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1.  Trabecular bone loss after administration of the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone is independent of weight gain 
Bone  2011;50(2):490-498.
Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been linked to metabolic and bone disorders in clinical studies, but the mechanisms of these side effects remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have examined whether SGAs cause bone loss in mice. Using in vivo and in vitro modeling we examined the effects of risperidone, the most commonly prescribed SGA, on bone in C57BL6/J (B6) mice. Mice were treated with risperidone orally by food supplementation at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg daily for 5 and 8 weeks, starting at 3.5 weeks of age. Risperidone reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number and percent cortical area. Trabecular histomorphometry demonstrated increased resorption parameters, with no change in osteoblast number or function. Risperidone also altered adipose tissue distribution such that white adipose tissue mass was reduced and liver had significantly higher lipid infiltration. Next, in order to tightly control risperidone exposure, we administered risperidone by chronic subcutaneous infusion with osmotic minipumps (0.5 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks) in 7 week old female B6 mice. Similar trabecular and cortical bone differences were observed compared to the orally treated groups (reduced trabecular BV/TV, and connectivity density, and reduced percent cortical area) with no change in body mass, percent body fat, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Unlike in orally treated mice, risperidone infusion reduced bone formation parameters (serum P1NP, MAR and BFR/BV). Resorption parameters were elevated, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. To determine if risperidone could directly affect bone cells, primary bone marrow cells were cultured with osteoclast or osteoblast differentiation media. Risperidone was added to culture medium in clinically relevant doses of 0, 2.5 or 25 ng/ml. The number of osteoclasts was significantly increased by addition in vitro of risperidone while osteoblast differentiation was not altered. These studies indicate that risperidone treatment can have negative skeletal consequences by direct activation of osteoclast activity and by indirect non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Our findings further support the tenet that the negative side effects of SGAs on bone mass should be considered when weighing potential risks and benefits, especially in children and adolescents who have not yet reached peak bone mass.
doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.08.005
PMCID: PMC3261344  PMID: 21854880
2.  An essential role for the circadian-regulated gene Nocturnin in osteogenesis: the importance of local timekeeping in skeletal homeostasis 
The role of circadian proteins in regulating whole body metabolism and bone turnover has been studied in detail and has led to the discovery of an elemental system for timekeeping involving the core genes Clock, Bmal1, Per, and Cry. Nocturnin, a peripheral circadian-regulated gene has been shown to play a very important role in regulating adipogenesis by deadenylation of key mRNAs and intra-cytoplasmic transport of PPARγ. The role that it plays in osteogenesis has previously not been studied in detail. In this report we examined in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis in the presence and absence of Nocturnin and show that loss of Nocturnin enhances bone formation and can rescue Rosiglitazone induced bone loss in mice. The circadian rhythm of Nocturnin is likely to be an essential element of marrow stromal cell fate.
doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06213.x
PMCID: PMC3285261  PMID: 22082366
Nocturnin; rosiglitazone; PPARγ
3.  VDR Haploinsufficiency Impacts Body Composition and Skeletal Acquisition in a Gender-Specific Manner 
Calcified tissue international  2011;89(3):179-191.
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is crucial for virtually all of vitamin D’s actions and is thought to be ubiquitously expressed. We hypothesized that disruption of one allele of the VDR gene would impact bone development and would have metabolic consequences. Body composition and bone mass (BMD) in VDR heterozygous (VDR HET) mice were compared to those obtained in male and female VDR KO and WT mice at 8 weeks of age. Male mice were also evaluated at 16 weeks, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation was evaluated in VDR female mice. Additionally, female VDR HET and WT mice received intermittent PTH treatment or vehicle (VH) for 4 weeks. BMD was determined at baseline and after treatment. MRI was done in vivo at the end of treatment; μCT and bone histomorphometry were performed after killing the animals. VDR HET male mice had normal skeletal development until 16 weeks of age but showed significantly less gain in fat mass than WT mice. In contrast, female VDR HET mice showed decreased total-body BMD at age 8 weeks but ad a normal skeletal response to PTH. MSC differentiation was also impaired in VDR HET female mice. Thus, female VDR HET mice show early impairment in bone acquisition, while male VDR HET mice exhibit a lean phenotype. Our results indicate that the VDR HET mouse is a useful model for studying the metabolic and skeletal impact of decreased vitamin D sensitivity.
doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9505-1
PMCID: PMC3157554  PMID: 21637996
Vitamin D; Parathyroid hormone; Body composition
4.  A Missense Mutation in the Capza3 Gene and Disruption of F-actin Organization in Spermatids of repro32 Infertile Male Mice 
Developmental biology  2009;330(1):142-152.
Males homozygous for the repro32 ENU-induced mutation produced by the Reproductive Genomics program at The Jackson Laboratory are infertile, have low epididymal sperm concentrations, and produce sperm with abnormally shaped heads and poor motility. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mutated gene in repro32 mice and to define the structural and functional changes causing infertility and the aberrant sperm phenotype. In repro32/repro32 mice, we discovered a failure to shed excess cytoplasm and disorganization of the middle piece of the flagellum at spermiation, resulting in the outer dense fibers being wrapped around the sperm head within a bag of cytoplasm. Using a candidate-gene approach, a mutation was identified in the spermatid-specific “capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 3” gene (Capza3). CAPZA3 protein localization was altered in spermatids concurrent with altered localization of a unique CAPZB variant isoform and disruption of the filamentous actin (F-actin) network. These observations strongly suggest the missense mutation in Capza3 is responsible for the mutant phenotype of repro32/repro32 sperm and regulation of F-actin dynamics by a spermatogenic cell-specific CAPZ heterodimer is essential for removal of the cytoplasm and maintenance of midpiece integrity during spermiation in the mouse.
doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.03.020
PMCID: PMC2688473  PMID: 19341723
testis; spermatid; spermatozoa; spermiogenesis; actin; ectoplasmic specialization; spermiation; tubulobulbar complex

Results 1-4 (4)