In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), artesunate-amodiaquine is first-line therapy for falciparum malaria; little is known about the prevalence of molecular markers of parasite drug resistance. Across the DRC, we genotyped 166 parasites in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Of these parasites, 73 (44%) parasites were pure wild-type CVMNK, 55 (31%) parasites were chloroquine-resistant CVIET, 35 (21.1%) parasites were mixed CVMNK and CVIET, and 3 parasites were other genotypes. Ninety-two infections (55.4%) harbored the pfcrt K76T substitution that is highly correlated with chloroquine failure. The amodiaquine-resistant SVMNT haplotype was absent. Geographically, pfcrt haplotypes were not clearly clustered. Chloroquine accounted for 19.4% of antimalarial use, and amodiaquine accounted for 15.3% of antimalarial use; there were no associations between drug use and mutant haplotype prevalence. In the DRC, our molecular survey indicates that resistance to chloroquine is substantial but that resistance to amodiaquine is absent. These contrasting findings highlight the need for molecular surveillance of drug resistance to inform malaria control policies.
Pneumocystis is an important opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Molecular epidemiology studies are needed to understand transmission. This article evaluates non-invasive sampling and a new strain typing tool, both of which could be used for this purpose.
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a symbiotic respiratory fungus that presents in 2 clinical forms: pneumonia in immunocompromised patients or colonization, defined by the presence of the organism without associated clinical symptoms. Currently, diagnosis requires invasive bronchoscopy, which may not be available in some settings and is inappropriate for detecting colonization in healthy individuals. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques and molecular strain typing tools that can be used on these samples are critical for conducting studies to better understand transmission. We evaluated 2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting dihydropteroate synthase and the major surface glycoprotein for detection in 77 oropharyngeal washes (OPWs) from 43 symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who underwent bronchoscopy. We also evaluated the ability of a new microsatellite (MS) genotyping panel to strain type infections from these samples. Each PCR used individually provided a high sensitivity (>80%) for detection of pneumonia but a modest specificity (<70%). When used in combination, specificity was increased to 100% with a drop in sensitivity (74%). Concentration of organisms by PCR in the OPW tended to be lower in colonized individuals compared with those with pneumonia, but differences in concentration could not clearly define colonization in symptomatic individuals. Oropharyngeal wash samples were genotyped using 6 MSs with ≥4 alleles successfully genotyped in the majority of colonized patients and ≥5 alleles in patients with pneumonia. The MS profile was consistent over time within patients with serial OPWs analyzed. Microsatellite genotyping on noninvasive samples may aid in studying the molecular epidemiology of this pathogen without requiring invasive diagnostic techniques.
microsatellite; molecular epidemiology; pneumocystis; real-time PCR
Symptom research across conditions has historically focused on single symptoms, and the burden of multiple symptoms and their interactions has been relatively neglected especially in people living with HIV. Symptom cluster studies are required to set priorities in treatment planning, and to lessen the total symptom burden. This study aimed to identify and compare symptom clusters among people living with HIV attending five palliative care facilities in two sub-Saharan African countries.
Data from cross-sectional self-report of seven-day symptom prevalence on the 32-item Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form were used. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using Ward’s method applying squared Euclidean Distance as the similarity measure to determine the clusters. Contingency tables, X2 tests and ANOVA were used to compare the clusters by patient specific characteristics and distress scores.
Among the sample (N=217) the mean age was 36.5 (SD 9.0), 73.2% were female, and 49.1% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The cluster analysis produced five symptom clusters identified as: 1) dermatological; 2) generalised anxiety and elimination; 3) social and image; 4) persistently present; and 5) a gastrointestinal-related symptom cluster. The patients in the first three symptom clusters reported the highest physical and psychological distress scores. Patient characteristics varied significantly across the five clusters by functional status (worst functional physical status in cluster one, p<0.001); being on ART (highest proportions for clusters two and three, p=0.012); global distress (F=26.8, p<0.001), physical distress (F=36.3, p<0.001) and psychological distress subscale (F=21.8, p<0.001) (all subscales worst for cluster one, best for cluster four).
The greatest burden is associated with cluster one, and should be prioritised in clinical management. Further symptom cluster research in people living with HIV with longitudinally collected symptom data to test cluster stability and identify common symptom trajectories is recommended.
Malaria and undernutrition frequently coexist, especially in pregnant women and young children. Nutrient supplementation of these vulnerable groups might reduce their susceptibility to malaria by improving immunity.
Antibody immunity to antigens expressed by a placental-binding parasite isolate, a non-placental binding parasite isolate, merozoites and schizonts at enrolment (before 20 gestation weeks) and at 36 gestation weeks were measured in 1,009 Malawian pregnant women receiving a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement, multiple micronutrients or iron and folic acid, who were participants in a randomized clinical trial assessing the effects of nutrient supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and child development(registration ID: NCT01239693).
Antibodies to placental-binding isolates significantly increased while antibodies to most merozoite antigens declined over pregnancy. Overall, after adjustment for covariates, the type of supplementation did not influence antibody levels at 36 gestation weeks or the rate of change in antibody levels from enrolment to 36 weeks. A negative association between maternal body mass index and opsonizing antibodies to placental-binding antigens (coefficient (95% CI) -1.04 (−1.84, −0.24), was observed. Similarly, women with higher socioeconomic status had significantly lower IgG and opsonizing antibodies to placental-binding antigens. Neither of these associations was significantly influenced by the supplementation type.
In the current cohort nutrient supplementation did not affect anti-malarial antibody responses, but poor and undernourished mothers should be a priority group in future trials.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0707-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Malaria in pregnancy; Malawi; nutrient supplements; placental-binding parasite isolate; opsonizing antibodies; immunoglobulin G isotypes; variant surface antigens; merozoite antigens; body mass index; socioeconomic status
Purpose of review
Multiple red cell variants are known to confer protection from malaria. Here we review advances in identifying new variants that modulate malaria risk and in defining molecular mechanisms that mediate malaria protection.
New red cell variants, including an innate variant in the red cell’s major Ca2+ pump and the acquired state of iron deficiency, have been associated with protection from clinical falciparum malaria. The hemoglobin (Hb) mutants HbC and HbS – known to protect carriers from severe falciparum malaria – enhance parasite passage to mosquitoes and may promote malaria transmission. At the molecular level, substantial advances have been made in understanding the impact of HbS and HbC upon the interactions between host microRNAs and Plasmodium falciparum protein translation; remodeling of red cell cytoskeletal components and transport of parasite proteins to the red cell surface; and chronic activation of the human innate immune system which induces tolerance to blood-stage parasites. Several polymorphisms have now been associated with protection from clinical vivax malaria or reduced P. vivax density, including Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and two common forms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
Red cell variants that modulate malaria risk can serve as models to identify clinically relevant mechanisms of pathogenesis, and thus define parasite and host targets for next-generation therapies.
malaria; hemoglobinopathy; enzymopathy; ovalocytosis; PfEMP1
Iron deficiency and malaria have similar global distributions, and frequently co-exist in pregnant women and young children. Where both conditions are prevalent, iron supplementation is complicated by observations that iron deficiency anaemia protects against falciparum malaria, and that iron supplements increase susceptibility to clinically significant malaria, but the mechanisms remain obscure. Here, using an in vitro parasite culture system with erythrocytes from iron-deficient and replete human donors, we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum infects iron-deficient erythrocytes less efficiently. In addition, owing to merozoite preference for young erythrocytes, iron supplementation of iron-deficient individuals reverses the protective effects of iron deficiency. Our results provide experimental validation of field observations reporting protective effects of iron deficiency and harmful effects of iron administration on human malaria susceptibility. Because recovery from anaemia requires transient reticulocytosis, our findings imply that in malarious regions iron supplementation should be accompanied by effective measures to prevent falciparum malaria.
Molecular surveillance for drug-resistant malaria parasites requires reliable, timely, and scalable methods. These data may be efficiently produced by genotyping parasite populations using second-generation sequencing (SGS). We designed and validated a SGS protocol to quantify mutant allele frequencies in the Plasmodium falciparum genes dhfr and dhps in mixed isolates. We applied this new protocol to field isolates from children and compared it to standard genotyping using Sanger sequencing. The SGS protocol accurately quantified dhfr and dhps allele frequencies in a mixture of parasite strains. Using SGS of DNA that was extracted and then pooled from individual isolates, we estimated mutant allele frequencies that were closely correlated to those estimated by Sanger sequencing (correlations, >0.98). The SGS protocol obviated most molecular steps in conventional methods and is cost saving for parasite populations >50. This SGS genotyping method efficiently and reproducibly estimates parasite allele frequencies within populations of P. falciparum for molecular epidemiologic studies.
Plasmodium falciparum; drug resistance; molecular surveillance; tropical diseases
Malaria parasite infections that are only detectable by molecular methods are highly prevalent and represent a potential transmission reservoir. The methods used to detect these infections are not standardized, and their operating characteristics are often unknown. We designed a proficiency panel of Plasmodium spp. in order to compare the accuracy of parasite detection of molecular protocols used by labs in a clinical trial consortium. Ten dried blood spots (DBSs) were assembled that contained P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale; DBSs contained either a single species or a species mixed with P. falciparum. DBS panels were tested in 9 participating laboratories in a masked fashion. Of 90 tests, 68 (75.6%) were correct; there were 20 false-negative results and 2 false positives. The detection rate was 77.8% (49/63) for P. falciparum, 91.7% (11/12) for P. vivax, 83.3% (10/12) for P. malariae, and 70% (7/10) for P. ovale. Most false-negative P. falciparum results were from samples with an estimated ≤5 parasites per μl of blood. Between labs, accuracy ranged from 100% to 50%. In one lab, the inability to detect species in mixed-species infections prompted a redesign and improvement of the assay. Most PCR-based protocols were able to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax at higher densities, but these assays may not reliably detect parasites in samples with low P. falciparum densities. Accordingly, formal quality assurance for PCR should be employed whenever this method is used for diagnosis or surveillance. Such efforts will be important if PCR is to be widely employed to assist malaria elimination efforts.
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a symbiotic respiratory fungus that causes pneumonia (PcP) in immunosuppressed patients. Because
P. jirovecii cannot be reliably cultured in vitro, it has proven difficult to study and gaps in our understanding of the organism persist. The release of a draft genome for the organism opens the door for the development of new genotyping approaches for studying its molecular epidemiology and global population structure. We identified and validated 8 putatively neutral microsatellite markers and 1 microsatellite marker linked to the dihydropteroate synthase gene (dhps), the enzymatic target of sulfa drugs used for PcP prevention and treatment. Using these tools, we analyzed P. jirovecii isolates from HIV-infected patients from three geographically distant populations: Uganda, the United States, and Spain. Among the 8 neutral markers, we observed high levels of allelic heterozygosity (average He, 0.586 to 0.842). Consistent with past reports, we observed limited global population structuring, with only the Ugandan isolates showing minor differentiation from the other two populations. In Ugandan isolates that harbored mutations in dhps, the microsatellite locus linked to dhps demonstrated a depressed He, consistent with positive directional selection for sulfa resistance mutations. Using a subset of these microsatellites, analyses of individual and paired samples from infections in San Francisco, CA, showed reliable typeability within a single infection and high discriminatory power between infections. These features suggest that this novel microsatellite typing approach will be an effective tool for molecular-epidemiological investigations into P. jirovecii population structure, transmission, and drug resistance.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are common commensals of the human airway and major bacterial pathogens of otitis media (OM) and other upper airway infections. The interaction between them may play an important role in the pathogenesis of polymicrobial infections. Although previous studies suggested NTHi could promote pneumococcal survival and biofilm formation, how NTHi affects pneumococcal activities has not been defined. Our data in the present studies indicated that the outcome of the interaction between SP and NTHi was in a cell-density-dependent manner and the enhancement of pneumococcal survival happened at the later stages of culturing. Using quantitative PCR, we found that the expression of pneumococcal genes regulating autolysis and fratricide, lytA and cbpD, were significantly down-regulated in co-culture with NTHi. We further observed that influence of NTHi was not on direct cell-to-cell contact, but that this contact may contribute to the interaction between these two microorganisms. These results suggest that pneumococcal survival and biofilm formation can be enhanced by down-regulating pneumococcal cell wall hydrolase production thereby inhibiting pneumococcal autolysis and fratricide in the presence of NTHi.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae; survival; inhibit; autolysis; fratricide
Parasites with increased resistance to sulfadoxine might undermine malaria control measures.
Sulfadoxine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum undermines malaria prevention with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. Parasites with a highly resistant mutant dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) haplotype have recently emerged in eastern Africa; they negated preventive benefits of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and might exacerbate placental malaria. We explored emerging lineages of dhps mutant haplotypes in Malawi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Tanzania by using analyses of genetic microsatellites flanking the dhps locus. In Malawi, a triple-mutant dhps SGEG (mutant amino acids are underlined) haplotype emerged in 2010 that was closely related to pre-existing double-mutant SGEA haplotypes, suggesting local origination in Malawi. When we compared mutant strains with parasites from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania by multiple independent analyses, we found that SGEG parasites were partitioned into separate lineages by country. These findings support a model of local origination of SGEG
dhps haplotypes, rather than geographic diffusion, and have implications for investigations of emergence and effects of parasite drug resistance.
malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; parasites; sulfadoxine; drug resistance; lineages; genetics; haplotypes; population; eastern Africa
Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) decreases adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy. Zambia implemented its IPTp-SP programme in 2003. Emergence of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens this strategy. The quintuple mutant haplotype (substitutions in N51I, C59R, S108N in dhfr and A437G and K540E in dhps genes), is associated with SP treatment failure in non-pregnant patients with malaria. This study examined efficacy of IPTp-SP and presence of the quintuple mutant among pregnant women in Mansa, Zambia.
In Mansa, an area with high malaria transmission, HIV-negative pregnant women presenting to two antenatal clinics for the 1st dose of IPTp-SP with asymptomatic parasitaemia were enrolled and microscopy for parasitaemia was done weekly for five weeks. Outcomes were parasitological failure and adequate parasitological response (no parasitaemia during follow-up). Polymerase chain reaction assays were employed to distinguish recrudescence from reinfection, and identify molecular markers of SP resistance. Survival analysis included those who had reinfection and incomplete follow-up (missed at least one follow-up).
Of the 109 women included in the study, 58 (53%) completed all follow-up, 34 (31%) had incomplete follow-up, and 17 (16%) were lost to follow-up after day 0. Of those who had complete follow-up, 15 (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI] [16–38]) had parasitological failure. For the 92 women included in the survival analysis, median age was 20 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18–22), median gestational age was 22 weeks (IQR range 20–24), and 57% were primigravid. There was no difference in time to failure in primigravid versus multigravid women. Of the 84 women with complete haplotype data for the aforementioned loci of the dhfr and dhps genes, 53 (63%, 95% CI [50–70]) had quintuple mutants (two with an additional mutation in A581G of dhps). Among women with complete follow-up and quintuple mutants, 22% had parasitological failure versus 0% without (p = 0.44).
While underpowered, this study found 26% failure rates of SP given the moderate prevalence of the quintuple mutant haplotype. Despite the presence of resistance, SP retained some efficacy in clearing parasites in pregnant women, and may remain a viable option for IPTp in Zambia.
Malaria; Pregnancy; Intermittent-preventive treatment; Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine
Molecular markers and population genetics were effective tracking tools.
Imported malaria threatens control and elimination efforts in countries that have low rates of transmission. In 2010, an outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported among United Nations peacekeeping soldiers from Guatemala who had recently returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Epidemiologic evidence suggested that the soldiers were infected in the DRC, but local transmission could not be ruled out in all cases. We used population genetic analyses of neutral microsatellites to determine the outbreak source. Genetic relatedness was compared among parasites found in samples from the soldiers and parasite populations collected in the DRC and Guatemala; parasites identified in the soldiers were more closely related to those from the DRC. A phylogenetic clustering analysis confirms this identification with >99.9% confidence. Thus, results support the hypothesis that the soldiers likely imported malaria from the DRC. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular genotyping in outbreak investigations.
Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; protozoan; parasite; Anopheles mosquito; microsatellites; molecular genotyping; drug-resistant; chloroquine phosphate; antimalarial; Guatemala; Democratic Republic of the Congo
Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations are well-reported. Although sulfa prophylaxis generally is associated with DHPS mutant infection, whether mutant infection is associated with poorer clinical outcomes is less clear. The differing definitions of sulfa prophylaxis and the different mortality endpoints used in these studies may be one explanation for the conflicting study results. Applying different definitions of prophylaxis, mortality endpoints and DHPS mutant to 301 HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia, we demonstrate that prophylaxis, irrespective of definition, increased the risk of infection with pure mutant (any prophylaxis: AOR 4.00, 95% CI: 1.83–8.76, p<0.001) but not mixed genotypes (any prophylaxis: AOR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.26–2.36, p=0.65). However, infection with mutant DHPS, irrespective of definition, was not associated with increased mortality (all-cause or PCP death) at the three time-intervals examined (all p>0.05). Future studies should standardize key variables associated with DHPS mutant infection as well as examine DHPS mutant subtypes (pure mutant vs. mixed infections) – perhaps even individual DHPS mutant genotypes – so that data can be pooled to better address this issue.
Pneumocystis jirovecii; PCP; dihydropteroate synthase; DHPS; DHPS mutant
In the context of an Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) trial for pregnant women in Malawi, P. falci-parum samples from 85 women at enrollment and 35 women at delivery were genotyped for mutations associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. The prevalence of the highly resistant haplotype with mutations at codons 51 and 108 of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and codons 437 and 540 of dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) increased from 81% at enrollment to 100% at delivery (p=0.01). Pregnant women who were smear-positive at enrollment were more likely to have P. falciparum parasitemia at delivery. These results lend support to concerns that IPTp use may lead to increased drug resistance in pregnant women during pregnancy and emphasize the importance of screening pregnant women for malaria parasites in areas with prevalent SP resistance even when they are already on IPTp.
malaria; Intermittent preventive treatment; pregnancy; dhfr; dhps; Malawi
Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is widely used for the control of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. The emergence of resistance to SP is a concern requiring monitoring the effectiveness of SP for IPTp.
This was an in-vivo efficacy study to determine the parasitological treatment response and the duration of post-treatment prophylaxis among asymptomatic pregnant women receiving SP as part of IPTp in Mali and Burkina-Faso. The primary outcome was the PCR-unadjusted % of patients with parasites recurrence by day 42 defined as a positive diagnostic test by malaria smear at any visit between days 4 and 42. Treatment failure was based on the standard World Health Organization criteria. The therapeutic response was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve.
A total of 580 women were enrolled in Mali (N=268) and Burkina-Faso (N=312) and followed weekly for 42 days. Among these, 94.3% completed the follow-up. The PCR-unadjusted cumulative risk of recurrence by day 42 was 4.9% overall, and 3.2% and 6.5% in Mali and Burkina Faso respectively (Hazard Ratio [HR] =2.14, 95%, CI [0.93-4.90]; P=0.070), and higher among the primi– and secundigravida (6.4%) than multigravida (2.2%, HR=3.01 [1.04-8.69]; P=0.042). The PCR-adjusted failure risk was 1.1% overall (Mali 0.8%, Burkina-Faso 1.4%). The frequencies (95% CI) of the dhfr double and triple mutant and dhps 437 and 540 alleles mutant genotype at enrolment were 24.2% (23.7-25.0), 4.7% (4.4-5.0), and 21.4% (20.8-22.0) and 0.37% (0.29-0.44) in Mali, and 7.1% (6.5-7.7), 44.9% (43.8-46.0) and 75.3% (74.5-76.2) and 0% in Burkina-Faso, respectively. There were no dhfr 164L or dhps 581G mutations.
SP remains effective at clearing existing infections when provided as IPTp to asymptomatic pregnant women in Mali and Burkina. Continued monitoring of IPTp-SP effectiveness, including of the impact on birth parameters in this region is essential.
Malaria; Pregnancy; Intermittent; Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine; Resistance; Mali; Burkina-Faso
Frequency dispersion of high-k dielectrics was observed and classified into two parts: extrinsic cause and intrinsic cause. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant (dielectric relaxation), that is the intrinsic frequency dispersion, could not be characterized before considering the effects of extrinsic frequency dispersion. Several mathematical models were discussed to describe the dielectric relaxation of high-k dielectrics. For the physical mechanism, dielectric relaxation was found to be related to the degree of polarization, which depended on the structure of the high-k material. It was attributed to the enhancement of the correlations among polar nanodomain. The effect of grain size for the high-k materials' structure mainly originated from higher surface stress in smaller grain due to its higher concentration of grain boundary.
Frequency dispersion; High-k; Grain size; Dielectric relaxation
The eliciting dose (ED) for a peanut allergic reaction in 5% of the peanut allergic population, the ED05, is 1.5 mg of peanut protein. This ED05 was derived from oral food challenges (OFC) that use graded, incremental doses administered at fixed time intervals. Individual patients’ threshold doses were used to generate population dose-distribution curves using probability distributions from which the ED05 was then determined. It is important to clinically validate that this dose is predictive of the allergenic response in a further unselected group of peanut-allergic individuals.
This is a multi-centre study involving three national level referral and teaching centres. (Cork University Hospital, Ireland, Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, Australia and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A.) The study is now in process and will continue to run until all centres have recruited 125 participates in each respective centre.
A total of 375 participants, aged 1–18 years will be recruited during routine Allergy appointments in the centres. The aim is to assess the precision of the predicted ED05 using a single dose (6 mg peanut = 1.5 mg of peanut protein) in the form of a cookie. Validated Food Allergy related Quality of Life Questionnaires-(FAQLQ) will be self-administered prior to OFC and 1 month after challenge to assess the impact of a single dose OFC on FAQL. Serological and cell based in vitro studies will be performed.
The validation of the ED05 threshold for allergic reactions in peanut allergic subjects has potential value for public health measures. The single dose OFC, based upon the statistical dose-distribution analysis of past challenge trials, promises an efficient approach to identify the most highly sensitive patients within any given food-allergic population.
Eliciting dose (ED); Food Allergy related Quality of Life Questionnaires-(FAQLQ); Single dose; Peanut thresholds; Oral Food Challenges (OFC); Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL); Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS)
Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for at-risk travellers visiting malaria endemic regions. The majority of travellers with imported malaria have not used this, and travellers visiting friends and relatives have the largest burden of malaria and the lowest compliance to chemoprophylaxis. In 1995, the UK’s Department of Health (DH) implemented a policy to make travellers fully responsible for the cost when purchasing chemoprophylaxis. This policy was not implemented in three Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in London due to concern about the potential increase of imported malaria in their residents, and they maintained the public subsidy. An impact evaluation of the policy change was undertaken to determine if the continued subsidy reduced the incidence of imported malaria in one of the boroughs where the subsidy was maintained when compared to a borough where no subsidy was provided.
Between 2007 and 2010 prescriptions for malaria chemoprophylaxis were collected from pharmacy records and PCTs, and all cases of imported malaria reported from the tertiary hospital in each of the two boroughs were compared.
The dispensed chemoprophylaxis prescriptions were nearly 8.8 times higher in Lambeth (where subsidized drugs were provided), than in Hackney. A Poisson model revealed significantly fewer reports of imported malaria per capita were made in Lambeth compared to Hackney (p = 0.042).
The difference in malaria reports between the boroughs only just reached statistical significance, despite the considerable difference in chemoprophylaxis prescribing between the boroughs. Some travellers may not consider using chemoprophylaxis, irrespective of the cost. Regular evaluations of the recent policy changes in areas where malaria is subsidized will be important.
Imported malaria; Chemoprophylaxis; Subsidized costs; Evaluation
Antenatal preventive administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine did not potentiate pregnancy-associated malaria morbidity despite expansion and fixation of drug-resistant malaria parasites. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine may be a safe component of malaria prevention programs without causing adverse effects on birth outcomes.
Background. Antenatal intermittent preventive therapy with 2 doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is the mainstay of efforts in sub-Saharan Africa to prevent pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Recent studies report that drug resistance may cause IPTp-SP to exacerbate PAM morbidity, raising fears that current policies will cause harm as resistance spreads.
Methods. We conducted a serial, cross-sectional analysis of the relationships between IPTp-SP receipt, SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, and PAM morbidity in delivering women during a period of 9 years at a single site in Malawi. PAM morbidity was assessed by parasite densities, placental histology, and birth outcomes.
Results. The prevalence of parasites with highly SP-resistant haplotypes increased from 17% to 100% (P < .001), and the proportion of women receiving full IPTp (≥2 doses) increased from 25% to 82% (P < .001). Women who received full IPTp with SP had lower peripheral (P = .018) and placental (P < .001) parasite densities than women who received suboptimal IPTp (<2 doses). This effect was not significantly modified by the presence of highly SP-resistant haplotypes. After adjustment for covariates, the receipt of SP in the presence of SP-resistant P. falciparum did not exacerbate any parasitologic, histologic, or clinical measures of PAM morbidity.
Conclusions. In this longitudinal study of malaria at delivery, the receipt of SP as IPTp did not potentiate PAM morbidity despite the increasing prevalence and fixation of SP-resistant P. falciparum haplotypes. Even when there is substantial resistance, SP may be used in modified IPTp regimens as a component of comprehensive antenatal care.
Food-processing conditions may alter the allergenicity of food proteins by different means. In this study, the effect of the glycosylation as a result of thermal treatment on the digestibility and IgE-binding of codfish parvalbumin is investigated. Native and glycosylated parvalbumins were digested with pepsin at various conditions relevant for the gastrointestinal tract. Intact proteins and peptides were analysed for apparent molecular weight and IgE-binding. Glycosylation did not substantially affect the digestion. Although the peptides resulting from digestion were relatively large (3 and 4 kDa), the IgE-binding was strongly diminished. However, the glycosylated parvalbumin had a strong propensity to form dimers and tetramers, and these multimers bound IgE intensely, suggesting stronger IgE-binding than monomeric parvalbumin. We conclude that glycosylation of codfish parvalbumin does not affect the digestibility of parvalbumin and that the peptides resulting from this digestion show low IgE-binding, regardless of glycosylation. Glycosylation of parvalbumin leads to the formation of higher order structures that are more potent IgE binders than native, monomeric parvalbumin. Therefore, food-processing conditions applied to fish allergen can potentially lead to increased allergenicity, even while the protein's digestibility is not affected by such processing.