Few studies have focused on sepsis in patients with preexisting immunosuppression. Since their numbers and the incidence of sepsis are increasing, sepsis in immunosuppressed patients will increase in importance. We studied the epidemiology of sepsis and risk factors for 28-day mortality in patients immunosuppressed prior to the onset of sepsis using data from the Academic Medical Center Consortium’s (AMCC) prospective observational cohort study of sepsis. We compared characteristics of immunosuppressed (N=412) and immunocompetent (N=754) patients. Immunosuppressed patients were younger and more likely to have underlying liver or lung disease, and nosocomial infection or blood stream infection of unknown source when presenting with sepsis. They were also more likely to die within 28 days compared to immunocompetent patients (adjusted relative risk 1.62, 95% CI 1.38–1.91). Septic shock, hypothermia, cancer and invasive fungal infections were associated with increased mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Black race and the presence of rigors were independent predictors of survival in immunosuppressed patients. We conclude that sepsis among patients immunosuppressed prior to the onset of sepsis was associated with higher mortality than in immunocompetent patients. As the numbers of immunosuppressed patients continues to grow, more studies on the epidemiology of sepsis in this group will become increasingly important.
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a number of diseases, including influenza. Whether or not this reflects a causal relationship is unknown. We therefore wanted to examine if supplementation with vitamin D would affect the incidence and severity of influenza-like disease.
Questionnaires on influenza were sent to subjects participating in ongoing placebo-controlled intervention studies with vitamin D supplementation, up until the end of April 2010.
Five hundred and sixty-nine subjects from 10 different clinical trials were included in the study, of whom 289 were randomized to receive vitamin D (1111–6800 IU/day) and 280 to receive placebo. Influenza-like disease during the previous fall/winter was reported in 38 subjects in the vitamin D group and 42 in the placebo group (non-significant), of whom 25 and 26 subjects, respectively, fulfilled our clinical criteria for influenza. In these latter subjects, the duration of illness was significantly longer among those in the vitamin D group than among those in the placebo group (median 7 (range 2–60) days vs median 4 (range 2–18) days; p = 0.007). However, this difference was not statistically significant if all 38 (vitamin D) and 42 (placebo) subjects who reported symptoms were included.
Our results do not support the hypothesis that high doses of vitamin D supplementation will have a pronounced effect on influenza-like disease in populations not targeted for high influenza risk.
H1N1; influenza; randomized clinical trial; vitamin D
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of invasive surgical site infection (SSI) in the USA. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for SSI typically includes a cephalosporin. Vancomycin is used to provide MRSA coverage, but administration timing is challenging. Linezolid is an attractive agent for SSI prophylaxis, particularly for the prevention of SSI due to MRSA.
We developed a decision-analytic model to evaluate linezolid use for cardiothoracic SSI prophylaxis. A theoretical cohort of 10,000 cardiothoracic surgery patients was followed through 2 stages: 1) occurrence of SSI, and 2) mortality after SSI. All patients were administered cefuroxime, vancomycin, or linezolid between 1–180 minutes prior to surgical incision. SSIs were categorized into three pathogen categories: 1) methicillin-susceptible Gram-positive, 2) methicillin-resistant Gram-positive, and 3) other organisms. The most effective strategy resulted in the fewest SSIs. Assumptions for antibiotic effectiveness, impact of administration time, and pathogens were based on the published literature.
Compared with cefuroxime, there was a 1% increase in the total number of SSIs in the linezolid group (mean SSI increase = 7), while there was a 12% increase in the vancomycin group (mean SSI increase = 86). Linezolid prophylaxis resulted in fewer SSIs due to methicillin-resistant Gram-positive infections (n=108) compared with cefuroxime (n = 200, 46% reduction in the linezolid group) and vancomycin (n = 119, 9% reduction in the linezolid group).
This simulation indicates that linezolid may offer benefits for SSI prophylaxis over existing prophylactic agents, particularly for the prevention of SSI due to Gram-positive methicillin-resistant pathogens.
Surgical site infection; prophylaxis; decision-analytic model; linezolid; vancomycin
Between 2000 and 2011, proven or probable invasive aspergillosis (IA) was diagnosed in 1.7% (8/455) of heart transplant (HTx) recipients at our center, in the absence of antifungal prophylaxis. All patients had invasive pulmonary infections and 75% (6/8) were diagnosed during 2 separate 3-month periods. Cases were notable for their association with septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (75%, 6/8 each), non-specific clinical and radiographic findings, and rapid mortality despite mould-active antifungal therapy (88%, 7/8; occuring at a median 11 days after diagnosis). All patients had predisposing conditions known to be risk factors for IA. For patients with early IA (within 90 days of HTx), conditions included hemodialysis, thoracic re-operation, and the presence of another case in the institution within the preceding 3 months. For late-onset IA, conditions included hemodialysis and receipt of augmented immunosuppression. Clinicians should suspect IA in HTx recipients with risk factors who present with non-specific and unexplained respiratory syndromes, including those in septic shock and MODS, and institute prompt antifungal therapy without waiting for the results of cultures or other diagnostic tests.
Aspergillosis; septic shock; heart transplant
Vibrio cholerae O1, Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, both cause severe cholera. We compared clinical and immunological features in patients in Bangladesh infected with these 2 serotypes. Blood was collected from hospitalized Ogawa (N = 146) or Inaba (N = 191) patients at the acute stage (day 2) and 5 and 19 days later. Ogawa patients were younger than Inaba, presented with shorter duration of diarrhoea, and had more frequent abdominal pain, vomiting and need for intravenous fluids (p < 0.05). Inaba patients more frequently had dark-field positive stools (p < 0.01). Inaba strains were more susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin than Ogawa strains (p < 0.001). Ogawa infection produced higher plasma vibriocidal as well as IgG responses to cholera toxin B subunit, toxin-coregulated pilus subunit and lipopolysaccharide (LPS); higher IgA responses to LPS in ‘antibody in lymphocyte supernatant’ (ALS) specimens were also seen. These results suggest that a cholera vaccine based on the Ogawa serotype needs to be further investigated.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of disclosure to network members of being hepatitis C virus (HCV)- or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected among injecting dyads of infected injection drug users (IDUs) in Budapest, Hungary and Vilnius, Lithuania,. Multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess associations. Very strong infection disclosure norms exist in Hungary, and HCV disclosure was associated with using drugs and having sex within the dyad. Non-ethnic Russian IDUs in Lithuania were more likely to disclose HCV infection to non-Roma, emotionally close and HCV-infected network members, and to those with whom they shared cookers, filters, drug solutions or rinse water or got used syringes from, and if they had fewer non-IDU or IDU network members. Ethnic Russian Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose HCV if they had higher disclosure attitude and knowledge scores, ‘trusted’ network members, and had lower non-injecting network density and higher injecting network density. HIV-infected Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose to ‘trusted’ network members. Disclosure norms matched disclosure behaviour in Hungary, while disclosure in Lithuania to ‘trusted’ network members suggests possible stigmatization. Ongoing free and confidential HCV/HIV testing services for IDUs are needed to emphasize and strengthen disclosure norms, and to decrease stigma.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the specificity of a modified interferon gamma release assay procedure that allows storage of blood samples for up to 32 hours before processing. A total of 116 subjects were enrolled for the study. Two blood samples were collected from each volunteer; one specimen was processed within 8 hours and analyzed using the T-SPOT.TB test; the second specimen was stored overnight and processed 23 to 32 hours later after addition of the T-Cell Xtend™ reagent and then analyzed using the T-SPOT.TB test. A total of 108 paired T-SPOT.TB and T-SPOT.TB plus T-Cell Xtend™ tests were analyzed on specimens from 97 adults and 11 children. The median age of the subjects was 28 years old with 68.5% female and 78.7% White. The overall agreement between the two tests was 98.2% (106/108). Specificity of the T-SPOT.TB test was 99.1% (107/108) and for T-SPOT.TB plus T-Cell Xtend was 97.2%. The two tests were comparable in results. Increasing storage time of the collected blood specimen prior to processing provides flexibility for clinicians and laboratories. Additional studies in larger and diverse patient populations including immunocompromised, pediatric, patients with active TB disease or latent tuberculosis infection are needed.
Our objective was to examine the association between HIV and HCV discordant infection status and the sharing of drug equipment by injection drug users (IDUs). IDUs were recruited from syringe exchange and methadone treatment programmes in Montreal, Canada. Characteristics of participants and their injecting partners were elicited using a structured questionnaire. Among 159 participants and 245 injecting partners, sharing of syringes and drug preparation equipment did not differ between concordant or discordant partners, although HIV-positive subjects did not share with HIV-negative injectors. Sharing of syringes was positively associated with discordant HIV status (OR = 1.85) and negatively with discordant HCV status (OR = 0.65), but both results were not statistically significant. Sharing of drug preparation equipment was positively associated with both discordant HIV (OR = 1.61) and HCV (OR = 1.18) status, but both results were non-significant. Factors such as large injecting networks, frequent mutual injections, younger age, and male gender were stronger predictors of equipment sharing. In conclusion, IDUs do not appear to discriminate drug equipment sharing partners based at least on their HCV infection status. The results warrant greater screening to raise awareness of infection status, post-test counselling to promote status disclosure among partners, and skill-building to avoid equipment sharing between discordant partners.
PMID: 19172434 CAMSID: cams1471
Manifestations of human genital herpes virus (HSV) infection are not limited to the typical cluster of genital lesions. Here we present 5 case histories suggestive to clinically atypical genital herpes (HSV detected with the polymerase chain reaction) collected in 2001 from a private outpatient clinic specializing in dermatological and venereal diseases. The clinical presentations included mucopurulent cervicitis, haemorrhagic cystitis, recurrent urethritis, and lower hack pain.
The association between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes is re-emerging with the epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We analyzed retrospective data from 2,878 TB patients across the Texas/Mexico border. Overall 161/2878 (5.6%) patients had MDR TB (resistance to rifampin and isoniazid): Texas 49/1442 (3.4%) and Mexico 112/1436 (7.8%). In Texas MDR TB was significantly associated with T2DM (OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1–4.2) when adjusted for age, gender, drug and alcohol abuse, HIV infection and history of previous episode of TB, and in Mexico (OR 1.80 95% CI 1.1–2.9) when adjusted for age and gender. Patients with T2DM were consistently more likely to be compliant with DOTS therapy (OR 2.4 95% CI 1.1–5.4) than patients without T2DM. In Texas, all but 3 of the T2DM patients with MDR TB were resistant at their first culture at the time of diagnosis. It is possible that impaired immunity in T2DM increases susceptibility to infection with resistant strains.
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) play a major role in hospitalizations in the Middle East, but the specific viral causes are unknown. We conducted prospective viral surveillance in children <5 y of age admitted with ARI and/or fever at 2 dissimilar hospitals in Amman, Jordan during peak respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season. We collected prospective clinical and demographic data and obtained nose/throat swabs for testing for RSV by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We obtained clinical and laboratory data for 728/743 (98%) subjects enrolled. The children’s median age was 4.3 months, 58.4% were males, 87% were breastfed, 4% attended day care, 67% were exposed to smokers, 7% were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 0.7% died (n = 5). Out of 728 subjects, 467 (64%) tested positive by RT-PCR for RSV. Comparing RSV-positive with RSV-negative subjects, the RSV-positive subjects had lower median age (3.6 vs 6.4 months, p < 0.001) and fewer males (55% vs 64%, p = 0.02). RSV-positive children had higher rates of oxygen use (72% vs 42%, p < 0.001), a longer hospital stay (5 vs 4 days, p = 0.001), and higher hospital charges (US$538 vs US$431, p < 0.001) than RSV-negative children. In young hospitalized Jordanian infants, the medical and financial burden of RSV was found to be high. Effective preventive measures, such as an RSV vaccine, would have a significant beneficial impact.
It is unclear whether patients who are unaware of their HIV infection have different severity or outcomes of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) compared to patients who have been previously diagnosed with HIV. In this retrospective observational cohort study of consecutive HIV-infected patients with microscopically diagnosed PCP at San Francisco General Hospital between 1997 and 2006, 121 of 522 patients (23%) were unaware of their HIV infection prior to their diagnosis of PCP. The proportion of patients with concurrently diagnosed HIV and PCP each year remained unchanged during the study period. Patients with newly diagnosed HIV had a significantly higher alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient at presentation (median 51 versus 45 mm Hg, p=0.03), but there were no differences in mortality, frequency of mechanical ventilation, or admission to intensive care compared to patients with previously diagnosed HIV infection. In multivariate analysis, patients who reported a sexual risk factor for HIV infection were more likely to be newly diagnosed with HIV than patients who reported injection drug use as their only HIV risk factor (odds ratio = 3.14, 95% confidence interval 1.59–6.18, p = 0.001). This study demonstrates a continued need for HIV education and earlier HIV testing, particularly in patients with high-risk sexual behavior.
Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during influenza virus epidemics. We had previously advanced the hypothesis that interactions of pneumococcus with the receptor for platelet activating factor (PAFR) in the lung were facilitated by antecedent influenza virus infection and play a major role in the pathogenesis of bacterial super-infections. Although influenza enhanced the adherence of pneumococci to respiratory epithelial cells in vitro, chemical or antibody-mediated blockade of the PAFR did not affectt adherence. In agreement with these data, mice lacking PAFR had similar bacterial loads within the lung compartment when compared to heterozygous littermates and were not protected from secondary pneumococcal pneumonia after influenza. Lack of support for this hypothesis and the observation of enhanced inflammation during secondary pneumococcal pneumonia in mice lacking PAFR may moderate enthusiasm for treatment strategies targeting the interaction of bacteria with PAFR.
influenza virus; Streptococcus pneumoniae; pneumonia; platelet activating factor receptor
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) is endemic in injection drug users (IDU), and native American populations in the Americas. Transmission is associated with high-risk injection and sexual practices. A cohort of 2561 IDU in King County, Washington completed 2 study visits over 1 y. HTLV-2 infection was detected in 190 (7.4%) of 2561 IDU, and 13 (7.8 cases per 1000 person-y) incident infections occurred during the study. Prevalent infection was associated with female gender, non-white race, longer duration as IDU, having a tattoo, combined injection of heroin and cocaine, and with serologic evidence of hepatitis B and C infection. Seroconversion was more common in women, and was associated with African American race, heterosexual identity and longer duration as IDU. In conclusion, increased risk of HTLV-2 infection was associated with non-white race, and injection drug of choice, suggesting injection networks may play an important role in transmission of HTLV-2. The high correlation of HTLV-2 infection with HCV infection suggests the major route of transmission in IDU is via injection practices. Additional studies are needed to examine the clinical manifestations of HTLV-2 infection, as well as the clinical and virological manifestations of HTLV-2/HCV coinfection.
Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.
Vaccine herd effect; vaccine herd immunity
Darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy maintains HIV suppression in most patients who have achieved an undetectable viral load on combination antiretroviral treatment, and is increasingly used in the clinic. However, concerns have been raised about the effectiveness of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) monotherapy in the prevention of HIV replication in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report the cases of 2 patients on darunavir/r maintenance monotherapy with cerebrospinal fluid viral breakthrough together with increased immunoactivation and biomarker signs of neuronal injury. These 2 cases raise concerns about the effectiveness of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy in HIV CNS infection. Thus, we recommend caution with protease inhibitor monotherapy until CNS results have been obtained from clinical studies.
HIV; cerebrospinal fluid; darunavir; monotherapy; neuronal injury
The modern medical treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality in patients infected with this virus. ART has also been shown to reduce the transmission risk from individual patients as well as the spread of the infection at the population level. This position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy is based on a workshop organized in the fall of 2012. It summarizes the latest research and knowledge on the risk of HIV transmission from patients on ART, with a focus on the risk of sexual transmission. The risk of transmission via shared injection equipment among intravenous drug users is also examined, as is the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Based on current knowledge, the risk of transmission through vaginal or anal intercourse involving the use of a condom has been judged to be minimal, provided that the person infected with HIV fulfils the criteria for effective ART. This probably also applies to unprotected intercourse, provided that no other sexually transmitted infections are present, although it is not currently possible to fully support this conclusion with direct scientific evidence. ART is judged to markedly reduce the risk of blood-borne transmission between people who share injection equipment. Finally, the risk of transmission from mother to child is very low, provided that ART is started well in advance of delivery.
HIV transmission therapy
From around the year 2000, Northern Europe experienced a rise in impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fusidic acid. A single clone of S. aureus was found to be the bacterial pathogen involved in the impetigo outbreak in Norway, Sweden, the UK and Ireland, termed ‘the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone’ (EEFIC). We have followed the incidence of impetigo during the years 2001–2012 based on all patients in general practice in the island community of Austevoll, Western Norway. We previously reported a marked decline of impetigo incidence in Austevoll, from 0.0260 cases per person-year in 2002 to 0.0038 in 2009. This article explores indications of an end to the impetigo epidemic caused by the EEFIC clone. Methods: All four general practitioners (GPs) in the community (mean population = 4400) were asked to diagnose impetigo in a uniform way and to take bacterial specimens from all impetigo cases. Phenotypic characteristics of specimen bacteria were determined for the whole period and molecular analyses were performed on isolates in the period 2008–2012. Results: We observed a further decline in incidence of impetigo in Austevoll in the study period. The proportion of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus isolates decreased during the period 2002–2012, with a mean of 80% in the epidemic years of 2002–2004, 55% in 2005–2009, and 6% in 2010–2012. In total, 44 S. aureus isolates from impetigo were subject to molecular analyses in the period 2008–2012, and 11 were found to be related to the EEFIC. All EEFIC isolates were found in 2008–2009, with no new isolates in 2010–2012. Conclusion: There is an apparent end to the impetigo epidemic related to the EEFIC in this population in Western Norway.
Impetigo; population-based; Staphylococcus aureus; fusidic acid resistance; clone
Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented.
Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003–2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n < 0.8), CD4 counts (≥ 200 cells/μl), and clinical information. A recent infection classification was used as indicator for early diagnosis. Time trends in early diagnosis were investigated to detect population changes in HIV testing behavior. Patients with early diagnosis were compared to patients with delayed diagnosis with respect to age, gender, transmission route, and country of infection (Sweden or abroad).
Early diagnosis was observed in 271 patients (35%). There was no statistically significant time trend in the yearly percentage of patients with early diagnosis in the entire study group (p = 0.836) or in subgroups. Early diagnosis was significantly more common in men who have sex men (MSM) (45%) than in heterosexuals (21%) and injecting drug users (27%) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) in both univariate and multivariable analyses. The only other factor that remained associated with early diagnosis in multivariable analysis was young age group.
Approximately one-third of the study patients were diagnosed early with no significant change over time. Delayed HIV diagnosis is a considerable problem in Sweden, which does not appear to diminish.
HIV; delayed diagnosis; immunoassay; trends; risk factors