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Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1)
The Journal of Endocrinology (1)
Guntur, Anyonya R (2)
Rosen, Clifford J (2)
Bornstein, Sheila (1)
Bouxsein, Mary L. (1)
Green, Carla B. (1)
Guntur, Anyonya R. (1)
Kawai, Masanobu (1)
Le, Phuong (1)
Naski, Michael C (1)
Rosen, Clifford J. (1)
Year of Publication
N-cadherin adherens junctions mediate osteogenesis through PI3K signaling
Rosen, Clifford J
Naski, Michael C
During endochondral ossification, the cartilage is surrounded by a layer of cells that constitute the perichondrium. Communication between osteoblasts in the perichondrium via N-cadherin adherens junctions is essential for endochondral bone growth. We observed that adherens junction molecule N-cadherin and its interacting partners p120, β-catenin and PTEN are expressed by cells present in the perichondrium. To study if N-cadherin mediated adherens junctions play a role in mediating signal transduction events during bone development, we utilized MC3T3E1 preosteoblasts plated at sub confluent (low) and confluent (high) densities to mimic adherens junction formation. When MC3T3E1 cells were plated at high density we observed an increase in phosphorylation of AKTSer473 and its downstream target GSK3Ser9, which coincided with an increase in Osterix, Osteomodulin and Osteoglycin gene expression. Using immunofluorescence, we identified N-cadherin, p120 and β-catenin localized at the membrane of MC3T3E1 cells. Treatment of confluent MC3T3E1cells with an N-cadherin junction inhibitor-EGTA and a PI3K inhibitor LY294002 resulted in reduction of phosphorylation levels of AKT and GSK3 and expression of Osterix, Osteomodulin and Osteoglycin. Furthermore, utilizing an N-cadherin blocking antibody resulted in reduced AKT signaling and Osterix gene expression, suggesting that osteoblast junction formation is linked to activation of PI3K signaling, which leads to osteoblast differentiation. To further explore the strength of this linkage, we utilized a conditional knockout approach using Dermo1cre to delete β-catenin and PTEN, two important proteins known to be essential for adherens junctions and PI3K signaling, respectively. In the absence of β-catenin, we observed a decrease in adherens junctions and AKT signaling in the perichondrium. PTEN deletion, on the other hand, increased the number of cells expressing N-cadherin in the perichondrium. These observations show that N-cadherin mediated junctions between osteoblasts are needed for osteoblast gene transcription.
N-cadherin; Osteoblasts; Osterix; Adherens junctions
An essential role for the circadian-regulated gene Nocturnin in osteogenesis: the importance of local timekeeping in skeletal homeostasis
Bouxsein, Mary L.
Green, Carla B.
Rosen, Clifford J.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
The role of circadian proteins in regulating whole body metabolism and bone turnover has been studied in detail and has led to the discovery of an elemental system for timekeeping involving the core genes Clock, Bmal1, Per, and Cry. Nocturnin, a peripheral circadian-regulated gene has been shown to play a very important role in regulating adipogenesis by deadenylation of key mRNAs and intra-cytoplasmic transport of PPARγ. The role that it plays in osteogenesis has previously not been studied in detail. In this report we examined in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis in the presence and absence of Nocturnin and show that loss of Nocturnin enhances bone formation and can rescue Rosiglitazone induced bone loss in mice. The circadian rhythm of Nocturnin is likely to be an essential element of marrow stromal cell fate.
Nocturnin; rosiglitazone; PPARγ
New Insights into Osteoblasts and Their Role in Bone Formation: The Central Role of PI3Kinase
Rosen, Clifford J
The Journal of Endocrinology
Studies on bone development, formation and turnover have grown exponentially over the last decade in part because of the utility of genetic models. One area that has received considerable attention has been the PI3K signaling pathway, which has emerged as a major survival network for osteoblasts. Genetic engineering has enabled investigators to study downstream effectors of PI3K by directly over-expressing activated forms of AKT in cells of the skeletal lineage or deleting Pten which leads to a constitutively active AKT. The results from these studies have provided novel insights into bone development and remodeling, critical processes in the lifelong maintenance of skeletal health. This paper reviews those data in relation to recent advances in osteoblast biology and their potential relevance to chronic disorders of the skeleton and their treatment.
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