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2.  Adverse Events Associated with Testosterone Administration 
The New England journal of medicine  2010;363(2):109-122.
Background
Testosterone supplementation has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength in healthy older men. The safety and efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men who have limitations in mobility have not been studied.
Methods
Community-dwelling men, 65 years of age or older, with limitations in mobility and a total serum testosterone level of 100 to 350 ng per deciliter (3.5 to 12.1 nmol per liter) or a free serum testosterone level of less than 50 pg per milliliter (173 pmol per liter) were randomly assigned to receive placebo gel or testosterone gel, to be applied daily for 6 months. Adverse events were categorized with the use of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities classification. The data and safety monitoring board recommended that the trial be discontinued early because there was a significantly higher rate of adverse cardiovascular events in the testosterone group than in the placebo group.
Results
A total of 209 men (mean age, 74 years) were enrolled at the time the trial was terminated. At baseline, there was a high prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and obesity among the participants. During the course of the study, the testosterone group had higher rates of cardiac, respiratory, and dermatologic events than did the placebo group. A total of 23 subjects in the testosterone group, as compared with 5 in the placebo group, had cardiovascular-related adverse events. The relative risk of a cardiovascular-related adverse event remained constant throughout the 6-month treatment period. As compared with the placebo group, the testosterone group had significantly greater improvements in leg-press and chest-press strength and in stair climbing while carrying a load.
Conclusions
In this population of older men with limitations in mobility and a high prevalence of chronic disease, the application of a testosterone gel was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. The small size of the trial and the unique population prevent broader inferences from being made about the safety of testosterone therapy.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1000485
PMCID: PMC3440621  PMID: 20592293
3.  Automated concept-level information extraction to reduce the need for custom software and rules development 
Objective
Despite at least 40 years of promising empirical performance, very few clinical natural language processing (NLP) or information extraction systems currently contribute to medical science or care. The authors address this gap by reducing the need for custom software and rules development with a graphical user interface-driven, highly generalizable approach to concept-level retrieval.
Materials and methods
A ‘learn by example’ approach combines features derived from open-source NLP pipelines with open-source machine learning classifiers to automatically and iteratively evaluate top-performing configurations. The Fourth i2b2/VA Shared Task Challenge's concept extraction task provided the data sets and metrics used to evaluate performance.
Results
Top F-measure scores for each of the tasks were medical problems (0.83), treatments (0.82), and tests (0.83). Recall lagged precision in all experiments. Precision was near or above 0.90 in all tasks.
Discussion
With no customization for the tasks and less than 5 min of end-user time to configure and launch each experiment, the average F-measure was 0.83, one point behind the mean F-measure of the 22 entrants in the competition. Strong precision scores indicate the potential of applying the approach for more specific clinical information extraction tasks. There was not one best configuration, supporting an iterative approach to model creation.
Conclusion
Acceptable levels of performance can be achieved using fully automated and generalizable approaches to concept-level information extraction. The described implementation and related documentation is available for download.
doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000183
PMCID: PMC3168318  PMID: 21697292
Natural language processing; information retrieval; machine learning; information extraction; medical informatics
4.  Evaluation of a generalizable approach to clinical information retrieval using the automated retrieval console (ARC) 
Reducing custom software development effort is an important goal in information retrieval (IR). This study evaluated a generalizable approach involving with no custom software or rules development. The study used documents “consistent with cancer” to evaluate system performance in the domains of colorectal (CRC), prostate (PC), and lung (LC) cancer. Using an end-user-supplied reference set, the automated retrieval console (ARC) iteratively calculated performance of combinations of natural language processing-derived features and supervised classification algorithms. Training and testing involved 10-fold cross-validation for three sets of 500 documents each. Performance metrics included recall, precision, and F-measure. Annotation time for five physicians was also measured. Top performing algorithms had recall, precision, and F-measure values as follows: for CRC, 0.90, 0.92, and 0.89, respectively; for PC, 0.97, 0.95, and 0.94; and for LC, 0.76, 0.80, and 0.75. In all but one case, conditional random fields outperformed maximum entropy-based classifiers. Algorithms had good performance without custom code or rules development, but performance varied by specific application.
doi:10.1136/jamia.2009.001412
PMCID: PMC2995644  PMID: 20595303
Natural language processing; information retrieval; machine learning; prostate cancer; lung cancer; colorectal cancer
5.  A point-of-care clinical trial comparing insulin administered using a sliding scale versus a weight-based regimen 
Background Clinical trials are widely considered the gold standard in comparative effectiveness research (CER) but the high cost and complexity of traditional trials and concerns about generalizability to broad patient populations and general clinical practice limit their appeal. Unsuccessful implementation of CER results limits the value of even the highest quality trials. Planning for a trial comparing two standard strategies of insulin administration for hospitalized patients led us to develop a new method for a clinical trial designed to be embedded directly into the clinical care setting thereby lowering the cost, increasing the pragmatic nature of the overall trial, strengthening implementation, and creating an integrated environment of research-based care.
Purpose We describe a novel randomized clinical trial that uses the informatics and statistics infrastructure of the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA) to illustrate one key component (called the point-of-care clinical trial – POC-CT) of a ‘learning healthcare system,’ and settles a clinical question of interest to the VA.
Methods This study is an open-label, randomized trial comparing sliding scale regular insulin to a weight-based regimen for control of hyperglycemia, using the primary outcome length of stay, in non-ICU inpatients within the northeast region of the VA. All non-ICU patients who require in-hospital insulin therapy are eligible for the trial, and the VA’s automated systems will be used to assess eligibility and present the possibility of randomization to the clinician at the point of care. Clinicians will indicate their approval for informed consent to be obtained by study staff. Adaptive randomization will assign up to 3000 patients, preferentially to the currently ‘winning’ strategy, and all care will proceed according to usual practices. Based on a Bayesian stopping rule, the study has acceptable frequentist operating characteristics (Type I error 6%, power 86%) against a 12% reduction of median length of stay from 5 to 4.4 days. The adaptive stopping rule promotes implementation of a successful treatment strategy.
Limitations Despite clinical equipoise, individual healthcare providers may have strong treatment preferences that jeopardize the success and implementation of the trial design, leading to low rates of randomization. Unblinded treatment assignment may bias results. In addition, generalization of clinical results to other healthcare systems may be limited by differences in patient population. Generalizability of the POC-CT method depends on the level of informatics and statistics infrastructure available to a healthcare system.
Conclusions The methods proposed will demonstrate outcome-based evaluation of control of hyperglycemia in hospitalized veterans. By institutionalizing a process of statistically sound and efficient learning, and by integrating that learning with automatic implementation of best practice, the participating VA Healthcare Systems will accelerate improvements in the effectiveness of care.
doi:10.1177/1740774511398368
PMCID: PMC3195898  PMID: 21478329

Results 1-5 (5)