly higher risk for progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (unadjusted hazards ratio, 6.72 (4.16–10.85)); however, the risk became nonsignificant on adjustment for potential confounders. There was no appreciable change in hazards ratio with inclusion of variables related to access and barriers to care. Additional analyses in subgroups based on 12 different variables yielded similar negative associations. Thus, in the largest cohort of individuals with early-stage CKD to date, we could not validate an independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to ESRD.
barrier to care; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; mortality; phosphorus
Dopamine can produce a natriuresis and diuresis independent of changes in renal hemodynamics. However, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an inhibition of transport by dopamine in intact proximal convoluted tubules.
Rabbit proximal convoluted tubules were perfused in vitro with an ultrafiltrate-like solution and bathed in a serum-like albumin solution.
In the present study, the addition of 10−5
m dopamine to the lumen or bath of proximal convoluted tubules perfused in vitro had no effect on transport. In proximal convoluted tubules, addition of 10−6
m bath norepinephrine increased the rate of volume absorption from 0.65 ± 0.08 to 0.93 ± 0.08 nl/mm · min (P < 0.01). Addition of 10−5
m luminal dopamine in the presence of bath norepinephrine inhibited the rate of volume absorption to 0.72 ± 0.10 nl/mm · min (P = 0.01). The inhibition in the rate of volume absorption by luminal dopamine in the presence of bath norepinephrine was completely blocked by the DA1 antagonist, SCH 23390. The DA1 agonist luminal 10−5
m fenoldopam also inhibited volume absorption in the presence of bath norepinephrine, but the DA2 agonist luminal 10−5
m quinpirole was without effect. Bath 10−5
m dopamine had no effect on volume absorption in the presence of bath norepinephrine.
Dopamine has no direct epithelial action on the proximal convoluted tubule. However, luminal dopamine antagonizes the stimulation in transport produced by norepinephrine. These studies suggest that luminal dopamine may play a role to modulate sodium transport in the presence of renal nerve activity.
catecholamines; volume absorption; sodium transport; microperfusion; dopamine receptors; fenoldopam
Peristaltic waves of the ureteric smooth muscles move urine down from the kidney, a process that is commonly defective in congenital diseases. To study the mechanisms that control the initiation and direction of contractions, we used video microscopy and optical mapping techniques and found that electrical and contractile waves began in a region where the renal pelvis joined the connective tissue core of the kidney. Separation of this pelvis–kidney junction from more distal urinary tract segments prevented downstream peristalsis, indicating that it housed the trigger for peristalsis. Moreover, cells in the pelvis–kidney junction were found to express isoform 3 of the hyperpolarization-activated cation on channel family known to be required for initiating electrical activity in the brain and heart. Immunocytochemical and real-time PCR analyses found that hyperpolarization-activated cation-3 is expressed at the pelvis–kidney junction where electrical excitation and contractile waves originate. Inhibition of this channel caused a loss of electrical activity at the pelvis–kidney junction and randomized the origin of electrical activity in the urinary tract, thus markedly perturbing contractions. Collectively, our study demonstrates that hyperpolarization-activated cation-3 channels play a fundamental role in coordinating proximal-to-distal peristalsis of the upper urinary tract. This provides insight into the genetic causes of common inherited urinary tract disorders such as reflux and obstruction.
obstructive nephropathy; obstructive uropathy
The protein kinase C and casein kinase 2 substrate in neurons (Pacsin) is a subfamily of membrane-binding proteins that participates in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton organization. Here, we studied Pacsin 2 in kidney development and repair following injury. In the postnatal developing kidneys, Pacsin 2 was found to be expressed in both ureteric bud- and mesenchyme-derived structures including proximal and distal tubules, Bowman's capsule, and the glomerular tuft. In the adult kidney, its expression was decreased in proximal tubules but increased in glomerular tuft when compared to that in the developing kidneys. Interestingly, Pacsin 2 expression was significantly upregulated during the repair phase after ischemia–reperfusion injury, especially on the apical brush border of proximal tubules that experienced massive damage. Pacsin 2 localized to the primary cilia of renal epithelial cells. Knockdown of Pacsin 2 by shRNA did not affect the cell cycle or cell polarity; however, it increased the length of primary cilia, and resulted in significant tubulogenic defects in three-dimensional cell culture. Thus, we propose that Pacsin 2 contributes to kidney development and repair in a nephron-specific manner.
renal development; renal injury; renal ischemia–reperfusion; renal tubular epithelial cells
Neonates have a lower Na+/H+ antiporter activity on the apical membrane of proximal tubule than that of adults. The maturational increase in Na+/H+ antiporter activity occurs at the time when there is a rise in serum glucocorticoid levels in rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether glucocorticoids are responsible for the postnatal increase in Na+/H+ antiporter activity.
Nine-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were compared with rats studied at 30 days of age who had either a sham operation or adrenalectomy (ADX) at nine days of age and with rats that had an adrenalectomy and physiologic corticosterone replacement (ADX-Cort) to determine whether glucocorticoid deficiency prevented the maturational increase in Na+/H+ antiporter activity. Na+/H+ antiporter activity was measured in proximal convoluted tubules perfused in vitro by the change in cell pH (pHi) following luminal sodium removal. NHE3 mRNA abundance was measured using Northern blot analysis, and NHE3 protein abundance was measured by immunoblot.
Na+/H+ antiporter activity was 93.8 ± 17.7, 157.0 ± 18.0, 356.7 ± 29.9, and 402.5 ± 14.5 pmol/mm · min in nine-day-old, ADX, ADX-Cort, and sham control groups, respectively. The ADX-Cort and sham control were higher than the 9-day-old and the 30-day-old ADX group (P < 0.05). Brushborder membrane NHE3 protein abundance in the nine-day-old and ADX groups were sixfold less than ADX-Cort and sham control groups (P < 0.001). Nine-day-old neonates had fivefold less renal cortical NHE3 mRNA than the ADX, ADX-Cort, and sham-operated control groups (P < 0.01).
These data demonstrate that glucocorticoids play a role in the postnatal maturation of the proximal tubule Na+/H+ antiporter activity and brush-border membrane NHE3 protein abundance. Glucocorticoid deficiency does not completely prevent the maturational increase in Na+/H+ antiporter activity and does not affect NHE3 mRNA abundance.
NHE3; adrenalectomy; renal development; microperfusion; cell pH
Abnormal regulation of the renin angiotensin system such as enhanced renal AT1R function and reduced ACE2 activity contributes to obesity-related hypertension. Here we tested whether long-term AT2R activation affects renal function in obesity using lean and obese Zucker rats treated with the AT2R agonist CGP42112A for 2-weeks. This caused blood pressure to decrease by 13 mmHg which was associated with increased urinary sodium excretion in the obese rats. Cortical ACE2 expression and activity, the Mas receptor (MasR), and its ligand angiotensin-(1-7) were all increased in CGP-treated obese compared with control rats. Candesartan-induced natriuresis, a measure of AT1R function, was reduced but cortical AT1R expression and angiotensin II levels were similar in CGP-treated obese compared to control rats. Renin and AT2R expression in obese rats was not affected by CGP-treatment. In HK-2 cells in-vitro, CGP-treatment caused increased ACE2 activity and MasR levels but decreased AT1R levels and renin activity. Thus, long-term AT2R activation shifts the opposing arms of renin angiotensin system and contributes to natriuresis and blood pressure reduction in obese animals. Our study highlights the importance of AT2R as a target for treating obesity related hypertension.
CGP42112A; obesity; RAS; renin. AT2 receptor
Most kidney diseases that ultimately lead to end-stage renal failure originate within the glomerulus and are associated with proteinuria. Treatment options are unspecific and offer partial cures at best because available therapies do not primarily treat glomerular cells but rather act systemically and thus cause many side effects. Most glomerulopathies directly stem from injury to podocytes, cells that have a key role in the maintenance of the glomerular filter. Thus, these cells constitute an obvious and promising target for the development of novel kidney-protective drugs. During the last decade, enormous advances have been made in the understanding of podocyte structure and function. A number of pathways that are altered during glomerular diseases may be targeted by novel small- and large-molecule drugs as well as biologicals that have been identified in nephrology and other areas of drug development. Cultured podocytes provide a valuable model for high-throughput drug screening assays. Furthermore, podocytes have been shown to possess many features that make them particularly good target cells for renal protection. This mini-review discusses some of the most recent promising data related to potential drug therapy for proteinuria and kidney disease through direct podocyte targeting.
glomerulopathy; pathophysiology of renal disease and progression; podocyte; proteinuria; renal protection
Renal citrate metabolism and urinary citrate excretion in the infant rat.
Although hypercalciuria has the same prevalence in children as adults, children rarely develop renal stones. This may be explained by a greater urinary citrate excretion in infants compared with adults. The present study examines the renal excretion of citrate and renal cortical citrate metabolism in infant and adult rats.
Adult male and newly weaned infant rats were acclimated to metabolic cages and fed synthetic diets. Urine was collected after two days, and renal cortical citrate metabolism was assayed.
Infant rats had a lower plasma [HCO3−] and higher plasma [K+] and had a fourfold higher urinary citrate:creatinine ratio and a twofold higher concentration of citrate in their urine compared with adult rats. This higher urinary citrate excretion was not due to a difference in renal proximal tubular Na/citrate cotransporter activity, nor renal cortical citrate synthase or ATP citrate lyase activities in infants as compared with adults. However, infant rat kidneys had significantly lower mitochondrial aconitase (m-aconitase) activity. Renal cortical citrate concentrations were comparable in infant and adult rats. Manipulation of plasma [K+] to adult levels did not affect the higher urinary citrate excretion in infant rats.
Urinary citrate excretion in infant rats is greater than in adults but does not parallel tissue [citrate]. Thus, this higher urinary citrate is likely due to maturational differences in the proximal tubule, other than Na/citrate cotransport, that directly affect citrate transport.
urolithiasis; potassium; renal development; ATP citrate lyase; aconitase; hypercalciuria
Inflammation and chronic kidney disease (CKD) predict cardiovascular events. Little is known about the interaction of inflammation and CKD. We evaluated inflammation markers (fibrinogen, albumin, white blood cell (WBC) count) in individuals with and without CKD to assess: 1) inflammation as a risk factor for adverse events; 2) synergy between inflammation and CKD; and 3) prognostic ability of these markers relative to c-reactive protein (CRP).
Using Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Cardiovascular Health Study data, inflammation was defined by 2 of 3 criteria: lowest albumin quartile and highest fibrinogen and race-specific WBC quartiles. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate of 0.25-1 mL/sec/1.73m2. In Cox models, inflammation was assessed as a risk factor for a composite of cardiac events, stroke and mortality as well as components of this composite.
Among 20,413 individuals, mean WBC count was 6.2±2.0/L3, albumin 41±3 g/L, and fibrinogen 9.1±1.9 µmol/L. Inflammation was defined in 3,594 subjects and CKD in 1,649. In multivariable analyses, while both inflammation and CKD predicted all outcomes, their interaction was non-significant. In those with CRP measurements (Cardiovascular Health Study only, n=5,597), inflammation and elevated CRP had similar hazard ratios. When focusing only on worst quartile of WBC and albumin, results remained consistent.
CKD and inflammation are associated with an increased risk of adverse events but do not exhibit synergy. The composite of albumin, WBC count and fibrinogen as well as the composite of only albumin and WBC count have a similar association with adverse events as CRP.
Severe sepsis is often accompanied by acute kidney injury (AKI) and albuminuria. Here we studied whether the AKI and albuminuria associated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in mice reflects impairment of the glomerular endothelium with its associated endothelial surface layer. LPS treatment decreased the abundance of endothelial surface layer heparan sulfate proteoglycans and sialic acid, and led to albuminuria likely reflecting altered glomerular filtration perm-selectivity. LPS treatment decreased the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), while also causing significant ultrastructural alterations in the glomerular endothelium. The density of glomerular endothelial cell fenestrae was 5-fold lower whereas the average fenestrae diameter was 3-fold higher in LPS-treated than in control mice. The effects of LPS on the glomerular endothelial surface layer, endothelial cell fenestrae, GFR, and albuminuria were diminished in TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) knockout mice, suggesting that these LPS effects are mediated by TNF-α activation of TNFR1. Indeed, intravenous administration of TNF decreased GFR and led to loss of glomerular endothelial cell fenestrae, increased fenestrae diameter, and damage to the glomerular endothelial surface layer. LPS treatment decreased kidney expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Thus, our findings confirm the important role of glomerular endothelial injury, possibly by a decreased VEGF level, in the development and progression of AKI and albuminuria in the LPS model of sepsis in the mouse.
acute kidney injury; fenestrae; albuminuria; endothelial cells; endothelial surface layer; lipopolysaccharide
The chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) syndrome is an extremely important complication of kidney diseases. Here we tested whether CKD-MBD causes vascular calcification in early kidney failure by developing a mouse model of early CKD in a background of atherosclerosis stimulated arterial calcification. CKD equivalent in glomerular filtration reduction to human CKD stage 2 stimulated early vascular calcification and inhibited the tissue expression of α-klotho (klotho) in the aorta. In addition, osteoblast transition in the aorta was stimulated by early CKD as shown by the expression of the critical transcription factor, RUNX2. The ligand associated with the klotho-fibroblast growth factor receptor complex, FGF23, was found to be expressed in the vascular media of sham operated mice. Its expression was decreased in early CKD. Increased circulating levels of the osteocyte secreted proteins, FGF23, and sclerostin may have been related to increased circulating klotho levels. Finally, we observed low turnover bone disease with a reduction in bone formation rates more than bone resorption. Thus, the CKD-MBD, characterized by cardiovascular risk factors, vascular calcification, increased circulating klotho, FGF23 and sclerostin levels, and low turnover renal osteodystrophy, was established in early CKD. Early CKD caused a reduction of vascular klotho, stimulated vascular osteoblastic transition, increased osteocytic secreted proteins, and inhibited skeletal modeling producing the CKD-MBD.
Mortality rates for maintenance hemodialysis patients are much higher than the general population and are even greater soon after starting dialysis. Here we analyzed mortality patterns in 86,886 patients in 11 countries focusing on the early dialysis period using data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study; a prospective cohort study of in-center hemodialysis. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, using time-dependent Cox regression, stratified by study phase adjusted for age, sex, race, and diabetes. The main predictor was time since dialysis start as divided into early (up to 120 days), intermediate (121–365 days), and late (over 365 days) periods. Mortality rates (deaths/100 patient-years) were 26.7 (95% confidence intervals 25.6, 27.9), 16.9 (16.2, 17.6), and 13.7 (13.5, 14.0) in the early, intermediate, and late periods, respectively. In each country, mortality was higher in the early compared to the intermediate period with an adjusted range from 3.10 (2.22, 4.32) in Japan to 1.15 (0.87, 1.53) in the United Kingdom. Adjusted mortality rates were similar for intermediate and late periods. The ratio of elevated mortality rates in the early to the intermediate period increased with age. Within each period, mortality was higher in the United States than in most other countries. Thus, internationally, the early hemodialysis period is a high-risk time for all countries studied, with substantial differences in mortality between countries. Efforts to improve outcomes should focus on the transition period and first few months of dialysis.
Altered bone structure and function contribute to the high rates of fractures in dialysis patients compared to the general population. Fracture events may increase the risk of subsequent adverse clinical outcomes. Here we assessed incidence of post-fracture morbidity and mortality in an international cohort of 34, 579 in-center hemodialysis patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). We estimated country-specific rates of fractures requiring a hospital admission and associated length of stay in the hospital. Incidence rates of death and of a composite event of death/re-hospitalization were estimated for the 1-year post-fracture. Overall, 3% of participants experienced a fracture. Fracture incidence varied across countries, from 12 events/1000 patient year (p-y) in Japan to 45/1000 p-y in Belgium. In all countries, fracture rates were higher in the hemodialysis group compared to those reported for the general population. Median length of stay ranged from 7 to 37 days in the United States and Japan, respectively. In most countries, post-fracture mortality rates exceeded 500/1000 p-y and death/re-hospitalization rates exceeded 1500/1000 p-y. Fracture patients had higher unadjusted rates of death (3.7- fold) and death/re-hospitalization (4.0-fold) compared to the overall DOPPS population. Mortality and hospitalization rates were highest in the first month after the fracture and declined thereafter. Thus, the high frequency of fractures and increased adverse outcomes following a fracture pose a significant health burden for dialysis patients. Fracture prevention strategies should be identified and applied broadly in nephrology practices.
Our understanding of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has advanced significantly from the studies of rare, monogenic forms of the disease. These studies have demonstrated the critical roles of multiple aspects of podocyte function in maintaining glomerular function. A substantial body of research has suggested that the integral membrane protein podocalyxin (PODXL) is required for proper function of podocytes, possibly by preserving the patency of the slit diaphragm by negative charge-based repulsion. Exome sequencing of affected cousins from an autosomal dominant pedigree with FSGS identified a co-segregating private variant, PODXL p.L442R, affecting the transmembrane region of the protein. Of the remaining 11 shared gene variants, two segregated with disease but their gene products were not detected in the glomerulus. In comparison to wild type, this disease-segregating PODXL variant facilitated dimerization. By contrast, this change does not alter protein stability, extracellular domain glycosylation, cell surface expression, global subcellular localization, or interaction with its intracellular binding partner ezrin. Thus, a variant form of PODXL remains the most likely candidate causing FSGS in one family with autosomal dominant inheritance, but its full effect on protein function remains unknown. Our work highlights the challenge faced in the clinical interpretation of whole exome data for small pedigrees with autosomal dominant diseases.
Autophagy is upregulated during ischemia–reperfusion (IR)-induced and cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Proximal tubule-specific Atg7 knockout mice exhibited increased renal injury compared with wild-type mice following cisplatin- and IR-induced AKI. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine aggravated AKI, whereas upregulation of autophagy by rapamycin recovered lost renal function and histology, further indicating a protective role of autophagy in AKI. These findings reported by Jiang et al. will provide stimulus to further examine the role and mechanism of the enhancement of autophagy in AKI.
It is assumed that acute myocardial infarction affects renal function. To study the mechanism, we used mice following permanent ligation of their left coronary artery that results in extensive myocardial infarction. Soon after ligation, there was a marked rise in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and malondialdehyde (thiobarbituric acid-positive evidence of lipid peroxidation). Renal function had significantly declined by the third day in association with mild fibrosis, and swelling of glomeruli and tubules. There was a significant increase in the expression of the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), interelukin-1β, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the kidney. Renal function showed some recovery by Day 21; however, there was progressive fibrosis of the kidneys. LOX-1 knockout mice had significantly diminished increases in systemic and renal pro-inflammatory cytokines, malondialdehyde, structural alterations, and decline in renal function than the wild-type mice following ligation of the left coronary artery. Cardiac function and survival rates were also significantly better in the LOX-1 knockout mice than in the wild-type mice. Hence, severe myocardial ischemia results in renal dysfunction and histological abnormalities suggestive of acute renal injury. Thus, LOX-1 is a key modulator among multiple mechanisms underlying renal dysfunction following extensive myocardial infarction.
inflammation; LOX-1; myocardial infarction; renal function
The impact of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) on acquisition of volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical dimensions is lacking. To address this issue we obtained tibia quantitative computed tomography scans from 103 patients age 5-21 years with CKD (26 on dialysis) at baseline and 12 months later. Gender, ethnicity, tibia length and/or age-specific Z-scores were generated for trabecular and cortical BMD, cortical area, periosteal and endosteal circumference, and muscle area based on over 700 reference subjects. Muscle area, cortical area, and periosteal and endosteal Z-scores were significantly lower at baseline compared to the reference cohort. Cortical BMD, cortical area and periosteal Z-scores all exhibited a significant further decrease over 12 months. Higher parathyroid hormone levels were associated with significantly greater increases in trabecular BMD and decreases in cortical BMD in younger patients (significant interaction terms for trabecular BMD and cortical BMD). The estimated GFR was not associated with changes in BMD Z-scores independent of parathyroid hormone. Changes in muscle and cortical area were significantly and positively associated in control subjects but not in CKD patients. Thus, children and adolescents with CKD have progressive cortical bone deficits related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and potential impairment of the functional muscle-bone unit. Interventions are needed to enhance bone accrual in childhood-onset CKD.
Recently we showed that pharmacological blockade or genetic deficiency of arginase-2 confers kidney protection in diabetic mouse models. Here we tested whether the protective effect of arginase inhibition is nitric oxide synthase-3 (eNOS)-dependent in diabetic nephropathy. Experiments were conducted in eNOS knockout and their wild type littermate mice using multiple low doses of vehicle or streptozotocin and treated with continuous subcutaneous infusion of vehicle or the arginase inhibitor S-(2-Boronoethyl)-L-cysteine by an osmotic pump. Inhibition of arginases for 6 weeks in diabetic wild type mice significantly attenuated albuminuria, the increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, histopathological changes, kidney fibronectin and TNF-α expression, kidney macrophage recruitment, and oxidative stress compared to vehicle-treated diabetic wild type mice. Arginase inhibition in diabetic eNOS knockout mice failed to affect any of these parameters but reduced kidney macrophage recruitment and kidney TNF-α expression compared to vehicle-treated diabetic eNOS knockout mice. Furthermore, diabetic wild type and eNOS knockout mice exhibited increased kidney arginase-2 protein, arginase activity and ornithine levels. Thus, arginase inhibition mediates renal tissue protection in diabetic nephropathy by an eNOS-dependent mechanism and has an eNOS-independent effect on kidney macrophage recruitment.
Decreased nitric oxide bioavailability plays an important role in the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) expression levels increased in the kidneys of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout and eNOS knockout diabetic (Lepr db/db) mice as early as 8 weeks of age. Further increases in expression were only seen in eNOS knockout diabetic mice and paralleled the progression of glomerulopathy. HB-EGF expression increased in endothelium, podocytes, and tubular epithelial cells. In cultured glomerular endothelial cells, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl) ornithine increased HB-EGF protein expression. Administration of L-NAME dramatically increased renal HB-EGF expression and urinary HB-EGF excretion in diabetic mice. On the other hand, replenishing nitric oxide with sodium nitrate in eNOS knockout diabetic mice reduced urinary HB-EGF excretion and inhibited the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, specific deletion of HB-EGF expression in endothelium attenuated renal injury in diabetic eNOS knockout mice. Thus, our results suggest that decreased nitric oxide bioavailability leads to increased HB-EGF expression, which may be an important mediator of the resulting progressive diabetic nephropathy in eNOS knockout diabetic mice.
Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy.
Kidney disease; Chinese herb medications; toxicity; alternative medicine; drug discovery