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author:("Saha, baskar")
1.  Outcome of Central Nervous System Relapses In Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia – Prospective Open Cohort Analyses of the ALLR3 Trial 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e108107.
The outcomes of Central Nervous System (CNS) relapses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated in the ALL R3 trial, between January 2003 and March 2011 were analysed. Patients were risk stratified, to receive a matched donor allogeneic transplant or fractionated cranial irradiation with continued treatment for two years. A randomisation of Idarubicin with Mitoxantrone closed in December 2007 in favour of Mitoxantrone. The estimated 3-year progression free survival for combined and isolated CNS disease were 40.6% (25·1, 55·6) and 38.0% (26.2, 49.7) respectively. Univariate analysis showed a significantly better survival for age <10 years, progenitor-B cell disease, good-risk cytogenetics and those receiving Mitoxantrone. Adjusting for these variables (age, time to relapse, cytogenetics, treatment drug and gender) a multivariate analysis, showed a poorer outcome for those with combined CNS relapse (HR 2·64, 95% CI 1·32, 5·31, p = 0·006 for OS). ALL R3 showed an improvement in outcome for CNS relapses treated with Mitoxantrone compared to Idarubicin; a potential benefit for matched donor transplant for those with very early and early isolated-CNS relapses.
Trial Registration
Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN45724312
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108107
PMCID: PMC4184796  PMID: 25279465
2.  5T4 oncofoetal antigen is expressed in high risk of relapse childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and is associated with a more invasive and chemotactic phenotype 
Leukemia  2012;26(7):1487-1498.
Although the overall prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is good, outcome after relapse is poor. Recurrence is frequently characterised by the occurrence of disease at extramedullary sites such as the central nervous system and testes. Subpopulations of blasts able to migrate to such areas may have a survival advantage and give rise to disease recurrence. Gene expression profiling of 85 diagnostic pre-B-ALL bone marrow samples revealed higher 5T4 oncofoetal antigen transcript levels in cytogenetic high-risk subgroups of patients (p < 0.001). Flow cytometric analysis determined that bone marrow from relapse patients have a significantly higher percentage of 5T4 positive leukemic blasts than healthy donors (p = 0.005). The high-risk Sup-B15 pre-B-ALL line showed heterogeneity in 5T4 expression, and the derived, 5T4+ (Sup5T4) and 5T4− (Sup) subline cells, displayed differential spread to the omentum and ovaries following intraperitoneal inoculation of immunocompromised mice. Consistent with this, Sup5T4 compared to Sup cells show increased invasion in vitro concordant with increased LFA-1 and VLA-4 integrin expression, adhesion to extracellular matrix and secretion of matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2/-9). We also show that 5T4 positive Sup-B15 cells are susceptible to 5T4 specific superantigen antibody-dependent cellular toxicity providing support for targeted immunotherapy in high risk pre-B-ALL.
doi:10.1038/leu.2012.18
PMCID: PMC3378689  PMID: 22266911
Pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; childhood cancer; 5T4 oncofoetal antigen; immunotherapy; CXCR4; CXCL12; chemotaxis; invasion
3.  Outcomes after Induction Failure in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 
The New England Journal of Medicine  2012;366(15):1371-1381.
BACKGROUND
Failure of remission-induction therapy is a rare but highly adverse event in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
METHODS
We identified induction failure, defined by the persistence of leukemic blasts in blood, bone marrow, or any extramedullary site after 4 to 6 weeks of remission-induction therapy, in 1041 of 44,017 patients (2.4%) 0 to 18 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL who were treated by a total of 14 cooperative study groups between 1985 and 2000. We analyzed the relationships among disease characteristics, treatments administered, and outcomes in these patients.
RESULTS
Patients with induction failure frequently presented with high-risk features, including older age, high leukocyte count, leukemia with a T-cell phenotype, the Philadelphia chromosome, and 11q23 rearrangement. With a median follow-up period of 8.3 years (range, 1.5 to 22.1), the 10-year survival rate (±SE) was estimated at only 32±1%. An age of 10 years or older, T-cell leukemia, the presence of an 11q23 rearrangement, and 25% or more blasts in the bone marrow at the end of induction therapy were associated with a particularly poor outcome. High hyperdiploidy (a modal chromosome number >50) and an age of 1 to 5 years were associated with a favorable outcome in patients with precursor B-cell leukemia. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation from matched, related donors was associated with improved outcomes in T-cell leukemia. Children younger than 6 years of age with precursor B-cell leukemia and no adverse genetic features had a 10-year survival rate of 72±5% when treated with chemotherapy only.
CONCLUSIONS
Pediatric ALL with induction failure is highly heterogeneous. Patients who have T-cell leukemia appear to have a better outcome with allogeneic stem-cell transplantation than with chemotherapy, whereas patients who have precursor B-cell leukemia without other adverse features appear to have a better outcome with chemotherapy. (Funded by Deutsche Krebshilfe and others.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1110169
PMCID: PMC3374496  PMID: 22494120
4.  Imatinib after induction for treatment of children and adolescents with Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (EsPhALL): a randomised, open-label, intergroup study 
The Lancet Oncology  2012;13(9):936-945.
Summary
Background
Trials of imatinib have provided evidence of activity in adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but the drug's role when given with multidrug chemotherapy to children is unknown. This study assesses the safety and efficacy of oral imatinib in association with a Berlin–Frankfurt–Munster intensive chemotherapy regimen and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for paediatric patients with Philadelphia-chromosome-positive ALL.
Methods
Patients aged 1–18 years recruited to national trials of front-line treatment for ALL were eligible if they had t(9;22)(q34;q11). Patients with abnormal renal or hepatic function, or an active systemic infection, were ineligible. Patients were enrolled by ten study groups between 2004 and 2009, and were classified as good risk or poor risk according to early response to induction treatment. Good-risk patients were randomly assigned by a web-based system with permuted blocks (size four) to receive post-induction imatinib with chemotherapy or chemotherapy only in a 1:1 ratio, while all poor-risk patients received post-induction imatinib with chemotherapy. Patients were stratified by study group. The chemotherapy regimen was modelled on a Berlin–Frankfurt–Munster high-risk backbone; all received four post-induction blocks of chemotherapy after which they became eligible for stem-cell transplantation. The primary endpoints were disease-free survival at 4 years in the good-risk group and event-free survival at 4 years in the poor-risk group, analysed by intention to treat and a secondary analysis of patients as treated. The trial is registered with EudraCT (2004-001647-30) and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00287105.
Findings
Between Jan 1, 2004, and Dec 31, 2009, we screened 229 patients and enrolled 178: 108 were good risk and 70 poor risk. 46 good-risk patients were assigned to receive imatinib and 44 to receive no imatinib. Median follow-up was 3·1 years (IQR 2·0–4·6). 4-year disease-free survival was 72·9% (95% CI 56·1–84·1) in the good-risk, imatinib group versus 61·7% (45·0–74·7) in the good-risk, no imatinib group (p=0·24). The hazard ratio (HR) for failure, adjusted for minimal residual disease, was 0·63 (0·28–1·41; p=0·26). The as-treated analysis showed 4-year disease-free survival was 75·2% (61·0–84·9) for good-risk patients receiving imatinib and 55·9% (36·1–71·7) for those who did not receive imatinib (p=0·06). 4-year event-free survival for poor-risk patients was 53·5% (40·4–65·0). Serious adverse events were much the same in the good-risk groups, with infections caused by myelosuppression the most common. 16 patients in the good-risk imatinib group versus ten in the good-risk, no imatinib group (p=0·64), and 24 in the poor-risk group, had a serious adverse event.
Interpretation
Our results suggests that imatinib in conjunction with intensive chemotherapy is well tolerated and might be beneficial for treatment of children with Philadelphia-chromosome-positive ALL.
Funding
Projet Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique-Cancer (France), Fondazione Tettamanti-De Marchi and Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (Italy), Novartis Germany, Cancer Research UK, Leukaemia Lymphoma Research, and Central Manchester University Hospitals Foundation Trust.
doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70377-7
PMCID: PMC3431502  PMID: 22898679
5.  Clinical Outcome of Children With Newly Diagnosed Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated Between 1995 and 2005 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(31):4755-4761.
Purpose
In a previous analysis of 326 children with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) –positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated between 1986 and 1996, hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation from HLA-matched related donors, but not from unrelated donors, offered a superior outcome than chemotherapy alone. To evaluate the impact of recent improvements in chemotherapy and transplantation, we performed a similar analysis on patients treated in the following decade.
Patients and Methods
We analyzed 610 patients with Ph-positive ALL treated between 1995 and 2005 without tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. The median follow-up duration was 6.3 years.
Results
Complete remission was achieved in 89% of patients. The 7-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were superior in the present cohort compared with the previous cohort (32.0% ± 2.0% v 25.0% ± 3.0, respectively, P = .007; and 44.9% ± 2.2% v 36.0% ± 3.0%, respectively, P = .017). Compared with chemotherapy alone, transplantation with matched related donors or unrelated donors in first remission (325 patients) showed an advantage with increasing follow-up, suggesting greater protection against late relapses (hazard ratio at 5 years, 0.37; P < .001). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis accounting for treatment (transplantation v no transplantation), age, leukocyte count, and early response had independent impact on treatment outcome.
Conclusion
Clinical outcome of children and adolescents with Ph-positive ALL has improved with advances in transplantation and chemotherapy. Transplantations with matched related donors and unrelated donors were equivalent and offered better disease control compared with chemotherapy alone. Age, leukocyte count, and early treatment response were independent prognostic indicators. The results of this study will serve as a historical reference to evaluate the therapeutic impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the outcome of Ph-positive ALL.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.30.1325
PMCID: PMC3020705  PMID: 20876426
6.  Effect of mitoxantrone on outcome of children with first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL R3): an open-label randomised trial 
Lancet  2010;376(9757):2009-2017.
Summary
Background
Although survival of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has improved greatly in the past two decades, the outcome of those who relapse has remained static. We investigated the outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who relapsed on present therapeutic regimens.
Methods
This open-label randomised trial was undertaken in 22 centres in the UK and Ireland and nine in Australia and New Zealand. Patients aged 1–18 years with first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were stratified into high-risk, intermediate-risk, and standard-risk groups on the basis of duration of first complete remission, site of relapse, and immunophenotype. All patients were allocated to receive either idarubicin or mitoxantrone in induction by stratified concealed randomisation. Neither patients nor those giving interventions were masked. After three blocks of therapy, all high-risk group patients and those from the intermediate group with postinduction high minimal residual disease (≥10−4 cells) received an allogenic stem-cell transplant. Standard-risk and intermediate-risk patients with postinduction low minimal residual disease (<10−4 cells) continued chemotherapy. The primary outcome was progression-free survival and the method of analysis was intention-to-treat. Randomisation was stopped in December, 2007 because of differences in progression-free and overall survival between the two groups. This trial is registered, reference number ISCRTN45724312.
Findings
Of 239 registered patients, 216 were randomly assigned to either idarubicin (109 analysed) or mitoxantrone (103 analysed). Estimated 3-year progression-free survival was 35·9% (95% CI 25·9–45·9) in the idarubicin group versus 64·6% (54·2–73·2) in the mitoxantrone group (p=0·0004), and 3-year overall survival was 45·2% (34·5–55·3) versus 69·0% (58·5–77·3; p=0·004). Differences in progression-free survival between groups were mainly related to a decrease in disease events (progression, second relapse, disease-related deaths; HR 0·56, 0·34–0·92, p=0·007) rather than an increase in adverse treatment effects (treatment death, second malignancy; HR 0·52, 0·24–1·11, p=0·11).
Interpretation
As compared with idarubicin, mitoxantrone conferred a significant benefit in progression-free and overall survival in children with relapsed acute lymphobastic leukaemia, a potentially useful clinical finding that warrants further investigation.
Funding
Cancer Research UK, Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research, Cancer Council NSW, and Sporting Chance Cancer Foundation.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62002-8
PMCID: PMC3010035  PMID: 21131038
7.  Temporal changes in incidence and pattern of central nervous system relapses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated on four consecutive Medical Research Council Trials, 1985–2001 
Leukemia  2009;24(2):450-459.
Despite the success of contemporary treatment protocols in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), relapse within the central nervous system (CNS) remains a challenge. To better understand this phenomenon, we have analysed the changes in incidence and pattern of CNS relapses in 5564 children enrolled on four successive MRC-ALL trials between 1985 and 2001. Changes in the incidence and pattern of CNS relapses were examined and the relationship with patient characteristics assessed. Factors affecting post-relapse outcome were determined. Overall, relapses declined by 49%. Decreases occurred primarily in non-CNS and combined relapses with a progressive shift towards later (≥30 months from diagnosis) relapses (p<0·0001). Although isolated CNS relapses declined, the proportional incidence and timing of relapse remained unchanged. Age and presenting white cell count were risk factors for CNS relapse. On multivariate analysis, the time to relapse and the trial period influenced post-relapse outcomes. Relapse trends differed within biological subtypes. In ETV6-RUNX1 ALL, relapse patterns mirrored overall trends while in High Hyperdiploidy ALL, these appear to have plateaued over the latter two trial periods. Intensive systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy have decreased the overall CNS relapse rates and changed the patterns of recurrence. The heterogeneity of therapeutic response in the biological subtypes suggests room for further optimisation using currently available chemotherapy.
doi:10.1038/leu.2009.264
PMCID: PMC2820451  PMID: 20016529
childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia; relapse; CNS; UK
8.  A dyad of lymphoblastic lysosomal cysteine proteases degrades the antileukemic drug l-asparaginase  
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2009;119(7):1964-1973.
l-Asparaginase is a key therapeutic agent for treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). There is wide individual variation in pharmacokinetics, and little is known about its metabolism. The mechanisms of therapeutic failure with l-asparaginase remain speculative. Here, we now report that 2 lysosomal cysteine proteases present in lymphoblasts are able to degrade l-asparaginase. Cathepsin B (CTSB), which is produced constitutively by normal and leukemic cells, degraded asparaginase produced by Escherichia coli (ASNase) and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP), which is overexpressed predominantly in high-risk subsets of ALL, specifically degraded ASNase. AEP thereby destroys ASNase activity and may also potentiate antigen processing, leading to allergic reactions. Using AEP-mediated cleavage sequences, we modeled the effects of the protease on ASNase and created a number of recombinant ASNase products. The N24 residue on the flexible active loop was identified as the primary AEP cleavage site. Sole modification at this site rendered ASNase resistant to AEP cleavage and suggested a key role for the flexible active loop in determining ASNase activity. We therefore propose what we believe to be a novel mechanism of drug resistance to ASNase. Our results may help to identify alternative therapeutic strategies with the potential of further improving outcome in childhood ALL.
doi:10.1172/JCI37977
PMCID: PMC2701869  PMID: 19509471

Results 1-9 (9)