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1.  Specific Microbiome Changes in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Injury and Intestinal Inflammation 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110396.
Background
Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been a life-saving treatment in infants intolerant of enteral feedings. However, PN is associated with liver injury (PN Associated Liver Injury: PNALI) in a significant number of PN-dependent infants. We have previously reported a novel PNALI mouse model in which PN infusion combined with intestinal injury results in liver injury. In this model, lipopolysaccharide activation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling, soy oil-derived plant sterols, and pro-inflammatory activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) played key roles. The objective of this study was to explore changes in the intestinal microbiome associated with PNALI.
Methodology and Principal Findings
Microbiome analysis in the PNALI mouse identified specific alterations within colonic microbiota associated with PNALI and further association of these communities with the lipid composition of the PN solution. Intestinal inflammation or soy oil-based PN infusion alone (in the absence of enteral feeds) caused shifts within the gut microbiota. However, the combination resulted in accumulation of a specific taxon, Erysipelotrichaceae (23.8% vs. 1.7% in saline infused controls), in PNALI mice. Moreover, PNALI was markedly attenuated by enteral antibiotic treatment, which also was associated with significant reduction of Erysipelotrichaceae (0.6%) and a Gram-negative constituent, the S24-7 lineage of Bacteroidetes (53.5% in PNALI vs. 0.8%). Importantly, removal of soy oil based-lipid emulsion from the PN solution resulted in significant reduction of Erysipelotrichaceae as well as attenuation of PNALI. Finally, addition of soy-derived plant sterol (stigmasterol) to fish oil-based PN restored Erysipelotrichaceae abundance and PNALI.
Conclusions
Soy oil-derived plant sterols and the associated specific bacterial groups in the colonic microbiota are associated with PNALI. Products from these bacteria may directly trigger activation of KCs and promote PNALI. Furthermore, the results indicate that lipid modification of PN solutions may alter specific intestinal bacterial species associated with PNALI, and thus suggest strategies for management of PNALI.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110396
PMCID: PMC4203793  PMID: 25329595
2.  Phytosterols Promote Liver Injury and Kupffer Cell Activation in Parenteral Nutrition–Associated Liver Disease 
Science translational medicine  2013;5(206):206ra137.
Parenteral nutrition–associated liver disease (PNALD) is a serious complication of PN in infants who do not tolerate enteral feedings, especially those with acquired or congenital intestinal diseases. Yet, the mechanisms underlying PNALD are poorly understood. It has been suggested that a component of soy oil (SO) lipid emulsions in PN solutions, such as plant sterols (phytosterols), may be responsible for PNALD, and that use of fish oil (FO)–based lipid emulsions may be protective. We used a mouse model of PNALD combining PN infusion with intestinal injury to demonstrate that SO-based PN solution causes liver damage and hepatic macrophage activation and that PN solutions that are FO-based or devoid of all lipids prevent these processes. We have furthermore demonstrated that a factor in the SO lipid emulsions, stigmasterol, promotes cholestasis, liver injury, and liver macrophage activation in this model and that this effect may be mediated through suppression of canalicular bile transporter expression (Abcb11/BSEP, Abcc2/MRP2) via antagonism of the nuclear receptors Fxr and Lxr, and failure of up-regulation of the hepatic sterol exporters (Abcg5/g8/ABCG5/8). This study provides experimental evidence that plant sterols in lipid emulsions are a major factor responsible for PNALD and that the absence or reduction of plant sterols is one of the mechanisms for hepatic protection in infants receiving FO-based PN or lipid minimization PN treatment. Modification of lipid constituents in PN solutions is thus a promising strategy to reduce incidence and severity of PNALD.
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3006898
PMCID: PMC4070735  PMID: 24107776
3.  Influence of orbital eye position on vertical saccades in progressive supranuclear palsy 
Disturbance of vertical saccadesis a cardinal feature of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We investigated whether the amplitude and peak velocity of saccades is affected by the orbital position fromwhich movements start in PSP patients and age-matched control subjects. Subjects made vertical saccades in response to ± 5 degree vertical target jumps with their heads in one of three positions: head “center,” head pitched forward ~15 degrees, and head pitched back ~ 15 degrees.All patients showed some effect of starting eye position, whether beginning in the upward or downward field of gaze, on saccade amplitude, peak velocity (PV), and net range of movement. Generally, reduction of amplitude and PV were commensurate and bidirectional in the affected hemifield of gaze. Such findings are unlikelyto be due to orbital factors and could be explained by varying degrees of involvement of rostral midbrain nucleiin the pathological process.
doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06120.x
PMCID: PMC3187876  PMID: 21950977
saccades; midbrain; neural integrator; eyeball; parkinsonian disorders
4.  Resistance of Young Rat Hepatic Mitochondria to Bile Acid-Induced Permeability Transition: Potential Role of Alpha Tocopherol 
Pediatric research  2008;64(5):498-504.
Retention of bile acids within the liver is a primary factor in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disorders, which are more common in human infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate developmental changes in mitochondrial factors involved in bile acid-induced hepatocyte injury. Hepatic mitochondria from adult rats (aged 9 weeks) underwent a mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and release of cytochrome c upon exposure to glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). In contrast, mitochondria from young rats (age 6–36 days) were resistant to MPT induction and cytochrome c release. Neither mitochondrial levels of MPT-associated proteins (voltage-dependent anion channel, cyclophilin D, or adenine nucleotide translocase), Bcl-2 family proteins, nor antioxidant enzymes explained this resistance. Mitochondria from young rats contained 2–3-fold higher α-tocopherol (α-TH). In vivo α-TH enrichment of adult hepatic mitochondria increased their MPT resistance. Tetra-linoleoyl cardiolipin (TL-CL), the primary molecular species of cardiolipin (CL), was reduced in mitochondria of the young rat; however, enrichment with CL and TL-CL only modestly increased their MPT susceptibility. In conclusion, we observed an unexpected resistance in young rats to bile acid induction of mitochondrial cell death pathways, which may be related to developmental differences in membrane composition.
doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181841ee1
PMCID: PMC2651029  PMID: 18596569
Mitochondria; Development; Permeability transition; α-tocopherol; Cholestasis; Cardiolipin

Results 1-4 (4)