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1.  Clonal Architecture of Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia 
The New England Journal of Medicine  2012;366(12):1090-1098.
BACKGROUND
The myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of hematologic disorders that often evolve into secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The genetic changes that underlie progression from the myelodysplastic syndromes to secondary AML are not well understood.
METHODS
We performed whole-genome sequencing of seven paired samples of skin and bone marrow in seven subjects with secondary AML to identify somatic mutations specific to secondary AML. We then genotyped a bone marrow sample obtained during the antecedent myelodysplastic-syndrome stage from each subject to determine the presence or absence of the specific somatic mutations. We identified recurrent mutations in coding genes and defined the clonal architecture of each pair of samples from the myelodysplastic-syndrome stage and the secondary-AML stage, using the allele burden of hundreds of mutations.
RESULTS
Approximately 85% of bone marrow cells were clonal in the myelodysplastic-syndrome and secondary-AML samples, regardless of the myeloblast count. The secondary-AML samples contained mutations in 11 recurrently mutated genes, including 4 genes that have not been previously implicated in the myelodysplastic syndromes or AML. In every case, progression to acute leukemia was defined by the persistence of an antecedent founding clone containing 182 to 660 somatic mutations and the outgrowth or emergence of at least one subclone, harboring dozens to hundreds of new mutations. All founding clones and subclones contained at least one mutation in a coding gene.
CONCLUSIONS
Nearly all the bone marrow cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and secondary AML are clonally derived. Genetic evolution of secondary AML is a dynamic process shaped by multiple cycles of mutation acquisition and clonal selection. Recurrent gene mutations are found in both founding clones and daughter subclones. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1106968
PMCID: PMC3320218  PMID: 22417201
2.  YspM, a Newly Identified Ysa Type III Secreted Protein of Yersinia enterocolitica▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2008;190(22):7315-7325.
Yersinia enterocolitica has three type three secretion systems, the flagellar, the plasmid Ysc type III secretion system (T3SS), and the chromosomal Ysa T3SS. The Ysc T3SS, through the proteins it secretes (Yops), prevents phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica and is required for disease processes in the mouse host. Recent data demonstrate a role for the Ysa T3SS during initial colonization of the mouse via secretion of Ysps (Yersinia secreted proteins). This work characterizes the discovery of a newly identified Ysa type III secreted protein, YspM. Expression of yspM is regulated by temperature, NaCl concentration, and other known regulators of the ysa system. In addition, YspM is translocated into host cells via the Ysa T3SS. YspM is homologous to proteins classified as GDSL bacterial lipases, which possess a catalytic triad of amino acids (Ser, Asp, and His) located in three of five blocks of amino acid identity. Sequence analysis of the JB580v strain of Y. enterocolitica shows that, due to a premature stop codon, it no longer encodes the fifth block of amino acid identity containing the predicted catalytic histidine. However, seven other biotype 1B strains sequenced did possess the domain. A functional difference between the forms was revealed when YspM was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast growth was uninhibited when YspM from JB580v was expressed but greatly inhibited when YspM from Y295 (YspMY295) was expressed. Site-directed mutagenesis of the histidine of YspMY295 ablated the toxic effects. These results indicate that YspM is secreted by the Ysa T3SS and that, possibly due to lipase activity, it targets eukaryotic cellular component(s).
doi:10.1128/JB.00861-08
PMCID: PMC2576651  PMID: 18805975

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