Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) has a unique tight binding to dNTP substrates. Structural modeling of Ala-114 of HIV-1 RT suggests that longer side chains at this residue can reduce the space normally occupied by the sugar moiety of an incoming dNTP. Indeed, mutations at Ala-114 decrease the ability of RT to synthesize DNA at low dNTP concentrations and reduce the dNTP-binding affinity (Kd) of RT. However, the Kd values of WT and A114C RT remained equivalent with an acylic dNTP substrate. Finally, mutant A114 RT HIV-1 vectors displayed a greatly reduced transduction in nondividing human lung fibroblasts (HLFs), while WT HIV-1 vector efficiently transduced both dividing and nondividing HLFs. Together these data support that the A114 residue of HIV-1 RT plays a key mechanistic role in the dNTP binding of HIV-1 RT and the unique viral infectivity of target cell types with low dNTP pools.
HIV-1 RT; dNTP binding pocket; cell type specific replication
Several Arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans for which there are no licensed vaccines, and current therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin (Rib) that is only partially effective and associated with significant side effects. In addition, compelling evidence indicates that the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Therefore, it is important to develop novel and effective antiarenaviral drugs. The arenavirus Z protein is the driving force of arenavirus budding, and PPPY and PTAP late (L) domain motifs within Z are critical for Z-mediated budding, which involves the interaction of Z with a variety of host cellular factors. Compounds capable of inhibiting these virus-host cell interactions represent candidate anti-arenaviral drugs. The identification of these candidate compounds would be facilitated by the availability of a Z budding assay amenable to high throughput screens (HTS). To this end, we have developed a novel assay that allows for rapid and quantitative assessment of Z-mediated budding. We provide evidence that this novel assay is amenable to HTS to identify small molecule inhibitors of Z-mediated budding, as well as to uncover cellular genes contributing to arenavirus budding.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into host cells is mediated by the trimeric envelope glycoprotein complex (Env). Accordingly, the Env proteins are the targets for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and are the focus of vaccines intended to induce NAbs. Because the Env complex is labile, soluble recombinant Env (gp140) trimers require engineering to stabilize them sufficiently for use as immunogens. Trimeric forms of gp140 trimers can be created that are either cleavage-competent or cleavage-defective at the junction between the gp120 and gp41 subunits. As functional trimers are cleaved at this site, the question arises as to whether cleavage affects the antigenic structure of the Env complex in a way that is relevant to vaccine design. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the antigenicity profiles of cleaved and uncleaved gp140 trimers derived from the KNH1144 (subtype A) virus that are otherwise closely sequence-matched. While cleavage did not affect the exposure of NAb epitopes on the gp140 trimers, non-neutralizing antibodies to gp41 epitopes bound much more strongly to uncleaved trimers. Hence cleavage does alter the structure of the HIV-1 Env complex.
HIV-1; Env; gp140 trimers; cleavage
Ebolavirus causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Entry of ebolavirus is mediated by the viral glycoprotein, GP; however, the required host factors have not been fully elucidated. A screen utilizing a recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) encoding Zaire ebolavirus GP identified four Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines resistant to GP-mediated viral entry. Susceptibility to vectors carrying SARS coronavirus S or VSV-G glycoproteins suggests that endocytic and processing pathways utilized by other viruses are intact in these cells. A cathepsin-activated form of the ebolaviral glycoprotein did not overcome the entry restriction, nor did expression of several host factors previously described as important for ebolavirus entry. Conversely, expression of the recently described ebolavirus host entry factor Niemann-Pick Type C1 (NPC1) restored infection. Resistant cells encode distinct mutations in the NPC1 gene, resulting in loss of protein expression. These studies reinforce the importance of NPC1 for ebolavirus entry.
Ebolavirus; viral entry; ebolavirus GP; Niemann-Pick Type C1 - NPC1; CHO-K1; host factor; viral glycoprotein
The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis by censoring kinetochore-microtubule interactions. It is frequently rendered dysfunctional during carcinogenesis causing chromosome missegregation and genomic instability. There are conflicting reports whether the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein drives chromosomal instability by abolishing the SAC. Here we report that degradation of mitotic cyclins is impaired in cells with HPV16 E7 expression. RNAi-mediated depletion of Mad2 or BubR1 indicated the involvement of the SAC, suggesting that HPV16 E7 expression causes sustained SAC engagement. Mutational analyses revealed that HPV16 E7 sequences that are necessary for retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein binding as well as sequences previously implicated in binding the Nuclear and Mitotic Apparatus (NuMA) protein and in delocalizing dynein from the mitotic spindle contribute to SAC engagement. Importantly, however, HPV16 E7 does not markedly compromise the SAC response to microtubule poisons.
Human Papillomaviruses; E7 oncoprotein; Mitosis; spindle assembly checkpoint; Cervical cancer; Cyclin B
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the etiological agent of AIDS. Chronic persistent infection is an important reason for the presence of “latent cell populations” even after Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART). We have analyzed the effect of ATP analogs in inhibiting cdk9/T1 complex in infected cells. A third generation drug named CR8#13 is an effective inhibitor of Tat activated transcription. Following drug treatment, we observed a decreased loading of cdk9 onto the HIV-1 DNA. We found multiple novel cdk9/T1 complexes present in infected and uninfected cells with one complex being unique to infected cells. This complex is sensitive to CR8#13 in kinase assays. Treatment of PBMC with CR8#13 does not kill infected cells as compared to Flavopiridol. Interestingly, there is a difference in sensitivity of various clades to these analogs. Collectively, these results point to targeting novel complexes for inhibition of cellular proteins that are unique to infected cells.
HIV-1; ATP analog; Transcription; Tat; cdk9 and cyclin T1
Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza shares the same neuraminidase (NA) subtype with the 2009 pandemic (H1N1pdm09), and cross-reactive NA immunity might protect against or mitigate lethal H5N1 infection. In this study, mice were either infected with a sublethal dose of H1N1pdm09 or were vaccinated and boosted with virus-like particles (VLP) consisting of the NA and matrix proteins, standardized by NA activity and administered intranasally, and were then challenged with a lethal dose of HPAI H5N1 virus. Mice previously infected with H1N1pdm09 survived H5N1 challenge with no detectable virus or respiratory tract pathology on day 4. Mice immunized with H5N1 or H1N1pdm09 NA VLPs were also fully protected from death, with a 100-fold and 10-fold reduction in infectious virus, respectively, and reduced pathology in the lungs. Human influenza vaccines that elicit not only HA, but also NA immunity may provide enhanced protection against the emergence of seasonal and pandemic viruses.
The ability of viruses to control and/or evade the host antiviral response is critical to the establishment of a productive infection. One of the strategies utilized by West Nile virus (WNV) to circumvent the host response is to evade detection by the pathogen recognition receptor RIG-I early in infection. To begin elucidating the mechanisms by which WNV eludes detection, we undertook a systematic analysis of the WNV genome and antigenome to identify RIG-I-specific pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Multiple segments of the WNV genome and anitigenome induced a RIG-I-specific antiviral response. However, incorporation of the stimulatory regions into larger RNAs substantially reduced their capacity to activate RIG-I. These results suggested that WNV evades the host response by sequestering RIG-I-specific PAMPs within the complete genome and antigenome at early times post-infection. Furthermore, activation of the RIG-I pathway may require the liberation of PAMPs by the cell’s normal RNA processing pathways.
West Nile virus; RIG-I; Pathogen associated molecular patterns; Pathogen recognition receptor
Caveolin-1 is an integral membrane protein primarily responsible for the formation of membrane structures known as caveolae. Caveolae are specialized lipid rafts involved in protein trafficking, cholesterol homeostasis, and a number of signaling functions. It has been demonstrated that caveolin-1 suppresses HIV-1 protein expression. We found that co-transfecting cells with HIV-1 and caveolin-1 constructs, results in a marked decrease in the level of HIV-1 transcription relative to cells transfected with HIV-1 DNA alone. Correspondingly, reduction of endogenous caveolin-1 expression by siRNA-mediated silencing resulted in an enhancement of HIV-1 replication. Further, we observed a loss of caveolin-mediated suppression of HIV-1 transcription in promoter studies with reporters containing mutations in the NF-κB binding site. Our analysis of the posttranslational modification status of the p65 subunit of NF-κB demonstrates hypoacetylation of p65 in the presence of caveolin-1. Since hypoacetylated p65 has been shown to inhibit transcription, we conclude that caveolin-1 inhibits HIV-1 transcription through a NF-κB-dependent mechanism.
HIV-1; caveolin-1; NF-κB; acetylation; retrovirus; cholesterol
Infection with bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) or BPV2 induces fibropapillomas in cows and skin sarcoids in horses. Prophylactic vaccination targeting BPV1 and BPV2 may reduce the incidence of these economically important diseases. The L1 major capsid proteins of BPV1 and BPV2 were expressed in Sf-9 insect cells and both self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). Using conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies (mAb) both type-specific and shared epitopes were detected. Antisera were raised against BPV1 or BPV2 VLP using alum adjuvant, and their (cross)neutralization capacity was tested by C127 neutralization assays using native BPV1 and BPV2 virions, or by BPV1 pseudovirion assay. Antisera induced by either VLP vaccine were able to robustly (cross-)neutralize heterologous as well as homologous types, indicating that BPV1 and BPV2 are closely related serotypes. These results suggest that a monovalent BPV1 (or BPV2) VLP vaccine may potentially protect against both BPV1 and BPV2 infections and associated diseases.
Bovine papillomavirus (BPV); Vaccine; Sarcoids; Fibropapilloma; Serotypes
Most retroviruses employ a frameshift mechanism during polyprotein synthesis to balance appropriate ratios of structural proteins and enzymes. To investigate the requirements for individual precursors in retrovirus assembly, we modified the polyprotein repertoire of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) by mutating the frameshift sites to imitate the polyprotein organization of Rous sarcoma virus (Gag-Pro and Gag-Pro-Pol) or Human immunodeficiency virus (Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol). For the “Rous-like” virus, assembly was impaired with no incorporation of Gag-Pro-Pol into particles and for the “HIV-like” virus an altered morphogenesis was observed. A mutant expressing Gag and Gag-Pro polyproteins and lacking Gag-Pro-Pol assembled intracellular particles at a level similar to the wild-type. Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein alone neither formed immature particles nor processed the precursor. All the mutants were non-infectious except the “HIV-like”, which retained fractional infectivity.
Ribosomal frameshift; Retrovirus; Assembly; Mason-Pfizer monkey virus; Capsid
Retroviral capsid protein (CA) mediates protein interactions driving the assembly of both immature viral particles and the core of the mature virions. Structurally conserved N-terminal domains of several retroviruses refold after proteolytic cleavage into a β-hairpin, stabilized by a salt bridge between conserved N-terminal Pro and Asp residues. Based on comparison with other retroviral CA, we identified Asp50 and Asp57 as putative interacting partners for Pro1 in Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) CA. To investigate the importance of CA Pro1 and its interacting Asp in M-PMV core assembly and infectivity, P1A, P1Y, D50A, T54A and D57A mutations were introduced into M-PMV. The P1A and D57A mutations partially blocked Gag processing and the released viral particles exhibited aberrant cores and were non-infectious. These data indicate that the region spanning residues Asp50–Asp57 plays an important role in stabilization of the β-hairpin and that Asp57 likely forms a salt-bridge with P1 in M-PMV CA.
Retrovirus; Assembly; Capsid protein; M-PMV; β-hairpin
The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) is the focus of vaccine development aimed at eliciting humoral immunity. Env’s extensive and heterogeneous N-linked glycosylation affects folding, binding to lectin receptors, antigenicity and immunogenicity. We characterized recombinant Env proteins and virus particles produced in mammalian cells that lack N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI), an enzyme necessary for the conversion of oligomannose N-glycans to complex N-glycans. Carbohydrate analyses revealed that trimeric Env produced in GnTI-/- cells contained exclusively oligomannose N-glycans, with incompletely trimmed oligomannose glycans predominating. The folding and conformation of Env proteins was little affected by the manipulation of the glycosylation. Viruses produced in GnTI-/- cells were infectious, indicating that the conversion to complex glycans is not necessary for Env entry function, although virus binding to the C-type lectin DC-SIGN was enhanced. Manipulating Env’s N-glycosylation may be useful for structural and functional studies and for vaccine design.
HIV-1; envelope glycoprotein; glycosylation; DC-SIGN; oligomannose; N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I
The rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), VP1, contains canonical RdRp motifs and a priming loop that is hypothesized to undergo conformational rearrangements during RNA synthesis. In the absence of viral core shell protein VP2, VP1 fails to interact stably with divalent cations or nucleotides and has a retracted priming loop. To identify residues of potential import to nucleotide and divalent cation stabilization, we aligned VP1 of divergent rotaviruses and the structural homolog reovirus λ3. VP1 mutants were engineered and characterized for RNA synthetic capacity in vitro. Conserved aspartic acids in RdRp motifs A and C and arginines in motif F that likely stabilize divalent cations and nucleotides were required for efficient RNA synthesis. Mutation of individual priming loop residues diminished or enhanced RNA synthesis efficiency without obviating the need for VP2, which suggests that the this structure serves as a dynamic regulatory element that links RdRp activity to particle assembly.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; rotavirus; double-stranded RNA virus; replication; initiation; RNA catalysis; priming loop
Rotaviruses (RVs) are segmented double-stranded RNA viruses that cause gastroenteritis in mammals and birds. Within the RV genus, eight species (RVA-RVH) have been proposed. Here, we report the first RVF and RVG sequences for the viral RNA polymerase (VP1)-encoding segments and compare them to those of other RV species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the VP1 RNA segments and proteins resolve into two major clades, with RVA, RVC, RVD and RVF in clade A, and RVB, RVG and RVH in clade B. Plus-strand RNA of clade A viruses, and not clade B viruses, contain a 3′-proximal UGUG cassette that serves as the VP1 recognition signal. VP1 structures for a representative of each RV species were predicted using homology modeling. Structural elements involved in interactions with the UGUG cassette were conserved among VP1 of clade A, suggesting a conserved mechanism of viral RNA recognition for these viruses.
Rotavirus; RNA polymerase; VP1; polymerase structure; double-stranded RNA virus
The use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a gene therapy vector is limited by the host neutralizing immune response. The cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure at 8.5 Å resolution is determined for a complex of AAV-2 with the Fab′ fragment of monoclonal antibody (MAb) A20, the most extensively characterized AAV MAb. The binding footprint is determined through fitting the cryo-EM reconstruction with a homology model following sequencing of the variable domain, and provides a structural basis for integrating diverse prior epitope mappings. The footprint extends from the previously implicated plateau to the side of the spike, and into the conserved canyon, covering a larger area than anticipated. Comparison with structures of binding and non-binding serotypes indicates that recognition depends on a combination of subtle serotype-specific features. Separation of the neutralizing epitope from the heparan sulfate cell attachment site encourages attempts to develop immune-resistant vectors that can still bind to target cells.
Adeno-associated virus; Antibody; A20; Epitope; Fab′; Gene therapy; Monoclonal
The envelope glycoprotein, GP64, of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is necessary and sufficient for the acid-induced membrane fusion activity that is required for fusion of the budded virus (BV) envelope and the endosome membrane during virus entry. Infectivity of the budded virus (BV) is neutralized by AcV1, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against GP64. Prior studies indicated that AcV1 recognizes a conformational epitope and does not inhibit virus attachment to the cell, but instead inhibits entry at a step following virus attachment. We found that AcV1 recognition of GP64 was lost upon exposure of GP64 to low pH (pH 4.5) and restored by returning GP64 to pH 6.2. In addition, the AcV1 epitope was lost upon denaturation of GP64 in SDS but the AcV1 epitope was restored by refolding the protein in the absence of SDS. Using truncated GP64 proteins expressed in insect cells, we mapped the AcV1 epitope to a 24 amino acid region in the central variable domain of GP64. When sequences within the mapped AcV1 epitope were substituted with a c-Myc epitope and the resulting construct was used to replace wt GP64 in recombinant AcMNPV viruses, the modified GP64 protein appeared to function normally. However, an anti c-Myc monoclonal antibody did not neutralize infectivity of those viruses. Because binding of the c-Myc MAb to the same site in the GP64 sequence did not result in neutralization, these studies suggest that AcV1 neutralization may result from a specific structural constraint caused by AcV1 binding and not simply by steric hindrance caused by antibody binding at this position in GP64.
Baculovirus; GP64; AcV1; Epitope; Monoclonal antibody; Neutralizing
Molluscum contagiosum poxvirus (MCV) type 1 and type 2 encode two chemokine-like proteins MC148R1 and MC148R2. It is believed that MC148R proteins function by blocking the inflammatory response. However, the mechanism of the proposed biological activities of MC148R proteins and the role of the additional C-terminal cysteines that do not exist in other chemokines are not understood. Here, we demonstrated in two different assay systems that His-tagged MC148R1 displaces the interaction between CXCL12α and CXCR4. The N-terminal cysteines but not the additional C-terminal cysteines modulate this displacement. His-tagged MC148R1 blocked both CXCL12α-mediated and MIP-1α-mediated chemotaxis. In contrast, MC148R2 blocked MIP-1α-mediated but not CXCL12α-mediated chemotaxis. Immunoprecipitation by antibodies to MC148R1 or CXCL12α followed by immunoblotting and detection by antibodies to the other protein demonstrated physical interaction of His-tagged CXCL12α and His-tagged MC148R1. Interaction with chemokines might mask the receptor interaction site resulting in decreased binding and impairment of the biological activities.
Chemokines; Chemotaxis; CXCL12; MCV; HIV
Canine alphacoronaviruses (CCoV) exist in two serotypes, type I and II, both of which can cause severe gastroenteritis. Here, we characterize a canine alphacoronavirus, designated CCoV-A76, first isolated in 1976. Serological studies show that CCoV-A76 is distinct from other CCoVs, such as the prototype CCoV-1-71. Efficient replication of CCoV-A76 is restricted to canine cell lines, in contrast to the prototypical type II strain CCoV-1-71 that more efficiently replicates in feline cells. CCoV-A76 can use canine aminopeptidase N (cAPN) receptor for infection of cells, but was unable to use feline APN (fAPN). In contrast, CCoV-1-71 can utilize both. Genomic analysis shows that CCoV-A76 possesses a distinct spike, which is the result of a recombination between type I and type II CCoV, that occurred between the N- and C-terminal domains (NTD and C-domain) of the S1 subunit. These data suggest that CCoV-A76 represents a recombinant coronavirus form, with distinct host cell tropism.
Canine coronavirus; spike protein; receptor binding domain; recombination
The current model for MLV genomic RNA (gRNA) packaging predicts that of the thousands of Gag proteins in a budding virion, only a small number (≤1%) may be necessary to recruit gRNA. Here, we examined the threshold limits of functional Gag required to package gRNA using wild-type (WT) and packaging deficient mutant nucleocapsid (NC) phenotypically mixed virions. Although gRNA packaging was severely diminished for the NC mutant, the residual encapsidated RNA dimer displayed motility on gels, thermostability, and integrity that was indistinguishable from that of WT. In phenotypically mixed virions, gRNA encapsidation recovered to within approximately two-fold of WT levels when the amount of WT NC was 5–10% of the total. Our results demonstrate that NC’s roles in gRNA dimerization and packaging are genetically separable. Additionally, MLV gRNA packaging does not require 100% WT NC, but the amount of functional NC required is greater than the predicted minimum.
Murine Leukemia Virus; Gag; nucleocapsid; RNA packaging; retrovirus assembly
APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) reduce Vif-negative HIV-1 provirus formation and cause disabling provirus G-to-A hypermutation in vitro. However, evidence conflicts about whether they negatively impact Vif-positive HIV-1, or only enhance virus genetic diversity, in vivo. We studied peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 19 antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected adults: 12 long-term non-progressors (LTNP) and 7 non-controllers (NC). Cells from LTNP had higher A3G and A3F mRNA levels, lower provirus burden, and more A3G-hypermutated positions in provirus sequence than cells from NC. A3G mRNA level was directly associated with its Hypermutation Index (HI) and inversely associated with provirus burden. Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were inversely associated with A3G expression levels and with HI only among subjects who had HI>1. A3G HI was not associated with provirus burden. These results indicate that A3G’s deaminase-dependent activity above a threshold level, and its deaminase-independent functions, contribute to decreasing Vif-positive virus replication in vivo.
HIV-1; APOBEC3G; APOBEC3F; G-to-A hypermutations; long-term non-progressors; cytidine deaminase
Hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus (HCV/HIV) coinfected patients demonstrate accelerated progression to severe liver injury in comparison to HCV monoinfected patients, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear owing to infection of separate tissue compartments with two distinct viral pathogens. Microarray analysis of paired liver biopsy and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) specimens from HCV/HIV coinfected and HCV monoinfected patients identified a gene expression signature associated with increased inflammation and immune activation that was present only in liver and PBMC samples from coinfected patients. We also identified in these samples liver- and PBMC-specific signatures enriched with fibrogenic/hepatic stellate activation and proinflammatory genes, respectively. Finally, Bayesian networks were constructed by assimilating these data with existing data from liver and PBMC samples from other cohorts, augmenting enrichment of biologically important pathways and further indicating that chronic immune activation in HCV/HIV coinfection may exacerbate liver disease progression in coinfected patients.
hepatitis C virus; human immunodeficiency virus; HCV/HIV coinfection; liver; peripheral blood; hepatic fibrosis; systems biology; gene expression; pathogenesis
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) cores assemble on viral RNA, which is reverse transcribed within the core to the partially dsDNA genome of mature HBV. However, constraining dsDNA, a stiff polymer, within a core necessarily requires far greater capsid stability than constraining ssRNA. We hypothesized that, unlike ssRNA, dsDNA would be a poor substrate for assembly. We examined titrations of ssDNA and dsDNA with purified HBV core protein, Cp183, by EMSA, EM, DLS, and etheno-DNA fluorescence. Cp183 bound ssDNA with high affinity to form virus-like capsids. However, Cp183 bound dsDNA poorly, forming a mixture of irregular complexes. Nonetheless, we observed some normal cores in dsDNA assembly reactions, indicating that the energy required to bend DNA could be similar to the protein–protein association energy. This similarity of energies suggests that dsDNA stresses mature HBV cores, in agreement with calculation, which may be the basis for the virus maturation signal and DNA release.
Hepadnavirus; Spumavirus; Capsid assembly; Self-assembly; Biophysics; RNA-binding; DNA-binding
GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected cohorts, and GBV-C E2 protein inhibits HIV entry when added to CD4+ T cells. To further characterize E2 effects on HIV replication, stably transfected Jurkat cell lines expressing GBV-C E2 or control sequences were infected with HIV and replication was measured. HIV replication (all 6 isolates studied) was inhibited in all cell lines expressing a region of 17 amino acids of GBV-C E2, but not in cell lines expressing E2 without this region. In contrast, mumps and yellow fever virus replication was not inhibited by E2 protein expression. Synthetic GBV-C E2 17mer peptides did not inhibit HIV replication unless they were fused to a tat-protein-transduction-domain (TAT) for cellular uptake. These data identify the region of GBV-C E2 protein involved in HIV inhibition, and suggest that this GBV-C E2 peptide must gain entry into the cell to inhibit HIV.
GBV-C; HIV; Envelope glycoprotein
The AAA+ superfamily of proteins is a class of motor ATPases performing a wide range of functions that typically exist as hexamers. The ATPase of phi29 DNA packaging motor has long been a subject of debate in terms of stoichiometry and mechanism of action. Here, we confirmed the stoichiometry of phi29 motor ATPase to be a hexamer and provide data suggesting that the phi29 motor ATPase is a member of the classical hexameric AAA+ superfamily. Native PAGE, EMSA, capillary electrophoresis, ATP titration, and binomial distribution assay show that the ATPase is a hexamer. Mutations in the known Walker motifs of the ATPase validated our previous assumptions that the protein exists as another member of this AAA+ superfamily. Our data also supports the finding that the phi29 DNA packaging motor uses a revolution mechanism without rotation or coiling (Schwartz et al., this issue).
Revolution Motor; Hexameric ATPase; Nanobiotechnology; Nanomotor; Push through a one-way valve