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1.  Predicting the likelihood of a persistent bile duct stone in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis: accuracy of existing guidelines and the impact of laboratory trends 
Gastrointestinal endoscopy  2015;82(1):88-93.
BACKGROUND
Existing guidelines aim to stratify the likelihood of choledocholithiasis in order to guide the use of ERCP versus a lower risk diagnostic study such as EUS, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), or intraoperative cholangiography.
OBJECTIVE
To assess the performance of existing guidelines in predicting choledocholithiasis and to determine if trends in laboratory parameters improve diagnostic accuracy.
DESIGN
Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING
Tertiary-care hospital.
PATIENTS
Hospitalized patients presenting with suspected choledocholithiasis over a 6 year period.
INTERVENTIONS
Assessment of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines, its component variables, and laboratory trends in predicting choledocholithiasis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS
The presence of choledocholithiasis confirmed by EUS, MRCP, or ERCP.
RESULTS
One hundred seventy-nine (35.9%) of the 498 eligible patients met ASGE high-probability criteria for choledocholithiasis on initial presentation. Of those, 99 subjects (56.3%) had stone/sludge on subsequent confirmatory test. Among cases not meeting high-probability criteria on presentation, 111 (34.8%) had a stone/sludge. The overall accuracy of the guidelines in detecting choledocholithiasis was 62.1% (47.4% sensitivity, 73% specificity) based upon data available at presentation. The accuracy was unchanged when incorporating the second set of liver chemistries obtained after admission (63.2%), suggesting that laboratory trends did not improve performance.
LIMITATIONS
retrospective study; inconsistent timing of second set of biochemical markers.
CONCLUSION
In our cohort of patients, existing choledocholithiasis guidelines lacked diagnostic accuracy, likely resulting in overuse of ERCP. Incorporation of laboratory trends did not improve performance. Additional research focused on risk stratification is necessary toward the goal of eliminating unnecessary diagnostic ERCP.
doi:10.1016/j.gie.2014.12.023
PMCID: PMC4469613  PMID: 25792387
2.  A Randomized Trial of Rectal Indomethacin to Prevent Post-ERCP Pancreatitis 
The New England Journal of Medicine  2012;366(15):1414-1422.
Background
Preliminary research suggests that rectally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may reduce the incidence of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
Methods
In this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, we assigned patients at elevated risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis to receive a single dose of rectal indomethacin or placebo immediately after ERCP. Patients were determined to be at high risk on the basis of validated patient- and procedure-related risk factors. The primary outcome was post-ERCP pancreatitis, which was defined as new upper abdominal pain, an elevation in pancreatic enzymes to at least three times the upper limit of the normal range 24 hours after the procedure, and hospitalization for at least 2 nights.
Results
A total of 602 patients were enrolled and completed follow-up. The majority of patients (82%) had a clinical suspicion of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in 27 of 295 patients (9.2%) in the indomethacin group and in 52 of 307 patients (16.9%) in the placebo group (P = 0.005). Moderate-to-severe pancreatitis developed in 13 patients (4.4%) in the indomethacin group and in 27 patients (8.8%) in the placebo group (P = 0.03).
Conclusions
Among patients at high risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis, rectal indomethacin significantly reduced the incidence of the condition. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00820612.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1111103
PMCID: PMC3339271  PMID: 22494121

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