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1.  Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic High-Flow Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula as a Complication after C1 Screw Insertion 
High-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are rare complications of cervical spine surgery and characterized by iatrogenic direct-communication of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) to the surrounding venous plexuses. The authors describe two patients with VAVF presenting with ischemic presentation after C1 pedicle screw insertion for a treatment of C2 fracture and nontraumatic atlatoaxial subluxation. The first patient presented with drowsy consciousness with blurred vision. The diffusion MRI showed an acute infarction on bilateral cerebellum and occipital lobes. The second patient presented with pulsatile tinnitus, dysarthria and a subjective weakness and numbness of extremities. In both cases, digital subtraction angiography demonstrated high-flow direct VAVFs adjacent to C1 screws. The VAVF of the second case occurred near the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated from the persistent first intersegmental artery of the left VA. Both cases were successfully treated by complete occlusion of the fistulous portion and the involved segment of the left VA using endovascular coil embolization. The authors reviewed the VAVFs after the upper-cervical spine surgery including C1 screw insertion and the feasibility with the attention notes of its endovascular treatment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.4.348
PMCID: PMC4219195  PMID: 25371787
Vertebral arteriovenous fistula; C1 screw; Endovascular treatment
2.  DJ-1 contributes to adipogenesis and obesity-induced inflammation 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4805.
Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, and the development of systemic inflammation in adipose tissue is closely associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity and insulin resistance. Accordingly, the fine regulation of the inflammatory response caused by obesity has therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the role of DJ-1 (PARK7) in adipogenesis and inflammation related to obesity in vitro and in vivo. Many intracellular functions of DJ-1, including oxidative stress regulation, are known. However, the possibility of DJ-1 involvement in metabolic disease is largely unknown. Our results suggest that DJ-1 deficiency results in reduced adipogenesis and the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Furthermore, DJ-1-deficient mice show a low-level inflammatory response in the high-fat diet-induced obesity model. These results indicate previously unknown functions of DJ-1 in metabolism and therefore suggest that precise regulation of DJ-1 in adipose tissue might have a therapeutic advantage for metabolic disease treatment.
doi:10.1038/srep04805
PMCID: PMC4055892  PMID: 24925581
3.  High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound as Salvage Therapy for Patients With Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radiotherapy 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(2):91-96.
Purpose
To evaluate the oncologic outcomes and postoperative complications of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as a salvage therapy after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) failure in patients with prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
Between February 2002 and August 2010, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent salvage HIFU for transrectal ultrasound-guided, biopsy-proven locally recurred prostate cancer after EBRT failure (by ASTRO definition: prostate-specific antigen [PSA] failure after three consecutive PSA increases after a nadir, with the date of failure as the point halfway between the nadir date and the first increase or any increase great enough to provoke initiation of therapy). All patients underwent prostate magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy and had no evidence of distant metastasis. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was defined according to the Stuttgart definition (PSA nadir plus 1.2 ng/mL).
Results
A total of 13 patients with a median age of 68 years (range, 60-76 years) were included. The median pre-EBRT PSA was 21.12 ng/mL, the pre-HIFU PSA was 4.63 ng/mL, and the period of salvage HIFU after EBRT was 32.7 months. The median follow-up after salvage HIFU was 44.5 months. The overall BCR-free rate was 53.8%. In the univariate analysis, predictive factors for BCR after salvage HIFU were higher pre-EBRT PSA (p=0.037), pre-HIFU PSA (p=0.015), and short time to nadir (p=0.036). In the multivariate analysis, there were no significant predictive factors for BCR. The complication rate requiring intervention was 38.5%.
Conclusions
Salvage HIFU for prostate cancer provides effective oncologic outcomes for local recurrence after EBRT failure. However, salvage HIFU had a relatively high rate of complications.
doi:10.4111/kju.2014.55.2.91
PMCID: PMC3935076  PMID: 24578803
High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation; Prostatic neoplasms; Salvage therapy
4.  Nutrition and Physical Activity in Aging, Obesity, and Cancer 
The analysis of complex genetic traits, including mapping and identification of causative genes, has long been an enigma of genetic biology, whether in the animal sciences or in medical sciences. Traits of agricultural interest and traits of medical interest are often under the influence of both environmental factors and multiple genes, each with modest contributions to the total variance in the trait. Although the number of known mutations underlying complex traits is still relatively small, advances in genomics have greatly enhanced traditional pathways to their analysis and gene mining. The candidate gene approach, linkage analysis, and association studies are all significantly more powerful with recent advances in genome mapping, sequencing, and analysis of individual variation. Avenues to gene discovery are discussed with emphasis on genome wide association studies (GWAS) and the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as revealed by increasingly powerful commercially available microarrays.
doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06733.x
PMCID: PMC3483623  PMID: 23050961
genomics; complex traits; animals, disease resistance; GWAS

Results 1-4 (4)