G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest families of cell surface receptors, and are the target of at least one-third of the current therapeutic drugs on the market. Along their life cycle, GPCRs are accompanied by a range of specialized GPCR-interacting proteins (GIPs), which take part in receptor proper folding, targeting to the appropriate subcellular compartments and in receptor signaling tasks, and also in receptor regulation processes, such as desensitization and internalization. The direction of protein-protein interactions and multi-protein complexes formation is crucial in understanding protein function and their implication in pathological events. Although several methods have been already developed to assay protein complexes, some of them are quite laborious, expensive, and, more important, they do not generate fully quantitative results. Herein, we show a rapid immunoenzymatic assay to quantify GPCR interactionswith its signaling proteins. The recently de-orphanized GPCR, GPR17, was chosen as a GPCR prototype to optimize the assay. In a GPR17 transfected cell line and primary oligodendrocyte precursor cells, GPR17 interaction with proteins involved in the typical GPCR regulation, such as desensitization and internalization machinery, was investigated. The obtained results were validated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, confirming this new method as a rapid and quantitative assay to study protein-protein interactions.
immunoenzymatic assay; G protein coupled-receptors; protein-protein interactions
Unveiling the mechanisms participating in the damage and repair of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is fundamental to develop new therapies. The P2Y-like GPR17 receptor has recently emerged as a sensor of damage and a key actor in lesion remodeling/repair in the rodent brain, but its role in humans is totally unknown. Here, we characterized GPR17 expression in brain specimens from seven intensive care unit TBI patients undergoing neurosurgery for contusion removal and from 28 autoptic TBI cases (and 10 control subjects of matched age and gender) of two university hospitals. In both neurosurgery and autoptic samples, GPR17 expression was strong inside the contused core and progressively declined distally according to a spatio-temporal gradient. Inside and around the core, GPR17 labeled dying neurons, reactive astrocytes, and activated microglia/macrophages. In peri-contused parenchyma, GPR17 decorated oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) some of which had proliferated, indicating re-myelination attempts. In autoptic cases, GPR17 expression positively correlated with death for intracranial complications and negatively correlated with patients’ post-traumatic survival. Data indicate lesion-specific sequential involvement of GPR17 in the (a) death of irreversibly damaged neurons, (b) activation of microglia/macrophages remodeling the lesion, and (c) activation/proliferation of multipotent parenchymal progenitors (both reactive astrocytes and OPCs) starting repair processes. Data validate GPR17 as a target for neurorepair and are particularly relevant to setting up new therapies for TBI patients.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11302-013-9366-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Activated microglia; Adult neural precursors; Human brain injury; Lesion repair; Reactive astrocytes
Strategy, Management and Health PolicyVenture Capital Enabling TechnologyPreclinical ResearchPreclinical Development Toxicology, Formulation Drug Delivery, PharmacokineticsClinical Development Phases I-III Regulatory, Quality, ManufacturingPostmarketing Phase IV
Xanthine and adenosine derivatives, known to bind to recombinant rat A3 adenosine receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, were characterized in a functional assay consisting of activation of A3 receptor-stimulated binding of [35S]GTPγS in rat RBL-2H3 cell membranes. 1,3-Dibutylxanthine-7-riboside-5′-N-methylcarboxamide (DBXRM, 7b), previously shown to inhibit adenylyl cyclase via rat A3 receptors with full efficacy, appeared to be a partial agonist at the rat A3 receptor of RBL-2H3 cells. Full agonists, such as Cl-IB-MECA or I-AB-MECA, were more potent and effective than the partial agonist DBXRM in causing desensitization of rat A3 receptors, as indicated by loss of [35S]GTPγS binding. At A1 receptors, antagonism of agonist-elicited inhibition of rat adipocyte adenylyl cyclase was observed for several xanthine-7-riboside derivatives that had been shown to be full agonists at rat A3 receptors. A new xanthine riboside (3′-deoxyDBXRM, 7c) was synthesized and found to be a partial agonist at rat A3 receptors and an antagonist at rat A1 receptors. Thus, it is possible for the same compound to stimulate one adenosine receptor subtype (A3) and block another subtype (A1) within the same species.
xanthines; adenosine derivatives; nucleosides; adenylyl cyclase; guanine nucleotides
There have been many advances in our knowledge about different aspects of P2Y receptor signaling since the last review published by our International Union of Pharmacology subcommittee. More receptor subtypes have been cloned and characterized and most orphan receptors deorphanized, so that it is now possible to provide a basis for a future subdivision of P2Y receptor subtypes. More is known about the functional elements of the P2Y receptor molecules and the signaling pathways involved, including interactions with ion channels. There have been substantial developments in the design of selective agonists and antagonists to some of the P2Y receptor subtypes. There are new findings about the mechanisms underlying nucleotide release and ectoenzymatic nucleotide breakdown. Interactions between P2Y receptors and receptors to other signaling molecules have been explored as well as P2Y-mediated control of gene transcription. The distribution and roles of P2Y receptor subtypes in many different cell types are better understood and P2Y receptor-related compounds are being explored for therapeutic purposes. These and other advances are discussed in the present review.
In the last decades, the discovery that glial cells do not only fill in the empty space among neurons or furnish them with trophic support but are rather essential participants to the various activities of the central and peripheral nervous system has fostered the search for the signalling pathways controlling their functions. Since the early 1990s, purines were foreseen as some of the most promising candidate molecules. Originally just a hypothesis, this has become a certainty as experimental evidence accumulated over years, as demonstrated by the exponentially growing number of articles related to the role of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides in controlling glial cell functions. Indeed, as new functions for already known glial cells (for example, the ability of parenchymal astrocytes to behave as stem cells) or new subtypes of glial cells (for example, NG2+ cells, also called polydendrocytes) are discovered also, new actions and new targets for the purinergic system are identified. Thus, glial purinergic receptors have emerged as new possible pharmacological targets for various acute and chronic pathologies, such as stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, demyelinating diseases, trigeminal pain and migraine, and retinopathies. In this article, we will summarize the most important and promising actions mediated by extracellular purines and pyrimidines in controlling the functions, survival, and differentiation of the various “classical” types of glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, Müller cells, satellite glial cells, and enteric glial cells) but also of some rather new members of the family (e.g., polydendrocytes) and of other cells somehow related to glial cells (e.g., pericytes and spinal cord ependymal cells).
Astrocytes; Microglial cells; Oligodendrocytes; Müller cells; Reactive gliosis; Myelination
Glial cells have been shown to directly participate to the genesis and maintenance of chronic pain in both the sensory ganglia and the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, glial cell activation has been reported in both the dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord following injury or inflammation of the sciatic nerve, but no data are currently available in animal models of trigeminal sensitization. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated glial cell activation in the trigeminal-spinal system following injection of the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint, which generates inflammatory pain and trigeminal hypersensitivity.
CFA-injected animals showed ipsilateral mechanical allodynia and temporomandibular joint edema, accompanied in the trigeminal ganglion by a strong increase in the number of GFAP-positive satellite glial cells encircling neurons and by the activation of resident macrophages. Seventy-two hours after CFA injection, activated microglial cells were observed in the ipsilateral trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and in the cervical dorsal horn, with a significant up-regulation of Iba1 immunoreactivity, but no signs of reactive astrogliosis were detected in the same areas. Since the purinergic system has been implicated in the activation of microglial cells during neuropathic pain, we have also evaluated the expression of the microglial-specific P2Y12 receptor subtype. No upregulation of this receptor was detected following induction of TMJ inflammation, suggesting that any possible role of P2Y12 in this paradigm of inflammatory pain does not involve changes in receptor expression.
Our data indicate that specific glial cell populations become activated in both the trigeminal ganglia and the CNS following induction of temporomandibular joint inflammation, and suggest that they might represent innovative targets for controlling pain during trigeminal nerve sensitization.
GPR17 is a hybrid G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by two unrelated ligand families, extracellular nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs), and involved in brain damage and repair. Its exploitment as a target for novel neuro-reparative strategies depends on the elucidation of the molecular determinants driving binding of purinergic and leukotrienic ligands. Here, we applied docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD) to analyse the binding and the forced unbinding of two GPR17 ligands (the endogenous purinergic agonist UDP and the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast from both the wild-type (WT) receptor and a mutant model, where a basic residue hypothesized to be crucial for nucleotide binding had been mutated (R255I) to Ile.
MD suggested that GPR17 nucleotide binding pocket is enclosed between the helical bundle and extracellular loop (EL) 2. The driving interaction involves R255 and the UDP phosphate moiety. To support this hypothesis, steered MD experiments showed that the energy required to unbind UDP is higher for the WT receptor than for R255I. Three potential binding sites for pranlukast where instead found and analysed. In one of its preferential docking conformations, pranlukast tetrazole group is close to R255 and phenyl rings are placed into a subpocket highly conserved among GPCRs. Pulling forces developed to break polar and aromatic interactions of pranlukast were comparable. No differences between the WT receptor and the R255I receptor were found for the unbinding of pranlukast.
These data thus suggest that, in contrast to which has been hypothesized for nucleotides, the lack of the R255 residue doesn't affect the binding of pranlukast a crucial role for R255 in binding of nucleotides to GPR17. Aromatic interactions are instead likely to play a predominant role in the recognition of pranlukast, suggesting that two different binding subsites are present on GPR17.
Deciphering the mechanisms regulating the generation of new neurons and new oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system, is of paramount importance to address new strategies to replace endogenous damaged cells in the adult brain and foster repair in neurodegenerative diseases. Upon brain injury, the extracellular concentrations of nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysLTs), two families of endogenous signaling molecules, are markedly increased at the site of damage, suggesting that they may act as “danger signals” to alert responses to tissue damage and start repair. Here we show that, in brain telencephalon, GPR17, a recently deorphanized receptor for both uracil nucleotides and cysLTs (e.g., UDP-glucose and LTD4), is normally present on neurons and on a subset of parenchymal quiescent oligodendrocyte precursor cells. We also show that induction of brain injury using an established focal ischemia model in the rodent induces profound spatiotemporal-dependent changes of GPR17. In the lesioned area, we observed an early and transient up-regulation of GPR17 in neurons expressing the cellular stress marker heat shock protein 70. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in living mice showed that the in vivo pharmacological or biotechnological knock down of GPR17 markedly prevents brain infarct evolution, suggesting GPR17 as a mediator of neuronal death at this early ischemic stage. At later times after ischemia, GPR17 immuno-labeling appeared on microglia/macrophages infiltrating the lesioned area to indicate that GPR17 may also acts as a player in the remodeling of brain circuitries by microglia. At this later stage, parenchymal GPR17+ oligodendrocyte progenitors started proliferating in the peri-injured area, suggesting initiation of remyelination. To confirm a specific role for GPR17 in oligodendrocyte differentiation, the in vitro exposure of cortical pre-oligodendrocytes to the GPR17 endogenous ligands UDP-glucose and LTD4 promoted the expression of myelin basic protein, confirming progression toward mature oligodendrocytes. Thus, GPR17 may act as a “sensor” that is activated upon brain injury on several embryonically distinct cell types, and may play a key role in both inducing neuronal death inside the ischemic core and in orchestrating the local remodeling/repair response. Specifically, we suggest GPR17 as a novel target for therapeutic manipulation to foster repair of demyelinating wounds, the types of lesions that also occur in patients with multiple sclerosis.
GPR17 is a G-protein-coupled receptor located at intermediate phylogenetic position between two distinct receptor families: the P2Y and CysLT receptors for extracellular nucleotides and cysteinyl-LTs, respectively. We previously showed that GPR17 can indeed respond to both classes of endogenous ligands and to synthetic compounds active at the above receptor families, thus representing the first fully characterized non-peptide "hybrid" GPCR. In a rat brain focal ischemia model, the selective in vivo knock down of GPR17 by anti-sense technology or P2Y/CysLT antagonists reduced progression of ischemic damage, thus highlighting GPR17 as a novel therapeutic target for stroke. Elucidation of the structure of GPR17 and of ligand binding mechanisms are the necessary steps to obtain selective and potent drugs for this new potential target. On this basis, a 3-D molecular model of GPR17 embedded in a solvated phospholipid bilayer and refined by molecular dynamics simulations has been the first aim of this study. To explore the binding mode of the "purinergic" component of the receptor, the endogenous agonist UDP and two P2Y receptor antagonists demonstrated to be active on GPR17 (MRS2179 and cangrelor) were then modeled on the receptor.
Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that GPR17 nucleotide binding pocket is similar to that described for the other P2Y receptors, although only one of the three basic residues that have been typically involved in ligand recognition is conserved (Arg255). The binding pocket is enclosed between the helical bundle and covered at the top by EL2. Driving interactions are H-bonds and salt bridges between the 6.55 and 6.52 residues and the phosphate moieties of the ligands. An "accessory" binding site in a region formed by the EL2, EL3 and the Nt was also found.
Nucleotide binding to GPR17 occurs on the same receptor regions identified for already known P2Y receptors. Agonist/antagonist binding mode are similar, but not identical. An accessory external binding site could guide small ligands to the deeper principal binding site in a multi-step mechanism of activation. The nucleotide binding pocket appears to be unable to allocate the leukotrienic type ligands in the same effective way.
Evidence has accumulated in the last three decades to suggest tissue protection and regeneration by adenosine in multiple different cell types. Adenosine produced in hypoxic or inflamed environments reduces tissue injury and promotes repair by receptor-mediated mechanisms. Among other actions, regulation of cytokine production and secretion by immune cells, astrocytes and microglia (the brain immunocytes) has emerged as a main mechanism at the basis of adenosine effects in diseases characterized by a marked inflammatory component. Many recent studies have highlighted that signalling through A1 and A2A adenosine receptors can powerfully prevent the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus inhibiting inflammation and reperfusion injury. However, the activation of adenosine receptors is not invariably protective of tissues, as signalling through the A2B adenosine receptor has been linked to pro-inflammatory actions which are, at least in part, mediated by increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from epithelial cells, astrocytes and fibroblasts. Here, we discuss the multiple actions of P1 receptors on cytokine secretion, by analyzing, in particular, the role of the various adenosine receptor subtypes, the complex reciprocal interplay between the adenosine and the cytokine systems, their pathophysiological significance and the potential of adenosine receptor ligands as new anti-inflammatory agents.
adenosine; asthma; central nervous system; chronic heart failure; cytokines; immune cells; inflammation
Central nervous system glial cells release and respond to nucleotides under both physiological and pathological conditions, suggesting that these molecules play key roles in both normal brain function and in repair after damage. In particular, ATP released from astrocytes activates P2 receptors on astrocytes and other brain cells, allowing a form of homotypic and heterotypic signalling, which also involves microglia, neurons and oligodendrocytes. Multiple P2X and P2Y receptors are expressed by both astrocytes and microglia; however, these receptors are differentially recruited by nucleotides, depending upon specific pathophysiological conditions, and also mediate the long-term trophic changes of these cells during inflammatory gliosis. In astrocytes, P2-receptor-induced gliosis occurs via activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) and protein kinase B/Akt pathways and involves induction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes, cyclins, adhesion and antiapoptotic molecules. While astrocytic P2Y1 and P2Y2,4 are primarily involved in short-term calcium-dependent signalling, multiple P2 receptor subtypes seem to cooperate to astrocytic long-term changes. Conversely, in microglia, exposure to inflammatory and immunological stimuli results in differential functional changes of distinct P2 receptors, suggesting highly specific roles in acquisition of the activated phenotype. We believe that nucleotide-induced activation of astrocytes and microglia may originally start as a defence mechanism to protect neurons from cytotoxic and ischaemic insults; dysregulation of this process in chronic inflammatory diseases eventually results in neuronal cell damage and loss. On this basis, full elucidation of the specific roles of P2 receptors in these cells may help exploit the beneficial neuroprotective features of activated glia while attenuating their harmful properties and thus provide the basis for novel neuroprotective strategies that specifically target the purinergic system.
adenine nucleotides; astrocytes; calcium-mediated communication; microglia; neuroprotection; oligodendroglia; P2 receptors; reactive gliosis; sugar nucleotides; uracil nucleotides