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1.  Effect of Dissemination of Evidence in Reducing Injuries from Falls 
The New England journal of medicine  2008;359(3):252-261.
Background
Falling is a common and morbid condition among elderly persons. Effective strategies to prevent falls have been identified but are underutilized.
Methods
Using a nonrandomized design, we compared rates of injuries from falls in a region of Connecticut where clinicians had been exposed to interventions to change clinical practice (intervention region) and in a region where clinicians had not been exposed to such interventions (usual-care region). The interventions encouraged primary care clinicians and staff members involved in home care, outpatient rehabilitation, and senior centers to adopt effective risk assessments and strategies for the prevention of falls (e.g., medication reduction and balance and gait training). The outcomes were rates of serious fall-related injuries (hip and other fractures, head injuries, and joint dislocations) and fall-related use of medical services per 1000 person-years among persons who were 70 years of age or older. The interventions occurred from 2001 to 2004, and the evaluations took place from 2004 to 2006.
Results
Before the interventions, the adjusted rates of serious fall-related injuries (per 1000 person-years) were 31.2 in the usual-care region and 31.9 in the intervention region. During the evaluation period, the adjusted rates were 31.4 and 28.6, respectively (adjusted rate ratio, 0.91; 95% Bayesian credibility interval, 0.88 to 0.94). Between the preintervention period and the evaluation period, the rate of fall-related use of medical services increased from 68.1 to 83.3 per 1000 person-years in the usual-care region and from 70.7 to 74.2 in the intervention region (adjusted rate ratio, 0.89; 95% credibility interval, 0.86 to 0.92). The percentages of clinicians who received intervention visits ranged from 62% (131 of 212 primary care offices) to 100% (26 of 26 home care agencies).
Conclusions
Dissemination of evidence about fall prevention, coupled with interventions to change clinical practice, may reduce fall-related injuries in elderly persons.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0801748
PMCID: PMC3472807  PMID: 18635430
2.  A Randomized Trial of a Physical Conditioning Program to Enhance the Driving Performance of Older Persons 
Background
As the number of older drivers increases, concern has been raised about the potential safety implications. Flexibility, coordination, and speed of movement have been associated with older drivers’ on road performance.
Objective
To determine whether a multicomponent physical conditioning program targeted to axial and extremity flexibility, coordination, and speed of movement could improve driving performance among older drivers.
Design
Randomized controlled trial with blinded assignment and end point assessment. Participants randomized to intervention underwent graduated exercises; controls received home, environment safety modules.
Participants
Drivers, 178, age ≥ 70 years with physical, but without substantial visual (acuity 20/40 or better) or cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination score ≥24) impairments were recruited from clinics and community sources.
Measurements
On-road driving performance assessed by experienced evaluators in dual-brake equipped vehicle in urban, residential, and highway traffic. Performance rated three ways: (1) 36-item scale evaluating driving maneuvers and traffic situations; (2) evaluator’s overall rating; and (3) critical errors committed. Driving performance reassessed at 3 months by evaluator blinded to treatment group.
Results
Least squares mean change in road test scores at 3 months compared to baseline was 2.43 points higher in intervention than control participants (P = .03). Intervention drivers committed 37% fewer critical errors (P = .08); there were no significant differences in evaluator’s overall ratings (P = .29). No injuries were reported, and complaints of pain were rare.
Conclusions
This safe, well-tolerated intervention maintained driving performance, while controls declined during the study period. Having interventions that can maintain or enhance driving performance may allow clinician–patient discussions about driving to adopt a more positive tone, rather than focusing on driving limitation or cessation.
doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0134-3
PMCID: PMC1852916  PMID: 17443366
driving performance; randomized trial; physical conditioning program
3.  A Randomized Trial of a Physical Conditioning Program to Enhance the Driving Performance of Older Persons 
Background
As the number of older drivers increases, concern has been raised about the potential safety implications. Flexibility, coordination, and speed of movement have been associated with older drivers’ on road performance.
Objective
To determine whether a multicomponent physical conditioning program targeted to axial and extremity flexibility, coordination, and speed of movement could improve driving performance among older drivers.
Design
Randomized controlled trial with blinded assignment and end point assessment. Participants randomized to intervention underwent graduated exercises; controls received home, environment safety modules.
Participants
Drivers, 178, age ≥ 70 years with physical, but without substantial visual (acuity 20/40 or better) or cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination score ≥24) impairments were recruited from clinics and community sources.
Measurements
On-road driving performance assessed by experienced evaluators in dual-brake equipped vehicle in urban, residential, and highway traffic. Performance rated three ways: (1) 36-item scale evaluating driving maneuvers and traffic situations; (2) evaluator’s overall rating; and (3) critical errors committed. Driving performance reassessed at 3 months by evaluator blinded to treatment group.
Results
Least squares mean change in road test scores at 3 months compared to baseline was 2.43 points higher in intervention than control participants (P = .03). Intervention drivers committed 37% fewer critical errors (P = .08); there were no significant differences in evaluator’s overall ratings (P = .29). No injuries were reported, and complaints of pain were rare.
Conclusions
This safe, well-tolerated intervention maintained driving performance, while controls declined during the study period. Having interventions that can maintain or enhance driving performance may allow clinician–patient discussions about driving to adopt a more positive tone, rather than focusing on driving limitation or cessation.
doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0134-3
PMCID: PMC1852916  PMID: 17443366
driving performance; randomized trial; physical conditioning program

Results 1-3 (3)