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1.  Postischemic administration of adenosine amine congener (ADAC): analysis of recovery in gerbils 
European journal of pharmacology  1996;316(2-3):171-179.
Although adenosine receptor-based treatment of cerebral ischemia and other neurodegenerative disorders has been frequently advocated, cardiovascular side effects and an uncertain therapeutic time window of such treatment have constituted major obstacles to clinical implementation. Therefore, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC) injected after either 5 or 10 min ischemia at 100 μg/kg. When the drug was administered at either 6 or 12 h following 5 min forebrain ischemia, all animals were still alive on the 14th day after the occlusion. In both ADAC treated groups neuronal survival was approximately 85% vs. 50% in controls. Administration of a single dose of ADAC at times 15 min to 12 h after 10 min ischemia resulted in a significant improvement of survival in animals injected either at 15 or 30 min, or at 1, 2, or 3 h after the insult. In all 10 min ischemia groups, administration of ADAC resulted in a significant protection of neuronal morphology and preservation of microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2). However, postischemic Morris’ water maze tests revealed full preservation of spatial memory and learning ability in animals injected at 6 h. On the other hand, the performance of gerbils treated at 12 h postischemia was indistinguishable from that of the controls. Administration of ADAC at 100 μg/kg in non-ischemic animals did not result in bradycardia, hypotension, or hypothermia. The data indicate that when ADAC is used postischemically, the most optimal level of protection is obtained when drugs are given at 30 min to 6 h after the insult. Although the mechanisms involved in neuroprotective effects of adenosine A1 receptor agonists require further studies, the present results demonstrate the feasibility of their clinical applications.
PMCID: PMC3449162  PMID: 8982684
Ischemia; treatment; Adenosine; Memory; MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein 2); (Gerbil)
2.  Reduction of postischemic brain damage and memory deficits following treatment with the selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist 
European journal of pharmacology  1996;302(1-3):43-48.
Agonists of adenosine A1 receptors have been frequently proposed as candidates for clinical development in treatment of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Numerous experimental studies have shown that pre- and postischemic administration of these drugs results in a very significant reduction of postischemic brain damage. However, only a few studies determined the impact of cerebral ischemia and drug treatment on postischemic recovery of spatial memory. The present paper demonstrates that preischemic i.p. administration of adenosine amine congener (ADAC) at 100 μg/kg in gerbils results in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of postischemic mortality and hippocampal, cortical and striatal morbidity. Postischemic Morris’ water maze tests show that preischemic treatment with ADAC also leads to a very significant (P < 0.001) reduction of postischemic spatial memory loss. Our results indicate feasibility of further consideration of adenosine A1 receptor agonists as a clinically applicable acute treatment of brain ischemia. Recent development of neuroprotective adenosine A1 receptor agonists that are free of cardiovascular side effects supports such development.
PMCID: PMC3449166  PMID: 8790990
Cerebral ischemia; Adenosine receptor; Spatial memory; Water maze; (Gerbil)
3.  Protection against ischemic damage by adenosine amine congener, a potent and selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist 
European journal of pharmacology  1999;369(3):313-317.
Although the selectivity and potency of adenosine amine congener (ADAC) at adenosine A1receptors are similar to other highly selective agonists at this receptor type, the chemical structure of the N6 substituent is completely different. We now demonstrate that the characteristics of the therapeutic profile of ADAC are distinct from those observed during our previous studies of adenosine A1receptor agonist-mediated neuroprotection. Most significantly, chronic treatment with low microgram doses of ADAC (25–100 µg/kg) protects against both mortality and neuronal damage induced by 10 min bilateral carotid occlusion in gerbils. At higher chronic doses, the statistical significance of the protective effect is lost. Acute preischemic administration of the drug at 75–200 µg/kg also results in a statistically significant reduction of postischemic mortality and morbidity. These data indicate that, contrary to other adenosine A1 receptor agonists whose chronic administration enhances postocclusive brain damage, ADAC may be a promising agent in treatment of both acute (e.g., cerebral ischemia) and chronic (seizures) disorders of the central nervous system in which adenosine A1 receptors appear to be involved.
PMCID: PMC3438899  PMID: 10225368
Cerebral ischemia; Adenosine A1 receptor; Therapy; Gerbil
5.  Chronic NMDA receptor stimulation: therapeutic implications of its effect on adenosine A1 receptors 
European journal of pharmacology  1995;283(1-3):185-192.
It is known that stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors has a modulatory effect on the excitability of postsynaptic NMDA receptors. Conversely, acute stimulation of NMDA receptors results in release of adenosine via calcium-independent mechanisms. These findings indicate a close functional relationship between these receptors. It is, therefore, possible that chronic, low level stimulation of the NMDA receptor may have a negative impact on these modulatory processes. To investigate this possibility, we have subjected C57BL mice either to an acute injection of a N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 mg/kg) or deoxycoformycin (1 mg/kg) followed by a convulsant dose of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) (60 mg/kg) or to chronic, low level (20 mg/kg i.p. daily) exposure to NMDA for 8 weeks. One day after the last injection of NMDA, animals were injected either with a convulsant dose of NMDA alone, or with either CPA at 0.001 or 0.01 mg/kg, or with 1 mg/kg deoxycoformycin followed 15 min later by 60 mg/kg NMDA. Neither CPA nor deoxycoformycin were protective when NMDA was given acutely at 60 mg/kg. Chronic treatment with NMDA alone or chronic administration of NMDA followed by 0.001 mg/kg CPA had no significant effect on mortality following a convulsant dose of NMDA. However, when the chronic regimen of NMDA was followed by either 0.01 mg/kg CPA or 1 mg/kg deoxycoformycin, mortality was reduced to 10% (CPA), or eliminated completely (deoxycoformycin). Moreover, combination of chronic NMDA treatment with either CPA (both doses) or deoxycoformycin produced a significant improvement in other measures, i.e., seizure onset, intensity of neurological impairment, and extension of time to death. Consonant with these results, apparent density of adenosine A1 receptors was increased in the cortex and hippocampus of animals treated chronically with NMDA. Our results indicate a possible role for NMDA-adenosine A1 receptor interaction in pathologies in which chronic stimulation of the NMDA receptor by endogenous excitatory amino acids may be involved.
PMCID: PMC3427754  PMID: 7498308
Adenosine A1 receptor; NMDA receptor; Seizure; Alzheimer’s disease; (Mouse)
6.  Astrocytes as Gatekeepers of GABAB Receptor Function 
The long-lasting actions of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) result from the activation of metabotropic GABAB receptors. Enhanced GABAB-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) are critical for the generation of generalized thalamocortical seizures. Here, we demonstrate that GABAB-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) recorded in the thalamus are largely defined by GABA diffusion and activation of distal extrasynaptic receptors potentially up to tens of μm from synapses. We also show that this diffusion is differentially regulated by two astrocytic GABA transporters, GAT1 and GAT3, which are localized near and far from synapses, respectively. A biologically constrained model of GABA diffusion and uptake shows how the two GATs differentially modulate amplitude and duration of GABAB IPSCs. Specifically, the perisynaptic expression of GAT1 enables it to regulate GABA levels near synapses and selectively modulate peak IPSC amplitude, which is largely dependent on perisynaptic receptor occupancy. GAT3 expression, on the other hand, is broader and includes distal extrasynaptic regions. As such, GAT3 acts as a gatekeeper to prevent diffusion of GABA away from synapses towards extrasynaptic regions that contain a potentially enormous pool of GABAB receptors. Targeting this gatekeeper function may provide new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities to prevent the excessive GABAB receptor activation that appears necessary for thalamic seizure generation.
PMCID: PMC3056552  PMID: 21068331
7.  Neurons that fire together also conspire together: is normal sleep circuitry hijacked to generate epilepsy? 
Neuron  2009;62(5):612-632.
Brain circuits oscillate during sleep. The same circuits appear to generate pathological oscillations. In this review we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how epilepsy co-opts normal, sleep-related circuits to generate seizures.
PMCID: PMC2748990  PMID: 19524522

Results 1-7 (7)