Recent studies have demonstrated an important physiologic link between bone and fat. Bone and fat cells arise from the same mesenchymal precursor cell within bone marrow, capable of differentiation into adipocytes or osteoblasts. Increased BMI appears to protect against osteoporosis. However, recent studies have suggested detrimental effects of visceral fat on bone health. Increased visceral fat may also be associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels which are important for maintenance of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to assess the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), abdominal fat depots, GH and IGF-1 in premenopausal women with obesity. We studied 47 premenopausal women of various BMI (range: 18–41 kg/m2, mean 30 ± 7 kg/m2) who underwent vertebral bone marrow fat measurement with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), body composition, and trabecular BMD measurement with computed tomography (CT), and GH and IGF-1 levels. Women with high visceral fat had higher bone marrow fat than women with low visceral fat. There was a positive correlation between bone marrow fat and visceral fat, independent of BMD. There was an inverse association between vertebral bone marrow fat and trabecular BMD. Vertebral bone marrow fat was also inversely associated with IGF-1, independent of visceral fat. Our study showed that vertebral bone marrow fat is positively associated with visceral fat and inversely associated with IGF-1 and BMD. This suggests that the detrimental effect of visceral fat on bone health may be mediated in part by IGF-1 as an important regulator of the fat and bone lineage.
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is important in the acquisition and maintenance of both soft and hard tissues. Skeletal remodeling requires energy and recent work has demonstrated that bone can influence insulin sensitivity and thereby regulate metabolic processes. New insights from mouse models into the role of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) as more than mere depots for the IGFs has reignited investigations into the metabolic targets influenced by the IGF regulatory system and the pathways that link bone to adipose tissue. Although there remains continued uncertainty about the relative balance between the effects of circulating vs tissue IGF-I actions, the role of the IGFBPs has been redefined both as modulators of IGF-I action and as independent signaling factors. This review highlights several recent findings that shed new light on the physiologic role of the IGF regulatory system and its influence on skeletal and fat metabolism.
The continuous release of bone-stored growth factors following bone resorption promotes the colonization of circulating cancer cells. However, the precise role of each of the various growth factors remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of bone-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in the development of bone metastases in an animal model of breast cancer. We found that local stimulation of calvarial bone resorption prior to cell inoculation stimulated subsequent bone metastases to that site in vivo, while inhibition of bone resorption inhibited bone metastases. Anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells was stimulated by the culture supernatants from resorbed bones, which contained elevated levels of IGF type I (IGF-1). This stimulation was blocked by IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) neutralizing antibody, but not antibody targeting other bone-stored growth factors including TGFβ, fibroblast growth factors, and platelet derived growth factors. While recombinant human IGF-I caused IGFIR tyrosine autophosphorylation, followed by activation of Akt and NF-κB in cancer cells, dominant-negative inhibition of IGFIR, Akt, or NF-κB significantly reduced bone metastases with increased apoptosis and decreased mitosis in metastatic cells. Together, our findings suggest that bone-derived IGF-I bridges the crosstalk between bone and metastasized cancer cells via activation of the IGFIR/Akt/NF-κB pathway. Disruption of this pathway therefore may represent a promising therapeutic intervention for bone metastasis.
IGF receptor signaling; Akt; NF-κB; apoptosis; mitosis
Osteoporosis, a syndrome characterized by thin bones and fractures, has become more prevalent in both women and men. Established therapies for this disorder consist primarily of drugs that prevent bone loss, such as the bisphosphonates and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Although these drugs have been shown to reduce fractures in randomized trials, there is an urgent need for treatments that could lower fracture risk further without additional adverse effects. The introduction of parathyroid hormone (teriparatide), which significantly increases bone mineral density, albeit for a relatively short duration, raised expectations that drugs which stimulate bone formation might cure osteoporosis. After outlining current approaches to treating osteoporosis, this review focuses on emerging therapeutic opportunities for osteoporosis that are based on recent insights into skeletal physiology. Such novel strategies offer promise for not only reducing age-related bone loss and the associated risk of fractures, but restoring bone mineral density to healthy levels.
Only three decades ago adipose tissue was considered inert with little relationship to insulin resistance. Similarly bone has long been thought purely in its structural context. In the last decade, emerging evidence has revealed important endocrine roles for both bone and adipose tissue. The interaction between these two tissues is remarkable. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells give rise to both osteoblasts and adipocytes. Leptin and adiponectin, two adipokines secreted by fat tissue, control energy homeostasis, but also have complex actions on the skeleton. In turn, the activities of bone cells are not limited to their bone remodeling activities, but also to modulation of adipose sensitivity and insulin secretion. This review will discuss these new insights linking bone remodeling to the control of fat metabolism and the association between diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis; diabetes mellitus; obesity; leptin; osteocalcin
Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been linked to metabolic and bone disorders in clinical studies, but the mechanisms of these side effects remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have examined whether SGAs cause bone loss in mice. Using in vivo and in vitro modeling we examined the effects of risperidone, the most commonly prescribed SGA, on bone in C57BL6/J (B6) mice. Mice were treated with risperidone orally by food supplementation at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg daily for 5 and 8 weeks, starting at 3.5 weeks of age. Risperidone reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number and percent cortical area. Trabecular histomorphometry demonstrated increased resorption parameters, with no change in osteoblast number or function. Risperidone also altered adipose tissue distribution such that white adipose tissue mass was reduced and liver had significantly higher lipid infiltration. Next, in order to tightly control risperidone exposure, we administered risperidone by chronic subcutaneous infusion with osmotic minipumps (0.5 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks) in 7 week old female B6 mice. Similar trabecular and cortical bone differences were observed compared to the orally treated groups (reduced trabecular BV/TV, and connectivity density, and reduced percent cortical area) with no change in body mass, percent body fat, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Unlike in orally treated mice, risperidone infusion reduced bone formation parameters (serum P1NP, MAR and BFR/BV). Resorption parameters were elevated, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. To determine if risperidone could directly affect bone cells, primary bone marrow cells were cultured with osteoclast or osteoblast differentiation media. Risperidone was added to culture medium in clinically relevant doses of 0, 2.5 or 25 ng/ml. The number of osteoclasts was significantly increased by addition in vitro of risperidone while osteoblast differentiation was not altered. These studies indicate that risperidone treatment can have negative skeletal consequences by direct activation of osteoclast activity and by indirect non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Our findings further support the tenet that the negative side effects of SGAs on bone mass should be considered when weighing potential risks and benefits, especially in children and adolescents who have not yet reached peak bone mass.
Global deletion of the Igfbp2 gene results in the suppression of bone turnover. To investigate the role of IGFBP-2 in regulating osteoclast differentiation we cultured Igfbp2−/− bone marrow cells and found a reduction in the number of osteoclasts and impaired resorption. Addition of full length IGFBP-2 restored osteoclast differentiation, fusion and resorption. To determine the molecular domains of IGFBP-2 that were required for this effect to be manifest, Igfbp2−/− bone marrow cells mice were transfected with constructs in which the heparin binding (HBD) or the IGF- binding domains of IGFBP-2 were mutated. We found that both domains were necessary for osteoclastogenesis since expression of the mutated forms of either domain failed to support the formation of functionally mature osteoclasts. To discern the mechanism by which IGFBP-2 regulates osteoclast formation, PTEN abundance and phosphorylation status as well as AKT responsiveness to IGF-I were analyzed. Igfbp2−/− cells had elevated levels of PTEN and phospho-PTEN compared with controls. Expression of wild-type IGFBP-2 reduced the level of PTEN to that of wild-type cells. Cells expressing the IGF binding mutant showed suppression of PTEN and phospho-PTEN equivalent to the wild type protein, whereas those expressing the IGFBP-2 HBD mutant showed no PTEN suppression. When the ability of IGF-I to stimulate AKT activation, measured by Thr308 and Ser473 phosphorylation, was analyzed, stimulation of Ser473 in response to IGF-I in pre-osteoclasts required the presence of intact IGFBP-2. This effect was duplicated by the addition of a CK2 inhibitor that prevents the phosphorylation of PTEN. In contrast, in fully differentiated osteoclasts stimulation of Thr308 phosphorylation required the presence of intact IGFBP-2. We conclude that IGFBP-2 is an important regulator of osteoclastogenesis and that both the heparin and the IGF binding domains of IGFBP-2 are essential for the formation of fully differentiated and functional osteoclasts.
Aging is associated with profound changes in bone mass and body composition. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that alterations in mesenchymal stromal cell fate are a critical etiologic factor. In addition, timekeeping at the cellular level is affected as aging progresses, particularly in the adipocyte. In this Extra View we discuss the interactive role of three molecules, PPARγ, nocturnin and IGF-I, in regulating stem cell fate in the marrow and the potential implications of this network for understanding cellular aging.
aging; bone; PPARγ; nocturnin; IGF-I
During endochondral ossification, the cartilage is surrounded by a layer of cells that constitute the perichondrium. Communication between osteoblasts in the perichondrium via N-cadherin adherens junctions is essential for endochondral bone growth. We observed that adherens junction molecule N-cadherin and its interacting partners p120, β-catenin and PTEN are expressed by cells present in the perichondrium. To study if N-cadherin mediated adherens junctions play a role in mediating signal transduction events during bone development, we utilized MC3T3E1 preosteoblasts plated at sub confluent (low) and confluent (high) densities to mimic adherens junction formation. When MC3T3E1 cells were plated at high density we observed an increase in phosphorylation of AKTSer473 and its downstream target GSK3Ser9, which coincided with an increase in Osterix, Osteomodulin and Osteoglycin gene expression. Using immunofluorescence, we identified N-cadherin, p120 and β-catenin localized at the membrane of MC3T3E1 cells. Treatment of confluent MC3T3E1cells with an N-cadherin junction inhibitor-EGTA and a PI3K inhibitor LY294002 resulted in reduction of phosphorylation levels of AKT and GSK3 and expression of Osterix, Osteomodulin and Osteoglycin. Furthermore, utilizing an N-cadherin blocking antibody resulted in reduced AKT signaling and Osterix gene expression, suggesting that osteoblast junction formation is linked to activation of PI3K signaling, which leads to osteoblast differentiation. To further explore the strength of this linkage, we utilized a conditional knockout approach using Dermo1cre to delete β-catenin and PTEN, two important proteins known to be essential for adherens junctions and PI3K signaling, respectively. In the absence of β-catenin, we observed a decrease in adherens junctions and AKT signaling in the perichondrium. PTEN deletion, on the other hand, increased the number of cells expressing N-cadherin in the perichondrium. These observations show that N-cadherin mediated junctions between osteoblasts are needed for osteoblast gene transcription.
N-cadherin; Osteoblasts; Osterix; Adherens junctions
Chronic alcohol abuse is an established risk factor for osteoporosis. However, the precise mechanisms for the bone loss are largely unknown. Alcohol decreases skeletal expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), an important growth hormone (GH)-regulated skeletal growth factor. Therefore, we investigated the effects of alcohol on the skeletal response to GH in male Sprague Dawley rats made GH-deficient by hypophysectomy (HYPOX). Four groups of sexually mature (3-month-old) rats were studied: pituitary-intact (control), HYPOX, HYPOX + GH, and HYPOX + alcohol + GH. All animals were transferred to a liquid diet 6 days following surgery. The alcohol-fed group was adapted to a graded increase in alcohol beginning 11 days following surgery. GH or vehicle was administered during the final 8 days of study and all animals were sacrificed 25 days following surgery. HYPOX resulted in cessation of body weight gain and tibial growth. Compared to controls, longitudinal bone growth and cancellous bone formation were lower following HYPOX. The latter was associated with lower mineralizing perimeter/bone perimeter. Bone marrow adiposity was higher following HYPOX. Compared to HYPOX, GH treatment increased body weight gain and bone formation rate, and decreased bone marrow adiposity. In contrast to the effects of GH treatment without alcohol, bone marrow adiposity did not differ between HYPOX and alcohol-fed GH-treated HYPOX rats. Alcohol did not alter GH-induced weight gain or increases in serum IGF-I levels but significantly impaired the effects of GH on tibial growth and cancellous bone formation. We conclude that the detrimental skeletal effects of alcohol abuse observed in this experiment are mediated, at least in part, by skeletal resistance to GH.
hypophysectomy; IGF-I; bone histomorphometry; osteoporosis; osteoblast
Nuclear receptors (NRs) control cell fate and regulate tissue function. Some of the NRs are expressed in a circadian and tissue specific manner. Clock genes are part of the circadian network and fine tune gene expression in adipose and skeletal tissues. Pparg, a master transcription factor that determines adipogenesis exhibits a circadian expression pattern in white adipose tissue and liver. In this paper we found that message and protein for a peripheral clock gene, nocturnin, is markedly up-regulated with Pparg activation in adipocytes and bone marrow stromal cells. Nocturnin is also expressed in relatively high amounts in other tissues which may have physiologic relevance for bone, including the brain and hypothalamus. Importantly, we found polymorphic strain differences in bone marrow nocturnin expression that relate to phenotypic determinants of skeletal acquisition. Defining the function of nocturnin in peripheral tissues should provide new insights into lineage allocation and the intimate relationship between nuclear receptors and physiologic timekeeping.
The role of circadian proteins in regulating whole body metabolism and bone turnover has been studied in detail and has led to the discovery of an elemental system for timekeeping involving the core genes Clock, Bmal1, Per, and Cry. Nocturnin, a peripheral circadian-regulated gene has been shown to play a very important role in regulating adipogenesis by deadenylation of key mRNAs and intra-cytoplasmic transport of PPARγ. The role that it plays in osteogenesis has previously not been studied in detail. In this report we examined in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis in the presence and absence of Nocturnin and show that loss of Nocturnin enhances bone formation and can rescue Rosiglitazone induced bone loss in mice. The circadian rhythm of Nocturnin is likely to be an essential element of marrow stromal cell fate.
Nocturnin; rosiglitazone; PPARγ
Studies on bone development, formation and turnover have grown exponentially over the last decade in part because of the utility of genetic models. One area that has received considerable attention has been the PI3K signaling pathway, which has emerged as a major survival network for osteoblasts. Genetic engineering has enabled investigators to study downstream effectors of PI3K by directly over-expressing activated forms of AKT in cells of the skeletal lineage or deleting Pten which leads to a constitutively active AKT. The results from these studies have provided novel insights into bone development and remodeling, critical processes in the lifelong maintenance of skeletal health. This paper reviews those data in relation to recent advances in osteoblast biology and their potential relevance to chronic disorders of the skeleton and their treatment.
Bone marrow adipogenesis is a normal physiologic process in all mammals. However, its function is unknown. The mesenchymal stem cell is the marrow precursor for adipocytes as well as osteoblasts, and PPARγ is an essential differentiation factor for entrance into the fat lineage. Mouse models have provided significant insight into the molecular cues that define stromal cell fate. In humans, accelerated marrow adipogenesis has been associated with aging and several chronic conditions including diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. Newer imaging techniques have been used to determine the developmental time course of fat generation in bone marrow. However, more studies are needed to understand the interrelationship among hematopoietic, osteoblastic, and adipogenic cells within the marrow niche.
adipogenesis; marrow stromal cells; osteoblastogenesis; bone mass; aging
Integrin associated protein (IAP/CD47) has been implicated in macrophage-macrophage fusion. To understand the actions of CD47 on skeletal remodeling, we compared Cd47−/− with Cd47+/+ controls. Cd47−/− mice weighed less and had decreased areal bone mineral density compared to controls. Cd47−/− femurs were shorter in length with thinner cortices and exhibited lower trabecular bone volume due to decreased trabecular number and thickness. Histomorphometry revealed reduced bone formation and mineral apposition rates, accompanied by decreased osteoblast numbers. No differences in osteoclast number were observed despite a non-significant, but 40% decrease, in eroded surface/bone surface in Cd47−/− mice. In vitro the number of functional osteoclasts formed by differentiating Cd47−/− bone marrow cells was significantly decreased compared to wild-type cultures and was associated with a decrease in bone resorption capacity. Furthermore, by disrupting the CD47-SHPS-1 association we found that osteoclastogenesis was markedly impaired. Assays for markers of osteoclast maturation suggested the defect was at the point of fusion and not differentiation, and was associated with a lack of SHPS-1 phosphorylation, SHP-1 phosphatase recruitment and subsequent dephosphorylation of non-muscle cell myosin IIA. We also demonstrated a significant decrease in osteoblastogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells derived from Cd47−/− mice. Our finding of cell autonomous defects in Cd47−/− osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation coupled with the pronounced skeletal phenotype of Cd47−/− mice support the conclusion that CD47 plays an important role in regulating skeletal acquisition and maintenance through its actions on both bone formation and resorption.
bone; osteoclast; osteoblast; SHP-1; non-muscle myosin-IIA; bone resorption
Although the literature suggests a protective (anabolic) effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the musculoskeletal system during growth and aging, there is evidence that reductions in IGF-1 signaling are advantageous for promoting an increase in lifespan through reduction in oxidative stress-induced tissue damage. To better understand this paradox, we utilized the hepatocyte-specific IGF-1 transgenic (HIT) mice, which exhibit 3-fold increases in serum IGF-1, with normal IGF-1 expression in other tissues; and mice with an IGF-1 null background that exclusively express IGF-1 in the liver, which thereby delivers IGF-1 by the endocrine route only (KO-HIT mice). We found that in the total absence of tissue igf1 gene expression (KO-HIT), increases in serum IGF-1 levels were associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in serum, increased mortality rate at 18 months, of age in both genders. Surprisingly, however, we found that in female mice, tissue IGF-1 plays an important role in preserving trabecular bone architecture as KO-HIT mice show bone loss in the femoral distal metaphysis. Additionally, in male KO-HIT mice increases in serum IGF-1 levels were insufficient to protect against age-related muscle loss. Overall, we conclude that elevations in serum IGF-1 have beneficial role in the aging musculoskeletal system but may have deleterious effects that lead to earlier mortality.
IGF-1; Bone; aging; oxidative stress
Despite being a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, obesity has been thought to protect against osteoporosis. However, recent studies have demonstrated a differential impact of specific fat compartments on bone mineral density (BMD) with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) having potential detrimental effects on BMD. Visceral obesity is also associated with dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the differential effects of abdominal fat depots and muscle, vitamin D, and hormonal determinants, including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone, and estradiol, on trabecular BMD of the lumbar spine. We studied 68 healthy obese premenopausal women (mean BMI: 36.7 ± 4.2 kg/m2). Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to assess body composition and lumbar trabecular BMD. There was an inverse association between BMD and VAT, independent of age and BMI (p= 0.003). IGF-1 correlated positively with BMD and negatively with VAT and, in stepwise multivariate regression modeling, was the strongest predictor of BMD and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP). Thigh muscle cross sectional area (CSA), and thigh muscle density were also associated with BMD (p<0.05), but 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], testosterone, free testosterone and estradiol levels were not. 25(OH)D was associated inversely with BMI, total and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (p< 0.05). These findings support the hypothesis that VAT exerts detrimental effects, whereas muscle mass exerts positive effects on BMD in premenopausal obese women. Moreover, our findings suggest that IGF-1 may be a mediator of the deleterious effects of VAT on bone health through effects on bone formation.
bone mineral density; obesity; visceral adipose tissue; IGF -1; P1NP; quantitative computed tomography (QCT)
Deficiencies in either growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with reductions in bone size during growth in humans and animal models. Liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice, which have 75% reductions in serum IGF-1, were created previously to separate the effects of endocrine (serum) IGF-1 from autocrine/paracrine IGF-1. However, LID mice also have two- to threefold increases in GH, and this may contribute to the observed pubertal skeletal phenotype. To clarify the role of GH in skeletal development under conditions of significantly reduced serum IGF-1 levels (but normal tissue IGF-1 levels), we studied the skeletal response of male LID and control mice to GH inhibition by pegvisomant from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Treatment of LID mice with pegvisomant resulted in significant reductions in body weight, femur length (Le), and femur total area (Tt.Ar), as well as further reductions in serum IGF-1 levels by 8 weeks of age, compared with the mean values of vehicle-treated LID mice. Reductions in both Tt.Ar and Le were proportional after treatment with pegvisomant. On the other hand, the relative amount of cortical tissue formed (RCA) in LID mice treated with pegvisomant was significantly less than that in both vehicle-treated LID and control mice, indicating that antagonizing GH action, either directly (through GH receptor signaling inhibition) or indirectly (through further reductions in serum/tissue IGF-1 levels), results in disproportionate reductions in the amount of cortical bone formed. This resulted in bones with significantly reduced mechanical properties (femoral whole-bone stiffness and work to failure were markedly decreased), suggesting that compensatory increases of GH in states of IGF-1 deficiency (LID mice) act to protect against a severe inhibition of bone modeling during growth, which otherwise would result in bones that are too weak for normal and/or extreme loading conditions. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
IGF-1; BONE; LID MICE; MICRO–COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; ENDOCRINE; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
The distal end of mouse chromosome 1 (Chr 1) harbors quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate bone mineral density (BMD) and share conserved synteny with human chromosome 1q. The objective of this article was to map this mouse distal Chr 1 region and identify gene(s) responsible for BMD regulation in females. We used X-ray densitometry [ie, dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), micro–computed tomography (µCT), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)] to phenotype a set of nested congenic strains constructed from C57BL/6BmJ (B6/Bm) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice to map the region associated with the BMD QTL. The critical region has been reduced to an interval of 0.152 Mb that contributes to increased BMD when C3H alleles are present. Histomorphometry and osteoblast cultures indicated that increased osteoblast activity was associated with increased BMD in mouse strains with C3H alleles in this critical region. This region contains two genes, Aim2, which binds with cytoplasmic dsDNA and results in apoptosis, and AC084073.22, a predicted gene of unknown function. Ovariectomy induced bone loss in the B6/Bm progenitor and the three congenic strains regardless of the alleles present in the critical BMD region. High dietary fat treatment (thought to suppress distal Chr 1 QTL for BMD in mice) did not induce bone loss in the congenics carrying C3H alleles in the critical 0.152 Mb carrying the AIM2 and AC084073.22 genes. Gene expression studies in whole bone of key congenics showed differential expression of AC084073.22 for strains carrying B6/Bm versus C3H alleles but not for Aim2. In conclusion, our data suggest that osteoblasts are the cellular target of gene action and that AC084073.22 is the best candidate for female BMD regulation in the distal region of mouse Chr 1. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
DISTAL CHROMOSOME 1; MOUSE CONGENIC STRAINS; BMD CANDIDATE GENES; OSTEOBLASTS; DIETARY FAT
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a critical factor for adipogenesis and glucose metabolism, but accumulating evidence demonstrates the involvement of PPARγ in skeletal metabolism as well. PPARγ agonists, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), have been widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus owing to their effectiveness in lowering blood glucose. However, the use of TZDs has been associated with bone loss and fractures. TZD-induced alterations in the bone marrow milieu—that is, increased marrow adiposity with suppression of osteogenesis—could partially explain the pathogenesis of TZD-induced bone loss Furthermore, several lines of evidence place PPARγ at the center of a regulatory loop between circadian networks and metabolic output. PPARγ exhibits a circadian expression pattern that is magnified by consumption of a high-fat diet. One of the circadian-regulated genes expressed in peripheral tissues, nocturnin (Noc), has been shown to enhance PPARγ activity. Importantly Noc-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced obesity, exhibit impaired circadian expression of PPARγ and have increased bone mass. This Review focuses on new findings regarding the role of PPARγ in adipose tissue and skeletal metabolism and summarizes the emerging role of PPARγ as an integral part of a complex circadian regulatory system that modulates food storage, energy consumption and skeletal metabolism.
There is growing evidence that IGF-1 and PTH have synergistic actions on bone and that part of the anabolic effects of PTH are mediated by local production of IGF-1. In this study we analyzed the skeletal response to PTH in mouse models with manipulated endocrine or autocrine/paracrine IGF-1. We utilized mice carrying a hepatic IGF-1 transgene (HIT), which results in a 3-fold increase in serum IGF-1 levels and normal tissue IGF-1 expression, and IGF-1 null mice with blunted IGF-1 expression in tissues but 3-fold increases in serum IGF-1 levels (KO-HIT). Evaluation of skeletal growth showed that elevations in serum IGF-1 in mice with igf-1 gene ablation in all tissues except the liver (KO-HIT) resulted in a restoration of skeletal morphology and mechanical properties by adulthood. Intermittent PTH treatment of adult HIT mice resulted in increases in serum osteocalcin levels, femoral total cross-sectional area, cortical bone area and cortical bone thickness, as well as bone mechanical properties. We found that the skeletal response of HIT mice to PTH was significantly higher than that of control mice, suggesting synergy between IGF-1 and PTH on bone. In sharp contrast, although PTH-treated KO-HIT mice demonstrated an anabolic response in cortical and trabecular bone compartments compared to vehicle treated KO-HITs, their response was identical to that of PTH-treated control mice. We conclude that 1) in the presence of elevated serum IGF-1 levels, PTH can exert an anabolic response in bone even in the total absence of tissue IGF-1 and, 2) elevations in serum IGF-1 levels synergize PTH action on bone only if the tissue IGF-1 axis is intact, thus enhancement of PTH anabolic actions is tissue IGF-1-dependent.
IGF-1; Bone; transgenic mice; igf-1ko; micro-computed tomography; endocrine IGF-1; intermittent PTH
Understanding insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) biology is of particular importance because, apart from its role in mediating growth, it plays key roles in cellular transformation, organ regeneration, immune function, development of the musculoskeletal system and aging. IGF1 bioactivity is modulated by its binding to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and the acid labile subunit (ALS), which are present in serum and tissues. To determine whether IGF1 binding to IGFBPs is necessary to facilitate normal growth and development, we used a gene-targeting approach and generated two novel knock-in mouse models of mutated IGF1, in which the native Igf1 gene was replaced by Des-Igf1 (KID mice) or R3-Igf1 (KIR mice). The KID and KIR mutant proteins have reduced affinity for the IGFBPs, and therefore present as unbound IGF1, or ‘free IGF1’. We found that both KID and KIR mice have reduced serum IGF1 levels and a concomitant increase in serum growth hormone levels. Ternary complex formation of IGF1 with the IGFBPs and the ALS was markedly reduced in sera from KID and KIR mice compared with wild type. Both mutant mice showed increased body weight, body and bone lengths, and relative lean mass. We found selective organomegaly of the spleen, kidneys and uterus, enhanced mammary gland complexity, and increased skeletal acquisition. The KID and KIR models show unequivocally that IGF1-complex formation with the IGFBPs is fundamental for establishing normal body and organ size, and that uncontrolled IGF bioactivity could lead to pathological conditions.
Use of recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as a treatment for primary IGF-1 deficiency in children has become increasingly common. When untreated, primary IGF-1 deficiency may lead to a range of metabolic disorders, including lipid abnormalities, insulin resistance, and decreased bone density. To date, results of this therapy are considered encouraging; however, our understanding of the role played by IGF-1 during development remains limited. Studies on long-term treatment with recombinant IGF-1 in both children and animals are few. Here, we used two novel transgenic mouse strains to test the long-term effects of elevated circulating IGF-1 on body size and skeletal development. Overexpression of the rat igf1 transgene in livers of mice with otherwise normal IGF-1 expression (HIT mice) resulted in approximately threefold increases in serum IGF-1 levels throughout growth, as well as greater body mass and enhanced skeletal size, architecture, and mechanical properties. When the igf1 transgene was overexpressed in livers of igf1 null mice (KO-HIT), the comparably elevated serum IGF-1 failed to overcome growth and skeletal deficiencies during neonatal and early postnatal growth. However, between 4 and 16 weeks of age, increased serum IGF-1 fully compensated for the absence of locally produced IGF-1 because body weights and lengths of KO-HIT mice became comparable with controls. Furthermore, micro-computed tomography (µCT) analysis revealed that early deficits in skeletal structure of KO-HIT mice were restored to control levels by adulthood. Our data indicate that in the absence of tissue igf1 gene expression, maintaining long-term elevations in serum IGF-1 is sufficient to establish normal body size, body composition, and both skeletal architecture and mechanical function. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
IGF-1; bone; transgenic mice; IGF-1KO; micro-computed tomography; endocrine IGF-1; mechanical properties
Cancellous bone decreases and bone marrow fat content increases with age. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from a common precursor, and growth hormone (GH), a key hormone in integration of energy metabolism, regulates the differentiation and function of both cell lineages. Since an age-related decline in GH is associated with bone loss, we investigated the relationship between GH and bone marrow adiposity in hypophysectomized (HYPOX) rats and in mice with defects in GH signaling. HYPOX dramatically reduced body weight gain, bone growth and mineralizing perimeter, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and mRNA levels for IGF-1 in liver and bone. Despite reduced body mass and adipocyte precursor pool size, HYPOX resulted in a dramatic increase in bone lipid levels, as reflected by increased bone marrow adiposity and bone triglyceride and cholesterol content. GH replacement normalized bone marrow adiposity and precursor pool size, as well as mineralizing perimeter in HYPOX rats. In contrast, 17β -estradiol, IGF-1, thyroxine, and cortisone were ineffective. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) reversed the inhibitory effects of HYPOX on mineralizing perimeter but had no effect on adiposity. Finally, bone marrow adiposity was increased in mice deficient in GH and IGF-1 but not in mice deficient in serum IGF-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that the reciprocal changes in bone and fat mass in GH signaling-deficient rodents are not directly coupled with one another. Rather, GH enhances adipocyte as well as osteoblast precursor pool size. However, GH increases osteoblast differentiation while suppressing bone marrow lipid accumulation. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
osteoblasts; adipocytes; IGF-1; estrogen; parathyroid hormone
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a critical role in the development of the growing skeleton by establishing both longitudinal and transverse bone accrual. IGF-1 has also been implicated in the maintenance of bone mass during late adulthood and aging, as decreases in serum IGF-1 levels appear to correlate with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). Although informative, mouse models to date have been unable to separate the temporal effects of IGF-1 depletion on skeletal development. To address this problem, we performed a skeletal characterization of the inducible LID mouse (iLID), in which serum IGF-1 levels are depleted at selected ages. We found that depletion of serum IGF-1 in male iLID mice prior to adulthood (4 weeks) decreased trabecular bone architecture and significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th) by 16 weeks (adulthood). Likewise, depletion of serum IGF-1 in iLID males at 8 weeks of age, resulted in significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th) by 32 weeks (late adulthood), but had no effect on trabecular bone architecture. In contrast, depletion of serum IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (at 16 weeks) resulted in enhancement of trabecular bone architecture, but no significant changes in cortical bone properties by 32 weeks as compared to controls. These results indicate that while serum IGF-1 is essential for bone accrual during the postnatal growth phase, depletion of IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (16 weeks) is compartment-specific and does not have a detrimental effect on cortical bone mass in the older adult mouse.