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2.  IGF-1R targeting increases the antitumor effects of DNA damaging agents in SCLC model: an opportunity to increase the efficacy of standard therapy 
Molecular cancer therapeutics  2013;12(7):1213-1222.
Insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) inhibition could be a relevant therapeutic approach in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) given the importance of an IGF-1R autocrine loop and its role in DNA damage repair processes. We assessed IGF-1R and pAkt protein expression in 83 SCLC human specimens. The efficacy of R1507 (a monoclonal antibody directed against IGF-1R) alone or combined with cisplatin or ionizing radiation (IR) was evaluated in H69, H146 and H526 cells in vitro and in vivo. Innovative genomic and functional approaches were conducted to analyze the molecular behavior under the different treatment conditions. A total of 53% and 37% of human specimens expressed IGF-1R and pAkt, respectively. R1507 demonstrated single agent activity in H146 and H526 cells but not in H69 cells. R1507 exhibited synergistic effects with both Cisplatin and IR in vitro. The triple combination R1507-Cisplatin-IR led to a dramatic delay in tumor growth compared to Cisplatin-IR in H526 cells. Analyzing the apparent absence of antitumoral effect of R1507 alone in vivo, we observed a transient reduction of IGF-1R staining intensity in vivo, concomitant to the activation of multiple cell surface receptors and intracellular proteins involved in proliferation, angiogenesis and survival. Finally, we identified that the nucleotide excision repair pathway (NER) was mediated after exposure to R1507-CDDP and R1507-IR in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, adding R1507 to the current standard Cisplatin-IR doublet reveals remarkable chemo- and radiosensitizing effects in selected SCLC models and warrants to be investigated in the clinical setting.
doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-12-1067
PMCID: PMC3707930  PMID: 23640142
3.  Abiraterone and Increased Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer 
The New England journal of medicine  2011;364(21):1995-2005.
BACKGROUND
Biosynthesis of extragonadal androgen may contribute to the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer. We evaluated whether abiraterone acetate, an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, prolongs overall survival among patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have received chemotherapy.
METHODS
We randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, 1195 patients who had previously received docetaxel to receive 5 mg of prednisone twice daily with either 1000 mg of abiraterone acetate (797 patients) or placebo (398 patients). The primary end point was overall survival. The secondary end points included time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (elevation in the PSA level according to prespecified criteria), progression-free survival according to radiologic findings based on prespecified criteria, and the PSA response rate.
RESULTS
After a median follow-up of 12.8 months, overall survival was longer in the abiraterone acetate–prednisone group than in the placebo–prednisone group (14.8 months vs. 10.9 months; hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.77; P<0.001). Data were unblinded at the interim analysis, since these results exceeded the preplanned criteria for study termination. All secondary end points, including time to PSA progression (10.2 vs. 6.6 months; P<0.001), progression-free survival (5.6 months vs. 3.6 months; P<0.001), and PSA response rate (29% vs. 6%, P<0.001), favored the treatment group. Mineralocorticoid-related adverse events, including fluid retention, hypertension, and hypokalemia, were more frequently reported in the abiraterone acetate–prednisone group than in the placebo–prednisone group.
CONCLUSIONS
The inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by abiraterone acetate prolonged overall survival among patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who previously received chemotherapy. (Funded by Cougar Biotechnology; COU-AA-301 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00638690.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1014618
PMCID: PMC3471149  PMID: 21612468
4.  Bioluminescent Orthotopic Mouse Models of Human Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Feasibility and Identification of Circulating Tumour Cells 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26073.
Background
Preclinical models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) require better clinical relevance to study disease mechanisms and innovative therapeutics. We sought to compare and refine bioluminescent orthotopic mouse models of human localized NSCLC.
Methods
Athymic nude mice underwent subcutaneous injection (group 1-SC, n = 15, control), percutaneous orthotopic injection (group 2-POI, n = 30), surgical orthotopic implantation of subcutaneously grown tumours (group 3-SOI, n = 25), or transpleural orthotopic injection (group 4-TOI, n = 30) of A549-luciferase cells. Bioluminescent in vivo imaging was then performed weekly. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) were searched using Cellsearch® system in SC and TOI models.
Results
Group 2-POI was associated with unexpected direct pleural spreading of the cellular solution in 53% of the cases, forbidding further evaluation of any localized lung tumour. Group 3-SOI was characterized by high perioperative mortality, initially localized lung tumours, and local evolution. Group 4-TOI was associated with low perioperative mortality, initially localized lung tumours, loco regional extension, and distant metastasis. CTCs were detected in 83% of nude mice bearing subcutaneous or orthotopic NSCLC tumours.
Conclusions
Transpleural orthotopic injection of A549-luc cells in nude mouse lung induces localized tumour, followed by lymphatic extension and specific mortality, and allowed the first time identification of CTCs in a NSCLC mice model.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026073
PMCID: PMC3191172  PMID: 22022511
5.  Lung Cancer Stem Cell: New Insights on Experimental Models and Preclinical Data 
Journal of Oncology  2010;2011:549181.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death. Understanding lung tumors physiopathology should provide opportunity to prevent tumor development or/and improve their therapeutic management. Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory refers to a subpopulation of cancer cells, also named tumor-initiating cells, that can drive cancer development. Cells presenting these characteristics have been identified and isolated from lung cancer. Exploring cell markers and signaling pathways specific to lung CSCs may lead to progress in therapy and improve the prognosis of patients with lung cancer. Continuous efforts in developing in vitro and in vivo models may yield reliable tools to better understand CSC abilities and to test new therapeutic targets. Preclinical data on putative CSC targets are emerging by now. These preliminary studies are critical for the next generation of lung cancer therapies.
doi:10.1155/2011/549181
PMCID: PMC3010697  PMID: 21209720

Results 1-5 (5)