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1.  PTP1B is an androgen receptor-regulated phosphatase associated with tumor-promoting functions in prostate cancer 
Cancer research  2012;72(6):1529-1537.
The androgen receptor (AR)-signaling axis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. The identification of AR targets contributing to prostate tumorigenesis is thus critical for the development of more effective therapies. Herein, we examined whether the AR could regulate classical protein tyrosine phosphatases, a family of enzymes increasingly associated with oncogenic processes. We found that protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a well-established regulator of metabolic signaling, was induced after androgenic stimulation of AR-expressing prostate cancer cells. This effect was observed both at the mRNA and protein levels, and translated into increased PTP1B activity. High-resolution location analyses on tiled array covering chromosome 20q revealed the recruitment of the AR to two response elements located within the first intron of the PTP1B gene (PTPN1) and correlated with an increase in RNA polymerase II recruitment to the transcriptional start site of PTPN1. Analysis of copy number alterations revealed that both PTPN1 and AR genes are co-amplified in metastatic tumors, and that PTPN1 amplification is associated with a subset of high-risk primary tumors. At the functional level, PTP1B depletion significantly delayed LNCaP tumor growth in vivo, and impaired androgen-induced cell migration and invasion in vitro. Importantly, androgen-independent cells also required PTP1B for optimal cell migration. Collectively, our results establish the AR as a transcriptional regulator of PTPN1 transcription, and suggest that PTP1B plays a tumor-promoting role in prostate cancer. This has important implications for prostate cancer biology, and supports the pre-clinical testing of PTP1B inhibitors for the treatment of the disease.
PMCID: PMC5080984  PMID: 22282656
PTP1B; Androgen Receptor; Prostate Cancer; Promoter Analysis; Xenograft
2.  Impact of Bone-targeted Therapies in Chemotherapy-naïve Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Abiraterone Acetate: Post Hoc Analysis of Study COU-AA-302 
European urology  2015;68(4):570-577.
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) often involves bone, and bone-targeted therapy (BTT) has become part of the overall treatment strategy.
Investigation of outcomes for concomitant BTT in a post hoc analysis of the COU-AA-302 trial, which demonstrated an overall clinical benefit of abiraterone acetate (AA) plus prednisone over placebo plus prednisone in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC patients.
Design, setting, and participants
This report describes the third interim analysis (prespecified at 55% overall survival [OS] events) for the COU-AA-302 trial.
Patients were grouped by concomitant BTT use or no BTT use.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
Radiographic progression-free survival and OS were coprimary end points. This report describes the third interim analysis (prespecified at 55% OS events) and involves patients treated with or without concomitant BTT during the COU-AA-302 study. Median follow-up for OS was 27.1 mo. Median time-to-event variables with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs), 95% CIs, and p values for concomitant BTT versus no BTT were obtained via Cox models.
Results and limitations
While the post hoc nature of the analysis is a limitation, superiority of AA and prednisone versus prednisone alone was demonstrated for clinical outcomes with or without BTT use. Compared with no BTT use, concomitant BTT significantly improved OS (HR 0.75; p = 0.01) and increased the time to ECOG deterioration (HR 0.75; p < 0.001) and time to opiate use for cancer-related pain (HR 0.80; p = 0.036). The safety profile of concomitant BTT with AA was similar to that reported for AA in the overall intent-to-treat population. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (all grade 1/2) with concomitant BTT use was reported in <3% of patients.
AA with concomitant BTT was safe and well tolerated in men with chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC. The benefits of AA on clinical outcomes were increased with concomitant BTT.
Patient summary
Treatment of advanced prostate cancer often includes bone-targeted therapy. This post hoc analysis showed that in patients with advanced prostate cancer who were treated with abiraterone acetate and prednisone in combination with bone-targeted therapy, there was a continued trend in prolongation of life when compared with patients treated with prednisone alone.
Trial registration NCT00887198.
PMCID: PMC5056561  PMID: 25985882
Abiraterone acetate; Bone-targeted therapy; Chemotherapy-naïve; Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
3.  Safety of enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel: Expanded access in North America 
The Prostate  2015;75(8):836-844.
The open‐label, single‐arm enzalutamide expanded access program (EAP) in the United States and Canada evaluated the safety of enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who had previously received docetaxel.
Patients (n = 507) received enzalutamide 160 mg/day until disease progression, intolerable adverse events (AEs), or commercial availability occurred. AEs and other safety variables were assessed on day 1, weeks 4 and 12, and every 12 weeks thereafter. Data following transition to commercial drug were not collected.
Median age was 71 years (range 43–97); 426 patients (83.9%) had a baseline ECOG score of ≤1. In addition to docetaxel, the majority of patients had received prior prostate cancer treatments such as abiraterone (76.1%) or cabazitaxel (28.6%). Median study treatment duration was 2.6 months (range 0.03–9.07). The most frequently reported reasons for discontinuation were commercial availability of enzalutamide (46.7%) and progressive disease (33.7%). A total of 88.2% of patients experienced AEs; 45.4% experienced AEs with a maximum grade of 1 or 2. Fatigue (39.1%), nausea (22.7%), and anorexia (14.8%) were the most commonly reported AEs. Seizure was reported in four patients (0.8%). The most commonly reported event leading to death was progression of metastatic prostate cancer (7.7%).
In this heavily pretreated EAP population with progressive mCRPC, enzalutamide was well tolerated and the safety profile was consistent with that of the AFFIRM trial. Prostate 75: 836–844, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. The Prostate, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMCID: PMC5024054  PMID: 25683285
enzalutamide; metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer; expanded access program; safety; treatment exposure
4.  Suboptimal use of pelvic lymph node dissection: Differences in guideline adherence between robot-assisted and open radical prostatectomy 
Our aim was to assess adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines for pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) at the time of either robot-assisted (RARP) or open radical prostatectomy (ORP).
We relied on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database and focused on localized prostate cancer (PCa) patients who were treated with either RARP or ORP between October 2008 and December 2009. Categorical and multivariable logistic regression analyses targeted two endpoints: 1) probability of guideline-recommended PLND; and 2) probability of no PLND, when not guideline-recommended.
Among 5268 PCa patients, adherence to NCCN PLND guideline was 56.9% during RARP and 76.5% during ORP (odds ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3‒0.6). AUA PLND guideline adherence was 68.1% during RARP and 82.4% during ORP (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5‒0.9). When PLND was not recommended, it was more frequently performed during ORP according to either NCCN (OR 3.7, 95% CI 3.5‒3.9) or AUA (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.6‒2.8). According to the NCCN guideline, at recommended PLND in ORP patients, 6.3% harboured lymph node invasion (LNI) (number needed to treat [NNT] 16) vs. 3.2% at RARP (NNT 31). According to the AUA guideline, at recommended PLND in ORP patients, 12.3% harboured LNI (NNT 8) vs. 5.1% RARP (NNT 19).
Adherence to NCCN and AUA PLND guidelines was lower during RARP than during ORP when PLND was recommended. The rate of non-recommended PLND was also higher during ORP than during RARP. Technical considerations may be at play.
PMCID: PMC5110411  PMID: 27878050
5.  A comparative study of radical prostatectomy and permanent seed brachytherapy for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer 
We sought to compare the outcomes between radical prostatectomy (RP) and permanent seed prostate brachytherapy (PB) in patients with low- and low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer from a single tertiary care centre.
Patients were selected from our institute’s internal database based on preoperative selection criteria from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines (2015) for low- and intermediate-risk patients. No patient had received any neo-adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy. The endpoint was biochemical recurrence (BCR) or any salvage treatment for both RP and PB at 48 ± 4 months after treatment. The biochemical relapse threshold was set at prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥0.5 ng/mL for PB and two PSA values of ≥0.2 ng/mL for RP. Patients from both treatment groups were compared using non-parametric tests. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine an association of treatment and pretreatment factors with a BCR at 48 months.
A total of 575 patients were included in this study; 254 were treated with RP and 321 with PB. BCR was not different between both groups (p=0.84, Chi-square test), and occurred in 21.2% of patients treated with RP and in 20.6% with PB. Based on univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, younger age, higher percentage of positive biopsies, and initial PSA were predictive of BCR. Treatment modality was not predictive in either univariate (odds ratio [OR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–1.44; p=0.84) or multivariate (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.89–2.30; p=0.14) analyses.
Using closely related cutoff values for BCR, both RP and PB did not have significantly different outcomes at four years post-treatment. A longer followup may be necessary to detect a difference between treatments.
PMCID: PMC5110416  PMID: 27878044
6.  Androgen-deprivation therapy and bone loss in prostate cancer patients: a clinical review 
BoneKEy Reports  2015;4:716.
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has become a standard of care in the management of advanced prostate cancer or as an adjunct therapy. However, ADT is associated with a well-known deleterious effect on bone health, resulting in a decrease in bone-mass density (BMD) and increased risk for fracture. With the longer life expectancy of prostate cancer patients, improvement of the quality of life has become increasingly important. Therefore, adequate screening, prevention and treatment of BMD loss is paramount. Zoledronic acid and denosumab have shown promising results in recent studies, which has led to the Food and Drug Administration approval of these treatment options in various settings throughout the course of the disease, including the prevention of ADT-associated bone loss. This review focuses on the various parameters that impact BMD loss in men initiating ADT, on the specific effect of ADT on bone health and on various lifestyle modifications and treatment options such as bisphosphonates, osteoclast-targeted therapy and selective estrogen-receptor modulators that have shown promising results in recent studies.
PMCID: PMC4478875  PMID: 26131363
7.  The Present and Future of Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer: Proteomics, Genomics, and Immunology Advancements 
Biomarkers in Cancer  2016;8(Suppl 2):15-33.
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common form of cancer in men worldwide. Biomarkers have emerged as essential tools for treatment and assessment since the variability of disease behavior, the cost and diversity of treatments, and the related impairment of quality of life have given rise to a need for a personalized approach. High-throughput technology platforms in proteomics and genomics have accelerated the development of biomarkers. Furthermore, recent successes of several new agents in PC, including immunotherapy, have stimulated the search for predictors of response and resistance and have improved the understanding of the biological mechanisms at work. This review provides an overview of currently established biomarkers in PC, as well as a selection of the most promising biomarkers within these particular fields of development.
PMCID: PMC4859450  PMID: 27168728
prostate cancer; biomarker; genomics; proteomics; immunology
9.  Efficacy, quality of life, and safety of cabazitaxel in Canadian metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated or not with prior abiraterone 
In the TROPIC study, cabazitaxel improved overall survival in abiraterone-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients post-docetaxel. To evaluate cabazitaxel in routine clinical practice, an international, single-arm trial was conducted. Efficacy, safety, and quality of life (QoL) data were collected from Canadian patients enrolled. Overall survival and progression-free survival were not collected as part of this study. Importantly, prior abiraterone use was obtained and its impact on clinical parameters was examined.
Sixty-one patients from nine Canadian centres were enrolled, with prior abiraterone use known for 60 patients. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate, safety, and impact on QoL life were analyzed as a function of prior abiraterone use.
Overall, 92% of patients were ECOG 0/1, 88% had bone metastases, and 25% visceral metastases. Patients treated without prior abiraterone (NoPriorAbi) (n=35, 58%) and with prior abiraterone (PriorAbi) (n=25, 42%) had similar baseline characteristics, except for age and prior cumulative docetaxel dose. Median number of cabazitaxel cycles received was similar between groups (NoPriorAbi=6, PriorAbi=7), as was PSA response rate (NoPriorAbi=36.4%, PriorAbi=45.0%, p=0.54). Almost one-third (31%) of patients received prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factors. Most frequent Grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (14.8%); anemia, febrile neutropenia, fatigue (each at 9.8%); and diarrhea (8.2%). No treatment-related adverse event leading to death was observed. QoL and pain were improved with no difference seen between groups. Treatment discontinuation was mainly due to disease progression (45.9%) and adverse events (32.8%).
In routine clinical practice, cabazitaxel’s risk-benefit ratio in mCRPC patients previously treated with docetaxel seems to be maintained independent of prior abiraterone use.
PMCID: PMC4839990  PMID: 27217856
10.  Enumerating pelvic recurrence following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: A Canadian multi-institutional study 
We aimed to enumerate the rate of pelvic recurrence following radical cystectomy at university-affiliated hospitals in Canada.
Canadian, university-affiliated hospitals were invited to participate. They were asked to identify the first 10 consecutive patients undergoing radical cystectomy starting January 1, 2005, who had urothelial carcinoma stages pT3/T4 N0-2 M0. The first 10 consecutive cases starting January 1, 2005 who met these criteria were the patients submitted by that institution with information regarding tumour stage, age, number of nodes removed, and last known clinical status in regard to recurrence and patterns of failure.
Of the 111 patients, 80% had pT3 and 20% pT4 disease, with 62% being node-negative, 14% pN1, and 27% pN2; 57% had 10 or more nodes removed. Cumulative incidence of pelvic relapse was 40% among the entire group
This review demonstrates a high rate of pelvic tumour recurrence following radical cystectomy for pT3/T4 urothelial cancer.
PMCID: PMC4840007  PMID: 27217852
11.  Suboptimal use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in radical cystectomy patients: A population-based study 
We aimed to assess contemporary rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) use.
We relied on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database for non-metastatic, muscle-invasive (T2–T4a) urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB) patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) between 1991 and 2009. Multivariable logistic regression analyses tested predictors of NC use, such as: T-stage, N-stage, year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, gender, race, use of radiotherapy (RT), marital status, urban status, socioeconomic status, tumour grade, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI).
Overall, 5207 patients treated with RC were identified. Of those, 332 (6.4%) received NC. The rate of NC increased over time from 6.1% (1991) to 15.0% (2009) (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, year of diagnosis (odds ratio [OR]: 4.7; p<0.001), lower T-stage (T3 vs. T2: OR: 0.7; p=0.003), married status (OR: 1.5; p=0.006), and younger age at diagnosis (≥80 vs. 66–69: OR: 0.6; p=0.006) were associated with a higher odds of NC; all represented independent predictors of NC use. Neither race nor CCI demonstrated statistical significance.
We reported lower than anticipated overall (6.4%) use of NC. Nonetheless, the rate increased from 6.1% (1991) to 15.0% (2009). Older and unmarried individuals were less likely to receive NC. NC rates were higher in T2 UCUB patients. Some of the observed discrepancies, such as lower use in unmarried individuals, may require correction. Better adherence to guidelines should be encouraged and implemented, especially based on the confirmed benefits of NC according to randomized, controlled trials. The study is limited by a retrospective design and limited variables.
PMCID: PMC4907779  PMID: 27330584
12.  Toxicities Following Treatment with Bisphosphonates and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand Inhibitors in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer 
European urology  2013;65(2):278-286.
Advanced prostate cancer(PCa) is associated withskeletal complications, both as a result of bone metastases and because of fractures associated with fragility due to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Osteoclast inhibitors are commonly used to reduce skeletal complications but are associated with a number of potential adverse events.
To review clinical trials of osteoclast inhibitors in advanced PCa, to discuss the adverse event profile of these agents, and to discuss strategies to address specific adverse events.
Evidence acquisition
PubMed was searched for reports of clinical trials of osteoclast inhibitors in advanced PCa. As zoledronic acid and denosumab are used most commonly in this disease, these trials were the focus. The literature was reviewed to identify key publications addressing the prevention and management of adverse events associated with these drugs.
Evidence synthesis
The major findings of the trials and the adverse events are discussed. Prevention and management of common adverse events are addressed.
Zoledronic acid prevents loss of bone mineral density associated with ADT and delays skeletal-related events in metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC). Denosumab reduces the incidence of fragility fractures associated with ADT, delays the onset of bone metastases in nonmetastatic castration-resistant disease, and is superior to zoledronic acid in the prevention of skeletal complications in mCRPC. Adverse events associated with both agents include osteonecrosis of the jaw and hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia is more common with denosumab. Zoledronic acid requires dose modifications for renal insufficiency, is contraindicated in severe renal insufficiency, and has been associated with deterioration of renal function. Appropriate patient selection with close attention to dental health, supplementation with calcium and vitamin D, and monitoring of laboratory values are effective strategies to minimize the impact of adverse events associated with osteoclast inhibitors in advanced PCa.
PMCID: PMC4744484  PMID: 23706567
Prostate cancer; Systematic review; Bone-targeted agents; Bisphosphonates; Denosumab; Adverse events
13.  Medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia: Results from a population-based study 
In men with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), medical treatment usually represents the first line. We examined the patterns of medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in the Montreal metropolitan area, within the context of a case control study focusing on incident prostate cancer.
Cases were 1933 men with incident prostate cancer. Population controls included 1994 age-matched men. In-person interviews collected sociodemographic characteristics and medical history, including BPH diagnosis, its duration, and type of medical treatment received. Baseline characteristics were compared by the chi-square likelihood test for categorical variables and by the students t-test for continuously coded variables.
Overall, 1120 participants had history of BPH; of those 53.7% received medical treatment for BPH. Individuals with medically treated BPH, compared to individuals with medically untreated BPH, were older at index date [mean: 66.9 vs. 64.9 years, p<0.001)] and at diagnosis of BPH [mean: 62.3 vs. 60.3 years, p<0.001]. They also had a longer duration of BPH-history [mean: 4.7 vs. 4.0 years, p=0.02]. Regarding medical treatment, mono-therapy was more often used than combination therapy [87.6% vs. 12.4%, p<0.001]. Alpha-blockers (69.9%) were most commonly used as monotherapy, followed by 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) (26.6%). Alpha-blockers plus 5ARIs were the most common combination therapy (97.3%).
Despite evidence from randomized, controlled trials for better efficacy with use of combination therapy, monotherapy consisting of alpha-blockers or 5ARI, in that order, is most frequently used. Additionally, 5ARI use was more common than previously reported (27% vs. 15%).
PMCID: PMC4771560  PMID: 26977208
15.  Updated Interim Efficacy Analysis and Long-term Safety of Abiraterone Acetate in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Without Prior Chemotherapy (COU-AA-302) 
European urology  2014;66(5):815-825.
Abiraterone acetate (an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor) plus prednisone is approved for treating patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Study COU-AA-302 evaluated abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with progressive mCRPC without prior chemotherapy.
Report the prespecified third interim analysis (IA) of efficacy and safety outcomes in study COU-AA-302.
Design, setting, and participants
Study COU-AA-302, a double-blind placebo-controlled study, enrolled patients with mCRPC from April 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1088 patients were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1).
Patients were randomised 1:1 to abiraterone 1000 mg plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily by mouth versus prednisone.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
Co–primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS). Median times to event outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using the Cox model, and treatment comparison used the log-rank test. The O’Brien-Fleming Lan-DeMets α-spending function was used for OS. Adverse events were summarised descriptively.
Results and limitations
With a median follow-up duration of 27.1 mo, improvement in rPFS was statistically significant with abiraterone treatment versus prednisone (median: 16.5 vs 8.2 mo; HR: 0.52 [95% CI, 0.45–0.61]; p < 0.0001). Abiraterone improved OS (median: 35.3 vs 30.1 mo; HR: 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66–0.95]; p = 0.0151) but did not reach the prespecified statistical efficacy boundary (α-level: 0.0035). A post hoc multivariate analysis for OS using known prognostic factors supported the primary results (HR: 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61–0.89]; p = 0.0017), and all clinically relevant secondary end points and patient-reported outcomes improved. While the post hoc nature of the long-term safety analysis is a limitation, the safety profile with longer treatment exposure was consistent with prior reports.
The updated IA of study COU-AA-302 in patients with mCRPC without prior chemotherapy confirms that abiraterone delays disease progression, pain, and functional deterioration and has clinical benefit with a favourable safety profile, including in patients treated for ≥24 mo.
Trial registration
Study COU-AA-302, number, NCT00887198.
PMCID: PMC4418928  PMID: 24647231
Abiraterone acetate; Chemotherapy-naive; Efficacy; Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; Safety
16.  Metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer risk in a population-based case–control study in Montreal, Canada 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:913.
The role of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in prostate cancer risk is still debated. We investigated it in a large population-based case–control study.
Cases were 1937 men with incident prostate cancer, aged ≤75 years, diagnosed across French hospitals in the Montreal area between 2005 and 2009. Concurrently, 1995 population controls from the same residential area and age distribution were randomly selected from electoral list of French-speaking men. Detailed lifestyle and medical histories, and anthropometric measures, were collected during in-person interviews. Prevalence of MetS components (type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity) was estimated at 2 years before diagnosis for cases/ interview for controls, and at ages 20, 40, 50 and 60. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals for the association between MetS and prostate cancer risk.
A history of MetS (≥3 components vs <3) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (OR = 0.70 [0.60, 0.82]) after considering potential confounders. The negative association was particularly pronounced with a young age (≤40 years) at MetS onset (OR = 0.38 [0.16-0.89]), did not vary according to prostate cancer aggressiveness, and was only partly explained by the presence of type 2 diabetes. A risk decrease was observed with the number of MetS components, suggesting a synergistic interaction of the components.
The observed negative association, consistent with results from other North American populations undergoing regular prostate cancer screening, underlines the importance of considering PSA-testing when studying the MetS-prostate cancer association.
Findings from this study are consistent with an inverse association between MetS and prostate cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC4574395  PMID: 26385727
Metabolic syndrome; Prostate cancer; Case–control studies; Epidemiology; Risk factors
17.  Abiraterone in the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer prior to chemotherapy 
Therapeutic Advances in Urology  2015;7(4):194-202.
The treatment armamentarium for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has increased significantly over the past several years. Approved drugs associated with improved survival include androgen pathway-targeted agents (abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide), chemotherapeutics (docetaxel and cabazitaxel), an autologous vaccine (sipuleucel-T) and a radiopharmaceutical (radium-223). Abiraterone acetate, a prodrug of abiraterone, inhibits the CYP17A enzyme, a critical enzyme in androgen biosynthesis. Abiraterone has regulatory approval in mCRPC in both chemotherapy-naïve patients and in the post-docetaxel setting based on results from two randomized phase III studies. In the COU-AA-302 trial, abiraterone demonstrated significant improvement in the coprimary endpoints of radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival, as well as in a number of secondary endpoints including time until initiation of chemotherapy, time until opiate use for cancer-related pain, prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival and decline in performance status. Abiraterone is well-tolerated, although adverse events associated with this agent include abnormalities in liver function testing and mineralocorticoid-associated adverse events. This review evaluates the use of abiraterone in mCRPC prior to the use of chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC4580096  PMID: 26445599
abiraterone; prostate cancer; castration-resistant; chemotherapy-naïve
18.  Potential Cross-Talk between Alternative and Classical NF-κB Pathways in Prostate Cancer Tissues as Measured by a Multi-Staining Immunofluorescence Co-Localization Assay 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0131024.
While the classical NF-κB/p65 pathway is known to be involved in prostate cancer progression and is associated with poor patient outcome, the role of the NF-κB /RelB alternative protein is not well defined. Here we analyzed the activation of both NF-κB pathways in prostate cancer tissues and correlate this activation with clinical features of the disease.
A multiple immunofluorescence technique was employed to concomitantly and quantitatively visualize the nuclear localization of p65 and RelB in 200 paraffin embedded samples. Epithelia were defined using appropriate fluorochrome markers and the resulting immunofluorescent signals were quantified with an automated scoring system.
The nuclear frequency of p65 was found to be significantly increased in tumor tissues as compared with normal adjacent tissue, whereas the frequency for RelB was decreased (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon test). As previously reported, p65 nuclear frequency was associated with a risk of biochemical recurrence. Although, RelB nuclear frequency alone did not predict recurrence, the presence of activated RelB reduced the risk of recurrence associated with the activation of p65.
For the first time p65/RelB co-distribution was assessed in prostate cancer tissues and suggested a negative crosstalk between the two NF-κB pathways in prostate cancer progression.
PMCID: PMC4505937  PMID: 26186215
19.  Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience 
We assessed the incidence of contralateral prostate cancer (cPCa), contralateral EPE (cEPE) and contralateral positive surgical margins (cPSM) in patients diagnosed preoperatively with unilateral prostate cancer and evaluated risk factors predictive of contralateral disease extension.
The occurrence of cPCa, cEPE and cPSM and the side-specific nerve-sparing technique performed were collected postoperatively from 327 men diagnosed with unilateral prostate cancer at biopsy. Parameters, such as the localization, proportion, and percentage of cancer in positive cores, were prospectively collected.
Overall, 50.5% of patients had bilateral disease, and were at higher risk when associated with a positive biopsy core at the apex (p = 0.016). The overall incidence of ipsilateral EPE and cEPE were 21.4% and 3.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to cPCa, ipsilateral disease was at an almost 4-fold higher risk of extending out of the prostate (p < 0.001). None of the criteria tested were identified as useful predictors for cEPE. The low incidence of cEPE in our cohort could limit our ability to detect significance. The overall incidence of ipsilateral PSM and cPSM were 15.3% and 5.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). More aggressive nerve-sparing was not associated with a higher incidence of PSM. Prostate sides selected for more aggressive nerve-sparing were associated with younger patients (p < 0.001), a smaller prostate (p = 0.006), and a lower percentage of cancer in biopsy material (p = 0.008).
Although the risk of cPCa is high in patients diagnosed with unilateral prostate cancer at biopsy, the risk of cEPE and cPSM is low, yet not insignificant. Contralateral aggressive nerve-sparing should be used with caution and should not compromise oncological outcome.
PMCID: PMC4514488  PMID: 26279712
20.  Randomized Controlled Trial of Early Zoledronic Acid in Men With Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastases: Results of CALGB 90202 (Alliance) 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2014;32(11):1143-1150.
Zoledronic acid decreases the risk for skeletal-related events (SREs) in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases but its role earlier in the natural history of the disease is unknown. This phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of earlier treatment with zoledronic acid in men with castration-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer.
Patients and Methods
Men with castration-sensitive prostate cancer and bone metastases whose androgen-deprivation therapy was initiated within 6 months of study entry were randomly assigned in a blinded 1:1 ratio to receive zoledronic acid (4 mg intravenously every 4 weeks) or a placebo. After their disease progressed to castration-resistant status, all patients received open-label treatment with zoledronic acid. The primary end point was time to first SRE, defined as radiation to bone, clinical fracture, spinal cord compression, surgery to bone, or death as a result of prostate cancer. Target accrual was 680 patients. Primary analysis was planned after 470 SREs. The study was discontinued prematurely (645 patients; 299 SREs) after the corporate supporter withdrew study drug supply.
Early zoledronic acid was not associated with increased time to first SRE. The median time to first SRE was 31.9 months in the zoledronic acid group (95% CI, 24.2 to 40.3) and 29.8 months in the placebo group (95% CI, 25.3 to 37.2; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0 to 1.17; one-sided stratified log-rank P = .39). Overall survival was similar between the groups (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.12; P = .29). Rates of adverse events were similar between the groups.
In men with castration-sensitive prostate cancer and bone metastases, early treatment with zoledronic acid was not associated with lower risk for SREs.
PMCID: PMC3970172  PMID: 24590644
21.  The 2015 CUA-CUOG Guidelines for the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) 
Agents that have shown improvements in survival in mCRPC now include abiraterone, enzalutamide, docetaxel, cabazitaxel and radium-223. Bone supportive agents and palliative radiation continue to play an important role in the overall management of mCRPC. Given the complexity, variety and importance of optimizing the use of these agents, a multidisciplinary team approach is highly recommended.
PMCID: PMC4455631  PMID: 26085865
22.  Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial Comparing Orteronel (TAK-700) Plus Prednisone With Placebo Plus Prednisone in Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer That Has Progressed During or After Docetaxel-Based Therapy: ELM-PC 5 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2015;33(7):723-731.
Orteronel (TAK-700) is an investigational, nonsteroidal, reversible, selective 17,20-lyase inhibitor. This study examined orteronel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed after docetaxel therapy.
Patients and Methods
In our study, 1,099 men were randomly assigned in a 2:1 schedule to receive orteronel 400 mg plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily or placebo plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily, stratified by region (Europe, North America [NA], and non-Europe/NA) and Brief Pain Inventory–Short Form worst pain score. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Key secondary end points (radiographic progression-free survival [rPFS], ≥ 50% decrease of prostate-specific antigen [PSA50], and pain response at 12 weeks) were to undergo statistical testing only if the primary end point analysis was significant.
The study was unblinded after crossing a prespecified OS futility boundary. The median OS was 17.0 months versus 15.2 months with orteronel-prednisone versus placebo-prednisone (hazard ratio [HR], 0.886; 95% CI, 0.739 to 1.062; P = .190). Improved rPFS was observed with orteronel-prednisone (median, 8.3 v 5.7 months; HR, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.653 to 0.885; P < .001). Orteronel-prednisone showed advantages over placebo-prednisone in PSA50 rate (25% v 10%, P < .001) and time to PSA progression (median, 5.5 v 2.9 months, P < .001) but not pain response rate (12% v 9%; P = .128). Adverse events (all grades) were generally more frequent with orteronel-prednisone, including nausea (42% v 26%), vomiting (36% v 17%), fatigue (29% v 23%), and increased amylase (14% v 2%).
Our study did not meet the primary end point of OS. Longer rPFS and a higher PSA50 rate with orteronel-prednisone indicate antitumor activity.
PMCID: PMC4879718  PMID: 25624429
23.  The impact of method of distal ureter management during radical nephroureterectomy on tumour recurrence 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2014;8(11-12):E845-E852.
Radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) must include some form of distal ureter management to avoid high rates of tumour recurrence. It is uncertain which distal ureter management technique has the best oncologic outcomes. To determine which distal ureter management technique resulted in the lowest tumour recurrence rate, we analyzed a multi-institutional Canadian radical nephroureterectomy database.
We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy with distal ureter management for UTUC between January 1990 and June 2010 at 10 Canadian tertiary hospitals. Distal ureter management approaches were divided into 3 categories: (1) extravesical tenting for ureteric excision without cystotomy (EXTRAVESICAL); (2) open cystotomy with intravesical bladder cuff excision (INTRAVESICAL); and (3) extravesical excision with endoscopic management of ureteric orifice (ENDOSCOPIC). Data available for each patient included demographic details, distal ureter management approach, pathology and operative details, as well as the presence and location of local or distant recurrence. Clinical outcomes included overall recurrence-free survival and intravesical recurrence-free survival. Survival analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was also performed.
A total of 820 patients underwent radical nephroureterectomy with a specified distal ureter management approach at 10 Canadian academic institutions. The mean patient age was 69.6 years and the median follow-up was 24.6 months. Of the 820 patients, 406 (49.5%) underwent INTRAVESICAL, 316 (38.5%) underwent EXTRAVESICAL, and 98 (11.9%) underwent ENDOSOPIC distal ureter management. Groups differed significantly in their proportion of females, proportion of laparoscopic cases, presence of carcinoma in situ and pathological tumour stage (p < 0.05). Recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 46.3%, 35.6%, and 30.1% for INTRAVESICAL, EXTRAVESICAL and ENDOSCOPIC, respectively (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis confirmed that INTRAVESICAL resulted in a lower hazard of recurrence compared to EXTRAVESICAL and ENDOSCOPIC. When looking only at intravesical recurrence-free survival (iRFS), a similar trend held up with INTRAVESICAL having the highest iRFS, followed by ENDOSCOPIC and then EXTRAVESICAL management (p < 0.05). At last follow-up, 406 (49.5%) patients were alive and free of disease.
Open intravesical excision of the distal ureter (INTRAVESICAL) during radical nephroureterectomy was associated with improved overall and intravesical recurrence-free survival compared with extravesical and endoscopic approaches. These findings suggest that INTRAVESICAL should be considered the gold standard oncologic approach to distal ureter management during radical nephroureterectomy. Limitations of this study include its retrospective design, heterogeneous cohort, and limited follow-up.
PMCID: PMC4250251  PMID: 25485014
24.  Denosumab and Bone Metastasis–Free Survival in Men With Nonmetastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Exploratory Analyses by Baseline Prostate-Specific Antigen Doubling Time 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2013;31(30):3800-3806.
Denosumab, an anti–RANK ligand monoclonal antibody, significantly increases bone metastasis–free survival (BMFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; P = .028) and delays time to first bone metastasis in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 8.0 ng/mL and/or PSA doubling time (PSADT) ≤ 10.0 months. To identify men at greatest risk for bone metastasis or death, we evaluated relationships between PSA and PSADT with BMFS in the placebo group and the efficacy and safety of denosumab in men with PSADT ≤ 10, ≤ 6, and ≤ 4 months.
Patients and Methods
A total of 1,432 men with nonmetastatic CRPC were randomly assigned 1:1 to monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or placebo. Enrollment began February 2006; primary analysis cutoff was July 2010, when approximately 660 men were anticipated to have developed bone metastases or died.
In the placebo group, shorter BMFS was observed as PSADT decreased below 8 months. In analyses by shorter baseline PSADT, denosumab consistently increased BMFS by a median of 6.0, 7.2, and 7.5 months among men with PSADT ≤ 10 (HR, 0.84; P = .042), ≤ 6 (HR, 0.77; P = .006), and ≤ 4 months (HR, 0.71; P = .004), respectively. Denosumab also consistently increased time to bone metastasis by PSADT subset. No difference in survival was observed between treatment groups for the overall study population or PSADT subsets.
Patients with shorter PSADT are at greater risk for bone metastasis or death. Denosumab consistently improves BMFS in men with shorter PSADT and seems to have the greatest treatment effects in men at high risk for progression.
PMCID: PMC3795889  PMID: 24043751
25.  Systemic Therapy in Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario Clinical Practice Guideline 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2014;32(30):3436-3448.
To provide treatment recommendations for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based recommendations informed by a systematic review of the literature.
When added to androgen deprivation, therapies demonstrating improved survival, improved quality of life (QOL), and favorable benefit-harm balance include abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, and radium-223 (223Ra; for men with predominantly bone metastases). Improved survival and QOL with moderate toxicity risk are associated with docetaxel/prednisone. For asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men, improved survival with unclear QOL impact and low toxicity are associated with sipuleucel-T. For men who previously received docetaxel, improved survival, unclear QOL impact, and moderate to high toxicity risk are associated with cabazitaxel/prednisone. Modest QOL benefit (without survival benefit) and high toxicity risk are associated with mitoxantrone/prednisone after docetaxel. No benefit and excess toxicity are observed with bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib.
Continue androgen deprivation (pharmaceutical or surgical) indefinitely. Abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, or 223Ra should be offered; docetaxel/prednisone should also be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Sipuleucel-T may be offered to asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men. For men who have experienced progression with docetaxel, cabazitaxel may be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Mitoxantrone may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited clinical benefit and toxicity risk. Ketoconazole or antiandrogens (eg, bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide) may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited known clinical benefit. Bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib should not be offered. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate optimal sequences or combinations of therapies. Palliative care should be offered to all patients.
PMCID: PMC4876355  PMID: 25199761

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