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2.  Role of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity in HIV Transmission to Infants Through Breast-feeding: The BAN Study 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;208(4):653-661.
Background. Increased intestinal permeability may be one of the mechanisms of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infants through breast-feeding. Intestinal permeability correlates with microbial translocation, which can be measured through quantification of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Methods. We evaluated levels of plasma LPS (by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay) and immune activation markers in serial specimens from infants exposed to but uninfected with HIV and infants infected with HIV from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study.
Results. Plasma LPS levels increased after infants in the BAN study were weaned from the breast, at 24 weeks of age. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with higher plasma LPS levels (P = .004). Infants with HIV infection had higher LPS levels, compared with uninfected infants (P = .004). Higher preinfection plasma LPS levels were a significant predictor of infant HIV infection through breast-feeding (hazard ratio = 1.60 for every unit increase in plasma LPS level; P = .01) and of lower infant length-for-age z scores (P = .02).
Conclusions. These findings suggest that disruption in intestinal integrity is a mechanism of HIV transmission to infants through breast-feeding. Weaning from breast milk and use of antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with increased levels of microbial translocation, which could facilitate HIV entry through the intestine. Complementary approaches to enhance intestinal mucosal integrity in the infant may further reduce breast-feeding transmission of HIV.
PMCID: PMC3719904  PMID: 23687226
HIV; infant; breast-feeding; microbial translocation; immune activation; intestinal permeability
3.  Pregnancy and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases 
To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis); there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC3723080  PMID: 23935259
4.  Contraceptive Methods and Risk of HIV Acquisition or Female-to-Male Transmission 
Current HIV/AIDS reports  2014;11(4):447-458.
Effective family planning with modern contraception is an important intervention to prevent unintended pregnancies which also provides personal, familial, and societal benefits. Contraception is also the most cost-effective strategy to reduce the burden of mother-to-child HIV transmission for women living with HIV who wish to prevent pregnancy. There are concerns, however, that certain contraceptive methods, in particular the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), may increase a woman's risk of acquiring HIV or transmitting it to uninfected males. These concerns, if confirmed, could potentially have large public health implications. This paper briefly reviews the literature on use of contraception among women living with HIV or at high risk of HIV infection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations place no restrictions on the use of hormonal contraceptive methods by women with or at high risk of HIV infection, although a clarification recommends that, given uncertainty in the current literature, women at high risk of HIV who choose progestogen-only injectable contraceptives should be informed that it may or may not increase their risk of HIV acquisition and should also be informed about and have access to HIV preventive measures, including male or female condoms.
PMCID: PMC4310558  PMID: 25297973
HIV; AIDS; Contraception; Hormonal contraception; Transmission
5.  Antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in mothers and breastfeeding infants from 6 to 24 weeks post partum: results of the BAN Study 
Antiviral therapy  2014;19(6):587-595.
An intensive, prospective, open-label pharmacokinetic (PK) study in a subset of HIV-infected mothers and their uninfected infants enrolled in the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition study was performed to describe drug exposure and antiviral response.
Women using Combivir®[zidovudine (ZDV)+ lamivudine (3TC)]+Aluvia®[lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/RTV)] were enrolled. Breast milk (BM) and mother and infant plasma (MP, IP) samples were obtained over 6hrs after observed dosing at 6, 12, or 24wks post-partum for drug concentrations and HIV RNA.
30 mother/infant pairs (10 each at 6, 12,and 24wks post-partum) were enrolled. Relative to MP, BM concentrations of ZDV and 3TC were 35% and 21% higher, while LPV and RTV were 80% lower. Only 3TC was detected in IP with concentrations 96% and 98% lower than MP and BM, respectively. Concentrations in all matrices were similar at 6-24wks. The majority (98.3%) of BM concentrations were >HIVwt IC50, with one having detectable virus. There was no association between PK parameters and MP or BM HIV RNA.
ZDV and 3TC concentrated in BM while LPV and RTV did not, possibly due to protein binding and drug transporter affinity. Undetectable to low ARV concentrations in IP suggests prevention of transmission while breast feeding may be due to ARV effects on systemic or BM HIV RNA in the mother. Low IP 3TC exposure may predispose an infected infant to HIV resistance, necessitating testing and treating infants early.
PMCID: PMC4110187  PMID: 24464632
6.  Relationship between social cognitive theory constructs and self-reported condom use: assessment of behaviour in a subgroup of the Safe in the City trial 
BMJ Open  2014;4(12):e006093.
Previous studies have found social cognitive theory (SCT)-framed interventions are successful for improving condom use and reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a secondary analysis of behavioural data from the Safe in the City intervention trial (2003–2005) to investigate the influence of SCT constructs on study participants’ self-reported use of condoms at last intercourse.
The main trial was conducted from 2003 to 2005 at three public US STI clinics. Patients (n=38 635) were either shown a ‘safer sex’ video in the waiting room, or received the standard waiting room experience, based on their visit date. A nested behavioural assessment was administered to a subsample of study participants following their index clinic visit and again at 3 months follow-up. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression models to examine the relationships among SCT constructs (sexual self-efficacy, self-control self-efficacy, self-efficacy with most recent partner, hedonistic outcome expectancies and partner expected outcomes) and self-reported condom use at last sex act at the 3-month follow-up study visit.
Of 1252 participants included in analysis, 39% reported using a condom at last sex act. Male gender, homosexual orientation and single status were significant correlates of condom use. Both unadjusted and adjusted models indicate that sexual self-efficacy (adjusted relative risk (RRa)=1.50, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.84), self-control self-efficacy (RRa=1.67, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.04), self-efficacy with most recent partner (RRa=2.56, 95% CI 2.01 to 3.27), more favourable hedonistic outcome expectancies (RRa=1.83, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.17) and more favourable partner expected outcomes (RRa=9.74, 95% CI 3.21 to 29.57) were significantly associated with condom use at last sex act.
Social cognitive skills, such as self-efficacy and partner expected outcomes, are an important aspect of condom use behaviour.
Trial registration number (#NCT00137370).
PMCID: PMC4281534  PMID: 25550295
7.  The Reproductive Health Behaviors of HIV-Infected Young Women in the United States: A Literature Review 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs  2013;27(12):669-680.
HIV-infected young women in the United States have important reproductive health needs that are made more complex by their HIV status. We searched Pubmed and relevant bibliographies to identify 32 articles published from 2001 to July 2012 that described the prevalence, correlates, and characteristics of the sexual activity, relationships, pregnancy intentions, HIV status disclosure, and contraceptive and condom use among US HIV-infected adolescents and young women. Our synthesis of those articles found that, like youth not infected with HIV, substantial proportions of HIV-infected youth were sexually active, and most sought romantic or sexual relationships, though their serostatus may have affected the pace of physical and emotional intimacy. Disclosure was difficult, and large proportions of HIV-infected youth had not disclosed their serostatus to recent partners. A few studies suggest that most HIV-infected young women hoped to have children in the future, but many wanted to avoid pregnancy until later. Only one study described contraceptive use among this population in detail and found that condoms were a primary method of contraception. The results point to substantial gaps in published research, particularly in the areas of pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use. Much more needs to be done in research and health services to better understand and meet the complex health needs of HIV-infected young women.
PMCID: PMC3868287  PMID: 24320012
8.  Socioeconomic Disadvantage as a Social Determinant of Teen Childbearing in the U.S. 
Public Health Reports  2013;128(Suppl 1):5-22.
We reviewed the literature focused on socioeconomic influences on teen childbearing and suggested directions for future research and practice related to this important indicator of teen sexual health.
We conducted an electronic search of Medline, ERIC, PsychLit, and Sociological Abstracts databases for articles published from January 1995 to November 2011. Selected articles from peer-reviewed journals included original quantitative analyses addressing socioeconomic influences on first birth among teen women in the U.S. Articles were abstracted for key information, ranked for quality according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines, assessed for bias, and synthesized.
We selected articles with a range of observational study designs. Risk for bias varied across studies. All 12 studies that considered socioeconomic factors as influences on teen childbearing (vs. moderators or mediators of other effects) reported at least one statistically significant association relating low socioeconomic status, underemployment, low income, low education levels, neighborhood disadvantage, neighborhood physical disorder, or neighborhood-level income inequality to teen birth. Few reports included any associations contradicting this pattern.
This review suggests that unfavorable socioeconomic conditions experienced at the community and family levels contribute to the high teen birth rate in the U.S. Future research into social determinants of sexual health should include multiple levels of measurement whenever possible. Root causes of teen childbearing should be evaluated in various populations and contexts. Interventions that address socioeconomic influences at multiple levels could positively affect large numbers of teens and help eliminate disparities in teen childbearing.
PMCID: PMC3562742  PMID: 23450881
9.  Pooled Individual Data Analysis of 5 Randomized Trials of Infant Nevirapine Prophylaxis to Prevent Breast-Milk HIV-1 Transmission 
A pooled analysis of individual data from >5000 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected mothers and their infants from Africa and India who participated in 5 randomized trials shows that extended prophylaxis with nevirapine or with nevirapine and zidovudine significantly reduces postnatal HIV-1 infection.
Background. In resource-limited settings, mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) face a difficult choice: breastfeed their infants but risk transmitting HIV-1 or not breastfeed their infants and risk the infants dying of other infectious diseases or malnutrition. Recent results from observational studies and randomized clinical trials indicate daily administration of nevirapine to the infant can prevent breast-milk HIV-1 transmission.
Methods. Data from 5396 mother-infant pairs who participated in 5 randomized trials where the infant was HIV-1 negative at birth were pooled to estimate the efficacy of infant nevirapine prophylaxis to prevent breast-milk HIV-1 transmission. Four daily regimens were compared: nevirapine for 6 weeks, 14 weeks, or 28 weeks, or nevirapine plus zidovudine for 14 weeks.
Results. The estimated 28-week risk of HIV-1 transmission was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3%–7.9%) for the 6-week nevirapine regimen, 3.7% (95% CI, 2.5%–5.4%) for the 14-week nevirapine regimen, 4.8% (95% CI, 3.5%–6.7%) for the 14-week nevirapine plus zidovudine regimen, and 1.8% (95% CI, 1.0%–3.1%) for the 28-week nevirapine regimen (log-rank test for trend, P < .001). Cox regression models with nevirapine as a time-varying covariate, stratified by trial site and adjusted for maternal CD4 cell count and infant birth weight, indicated that nevirapine reduces the rate of HIV-1 infection by 71% (95% CI, 58%–80%; P < .001) and reduces the rate of HIV infection or death by 58% (95% CI, 45%–69%; P < .001).
Conclusions. Extended prophylaxis with nevirapine or with nevirapine and zidovudine significantly reduces postnatal HIV-1 infection. Longer duration of prophylaxis results in a greater reduction in the risk of infection.
PMCID: PMC3518881  PMID: 22997212
breast milk; HIV; nevirapine
10.  Maternal and infant antiretroviral regimens to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission: 48-week follow-up of the BAN randomised controlled trial 
Lancet  2012;379(9835):2449-2458.
In resource-limited settings where no safe alternative to breastfeeding exists, WHO recommends that antiretroviral prophylaxis be given to either HIV-infected mothers or infants throughout breastfeeding. We assessed the effect of 28 weeks of maternal or infant antiretroviral prophylaxis on postnatal HIV infection at 48 weeks.
The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) Study was undertaken in Lilongwe, Malawi, between April 21, 2004, and Jan 28, 2010. 2369 HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers with a CD4 count of 250 cells per μL or more and their newborn babies were randomly assigned with a variable-block design to one of three, 28-week regimens: maternal triple antiretroviral (n=849); daily infant nevirapine (n=852); or control (n=668). Patients and local clinical staff were not masked to treatment allocation, but other study investigators were. All mothers and infants received one dose of nevirapine (mother 200 mg; infant 2 mg/kg) and 7 days of zidovudine (mother 300 mg; infants 2 mg/kg) and lamivudine (mothers 150 mg; infants 4 mg/kg) twice a day. Mothers were advised to wean between 24 weeks and 28 weeks after birth. The primary endpoint was HIV infection by 48 weeks in infants who were not infected at 2 weeks and in all infants randomly assigned with censoring at loss to follow-up. This trial is registered with, number NCT00164736.
676 mother–infant pairs completed follow-up to 48 weeks or reached an endpoint in the maternal-antiretroviral group, 680 in the infant-nevirapine group, and 542 in the control group. By 32 weeks post partum, 96% of women in the intervention groups and 88% of those in the control group reported no breastfeeding since their 28-week visit. 30 infants in the maternal-antiretroviral group, 25 in the infant-nevirapine group, and 38 in the control group became HIV infected between 2 weeks and 48 weeks of life; 28 (30%) infections occurred after 28 weeks (nine in maternal-antiretroviral, 13 in infant-nevirapine, and six in control groups). The cumulative risk of HIV-1 transmission by 48 weeks was significantly higher in the control group (7%, 95% CI 5–9) than in the maternal-antiretroviral (4%, 3–6; p=0·0273) or the infant-nevirapine (4%, 2–5; p=0·0027) groups. The rate of serious adverse events in infants was significantly higher during 29–48 weeks than during the intervention phase (1·1 [95% CI 1·0–1·2] vs 0·7 [0·7–0·8] per 100 person-weeks; p<0·0001), with increased risk of diarrhoea, malaria, growth faltering, tuberculosis, and death. Nine women died between 2 weeks and 48 weeks post partum (one in maternal-antiretroviral group, two in infant-nevirapine group, six in control group).
In resource-limited settings where no suitable alternative to breastfeeding is available, antiretroviral prophylaxis given to mothers or infants might decrease HIV transmission. Weaning at 6 months might increase infant morbidity
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
PMCID: PMC3661206  PMID: 22541418
11.  Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected pregnant women in Malawi: The BAN study☆ 
In Sub-Saharan Africa, prevalence estimates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vary widely.
To assess the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected, pregnant women screened for a large clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi.
Study design
Plasma from 2041 HIV-infected, pregnant women was screened for anti-HCV IgG using a chemiluminiscent immunometric assay (CIA). Specimens with a signal-cut-off ratio ≥ 1.00 were considered reactive and those with S/Co ratio < 1.00 non-reactive. All CIA-reactive specimens were tested by a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) for anti-HCV and by PCR for HCV RNA.
Of 2041 specimens, 110 (5.3%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.5%) were CIA reactive. Of the 109 CIA reactive specimens available for RIBA testing, 2 (1.8%) were positive, 28 (25.7%) were indeterminate, and 79 (72.5%) were negative. All CIA-reactive specimens were HCV RNA negative (n = 110). The estimated HCV prevalence based on the screening assay alone was 5.3%; based on supplemental RIBA testing, the status of HCV infection remained indeterminate in 1.4% (28/2040, 95% CI: 0.1–2.0) and the prevalence of confirmed HCV infections was 0.1% (2/2040, 95% CI: 0–0.4%).
HCV seroprevalence among HIV-infected, pregnant women in Malawi confirmed by supplemental RIBA HCV 3.0 is low (0.1%); CIA showed a high false-reactivity rate in this population.
PMCID: PMC3652577  PMID: 22658797
HIV; HCV; Pregnant women; Malawi
12.  Maternal or Infant Antiretroviral Drugs to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission 
The New England journal of medicine  2010;362(24):2271-2281.
We evaluated the efficacy of a maternal triple-drug antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine prophylaxis for 28 weeks during breast-feeding to reduce postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Malawi.
We randomly assigned 2369 HIV-1–positive, breast-feeding mothers with a CD4+ lymphocyte count of at least 250 cells per cubic millimeter and their infants to receive a maternal antiretroviral regimen, infant nevirapine, or no extended postnatal antiretroviral regimen (control group). All mothers and infants received perinatal prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine and 1 week of zidovudine plus lamivudine. We used the Kaplan–Meier method to estimate the cumulative risk of HIV-1 transmission or death by 28 weeks among infants who were HIV-1–negative 2 weeks after birth. Rates were compared with the use of the log-rank test.
Among mother–infant pairs, 5.0% of infants were HIV-1–positive at 2 weeks of life. The estimated risk of HIV-1 transmission between 2 and 28 weeks was higher in the control group (5.7%) than in either the maternal-regimen group (2.9%, P = 0.009) or the infant-regimen group (1.7%, P<0.001). The estimated risk of infant HIV-1 infection or death between 2 and 28 weeks was 7.0% in the control group, 4.1% in the maternal-regimen group (P = 0.02), and 2.6% in the infant-regimen group (P<0.001). The proportion of women with neutropenia was higher among those receiving the antiretroviral regimen (6.2%) than among those in either the nevirapine group (2.6%) or the control group (2.3%). Among infants receiving nevirapine, 1.9% had a hypersensitivity reaction.
The use of either a maternal antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine for 28 weeks was effective in reducing HIV-1 transmission during breast-feeding. ( number, NCT00164736.)
PMCID: PMC3440865  PMID: 20554982
13.  Tenofovir Use and Renal Insufficiency among Pregnant and General Adult Population of HIV-infected, ART-Naïve Individuals in Lilongwe, Malawi 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e41011.
The Malawian government recently changed its prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) regimen and plans to change its first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen to Tenofovir(TDF)/Lamivudine/Efavirenz as a fixed-dose combination tablet. Implementation could be challenging if baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) screening were required to assess renal function prior to TDF therapy. Our goal is to determine predictors of CrCl<50 ml/min among HIV-infected, ART-naïve individuals.
Data on HIV-infected, ART-naïve adults screened for enrollment into 5 HIV clinical trials in Lilongwe, Malawi were combined for a pooled analysis of predictors for CrCl<50 ml/min. CrCl was derived from the Cockroft-Gault equation. Multivariable logistic regression modeled the association of age, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3, gender, and pregnancy with CrCl<50 ml/min.
The analysis included 3508 patients with values for creatinine clearance. Most subjects were female (90.6%) with a median age of 26 years (IQR 22–29). The median CD4 cell count was 444 (IQR 298.0–561.0), and 85.2% percent of women in our study were pregnant. Few patients had CrCl<50 ml/min (n = 38, 1.1%). A BMI less than 18.5 in non-pregnant females (OR = 8.87, 95% CI = 2.45–32.09)) was associated with CrCl<50 ml/min. Hemoglobin level higher than 10 g/dL in males (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.56–0.86) and non-pregnant females (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.04–0.97) was protective against CrCl<50 ml/min.
Our findings indicate few patients would be excluded from a TDF-based antiretroviral regimen, suggesting baseline creatinine clearance assessment may not be necessary for implementation. However, in ART settings individuals with low BMI or anemia could potentially be at increased risk for lower CrCl.
PMCID: PMC3407169  PMID: 22848422
14.  Complications of Common Gynecologic Surgeries among HIV-Infected Women in the United States 
Objective. To compare frequencies of complications among HIV-infected and-uninfected women undergoing common gynecological surgical procedures in inpatient settings. Methods. We used 1994–2007 data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, a nationally representative sample of inpatient hospitalizations. Our analysis included discharge records of women aged ≥15 undergoing hysterectomy, oophorectomy, salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy, bilateral tubal sterilization, or dilation and curettage. Associations between HIV infection status and surgical complications were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for key covariates. Results. For each surgery, HIV infection was associated with experiencing ≥1 complication. Adjusted ORs ranged from 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 2.2) for hysterectomy with oophorectomy to 3.1 (95% CI: 2.4, 4.0) for bilateral tubal sterilization with no comorbidity present. HIV infection was positively associated with extended length of stay and infectious complications of all of the surgeries examined. For some surgeries, it was positively associated with transfusion and anemia due to acute blood loss. Among HIV-infected women, the odds of infectious and other complications did not decrease between 1994–2000 and 2001–2007. Conclusion. HIV infection was associated with elevated frequencies of complications of gynecologic surgeries in the US, even in the era of HAART.
PMCID: PMC3362831  PMID: 22675242
15.  Addition of 7 Days of Zidovudine plus Lamivudine to Peripartum Single-Dose Nevirapine Effectively Reduces Nevirapine Resistance Postpartum in HIV-Infected Mothers in Malawi 
We assessed whether 7 days of zidovudine+lamivudine postpartum with single-dose nevirapine at labor decreases nevirapine resistance in HIV-infected women in Malawi.
HIV-infected pregnant women receiving intrapartum single-dose nevirapine and 7 days of zidovudine+lamivudine (n=132), and women receiving intrapartum single-dose nevirapine alone (n=66) were followed from an antenatal visit through 6 weeks postpartum. Plasma specimens at 2 and 6 weeks postpartum were tested for genotypic resistance to nevirapine by population sequencing and sensitive real-time PCR. Poisson regression was used to determine predictors of postpartum nevirapine resistance.
Median HIV RNA was similar at entry (4.27 log vs. 4.35 log, p=0.87), differed at 2 weeks postpartum (2.67 log vs. 3.58 log, p<0.0001), but not at 6 weeks postpartum (4.49 log vs. 4.40 log, p=0.79), between single-dose nevirapine/zidovudine+lamivudine and single-dose nevirapine groups, respectively. Nevirapine resistance, measured by population sequencing and sensitive real-time PCR, was significantly less common in those receiving single-dose nevirapine/zidovudine+lamivudine compared to single-dose nevirapine, respectively, at 2 weeks (10% (4/40) vs. 74% (31/42), p<0.0001) and 6 weeks postpartum [10% (11/115) vs. 64% (41/64), p<0.0001; adjusted relative risk=0.18, 95% confidence interval (0.10–0.34)].
The significant decrease in nevirapine resistance conferred by one week of zidovudine+lamivudine should help policymakers optimize peripartum HIV prophylaxis recommendations.
PMCID: PMC2913302  PMID: 20672451
16.  Diabetes Trends Among Delivery Hospitalizations in the U.S., 1994–2004 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(4):768-773.
To examine trends in the prevalence of diabetes among delivery hospitalizations in the U.S. and to describe the characteristics of these hospitalizations.
Hospital discharge data from 1994 through 2004 were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Diagnosis codes were selected for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and unspecified diabetes. Rates of delivery hospitalization with diabetes were calculated per 100 deliveries.
Overall, an estimated 1,863,746 hospital delivery discharges contained a diabetes diagnosis, corresponding to a rate of 4.3 per 100 deliveries over the 11-year period. GDM accounted for the largest proportion of delivery hospitalizations with diabetes (84.7%), followed by type 1 (7%), type 2 (4.7%), and unspecified diabetes (3.6%). From 1994 to 2004, the rates for all diabetes, GDM, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes significantly increased overall and within each age-group (15–24, 25–34, and ≥35 years) (P < 0.05). The largest percent increase for all ages was among type 2 diabetes (367%). By age-group, the greatest percent increases for each diabetes type were among the two younger groups. Significant predictors of diabetes at delivery included age ≥35 years vs. 15–24 years (odds ratio 4.80 [95% CI 4.72–4.89]), urban versus rural location (1.14 [1.11–1.17]), and Medicaid/Medicare versus other payment sources (1.29 [1.26–1.32]).
Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes among delivery hospitalizations, particularly among younger women, it will be important to monitor trends in the pregnant population and target strategies to minimize risk for maternal/fetal complications.
PMCID: PMC2845025  PMID: 20067968
17.  Eliminating Preventable HIV-Related Maternal Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Do We Need to Know? 
HIV makes a significant contribution to maternal mortality, and women living in sub-Saharan Africa are most affected. International commitments to eliminate preventable maternal mortality and reduce HIV-related deaths among pregnant and postpartum women by 50% will not be achieved without a better understanding of the links between HIV and poor maternal health outcomes and improved health services for the care of women living with HIV (WLWH) during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum.
This article summarizes priorities for research and evaluation identified through consultation with 30 international researchers and policymakers with experience in maternal health and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and a review of the published literature.
Priorities for improving the evidence about effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality and improve maternal health among WLWH include better quality data about causes of maternal death among WLWH, enhanced and harmonized program monitoring, and research and evaluation that contributes to improving: (1) clinical management of pregnant and postpartum WLWH, including assessment of the impact of expanded antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality and morbidity, (2) integrated service delivery models, and (3) interventions to create an enabling social environment for women to begin and remain in care.
As the global community evaluates progress and prepares for new maternal mortality and HIV targets, addressing the needs of WLWH must be a priority now and after 2015. Research and evaluation on maternal health and HIV can increase collaboration on these 2 global priorities, strengthen political constituencies and communities of practice, and accelerate progress toward achievement of goals in both areas.
PMCID: PMC4251907  PMID: 25436825
HIV; maternal health; maternal mortality; research priorities; women's health; pregnancy

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