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1.  A survey of expert follow-up practices after successful endoscopic eradication therapy for Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal adenocarcinoma 
Gastrointestinal endoscopy  2013;78(5):696-701.
Despite the increasing number of patients undergoing endoscopic therapy for Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal cancer (IMC), there are few data to guide clinical decision making and research initiatives in the area of posttreatment follow-up.
We aimed to define expert practice patterns regarding follow-up after endoscopic treatment of BE with HGD and IMC.
Electronic survey.
Forty-eight endoscopists in the United States with expertise in BE endotherapy based on high-impact publications and national reputation.
A 21-item Web-based survey inquiring about post-BE endotherapy follow-up practices.
Of 48 expert endoscopists, 42 completed the survey. After successful treatment of BE with HGD or IMC, all experts perform surveillance upper endoscopy, most commonly at 3-month intervals in the first posttreatment year, every 6 months during the second year, and annually thereafter. None of the experts perform surveillance EUS after treatment of HGD, and only 19% perform EUS after treatment of IMC. After cancer eradication, only 36% of experts refer patients for CT, and 24% refer patients for positron emission tomography. Thirty-eight percent of experts refer patients for a surgical opinion when IMC extends into the muscularis mucosa; 100% refer when IMC extends into submucosa.
Not a consensus document; only U.S. experts included.
This study reports the follow-up practices of expert endoscopists after successful endotherapy for BE with HGD and IMC. Additional research is necessary to establish optimal surveillance intervals, the role of follow-up EUS, CT, and positron emission tomography, as well as the surgical implications of low-risk IMC extending into the muscularis mucosa.
PMCID: PMC3961573  PMID: 23711553
2.  Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and bile duct microlithiasis in acute idiopathic pancreatitis 
Although there are numerous causes of acute pancreatitis, an etiology cannot always be found. Two potential etiologies, microlithiasis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, are discussed in this review. Gallbladder microlithiasis, missed on transcutaneous ultrasound, is reported as the cause of idiopathic acute pancreatitis in a wide frequency range of 6%-80%. The best diagnostic technique for gallbladder microlithiasis is endoscopic ultrasound although biliary crystal analysis and empiric cholecystectomy remain as reasonable options. In contrast, in patients who are post-cholecystectomy, bile duct microlithiasis does not appear to have a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is present in 30%-65% of patients with idiopathic acute recurrent pancreatitis in whom other diagnoses have been excluded. It is unclear if this sphincter dysfunction was the original etiology of the first episode of pancreatitis although it appears to have a causative role in recurring episodes since sphincter ablation decreases the frequency of recurrent attacks. Unfortunately, this conclusion is primarily based on small retrospective case series; larger prospective studies of the outcome of pancreatic sphincterotomy for SOD-associated acute pancreatitis are sorely needed. Another problem with this diagnosis and its treatment is the concern over potential procedure related complications from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), manometry and pancreatic sphincterotomy. For these reasons, patients should have recurrent acute pancreatitis, not a single episode, and have a careful informed consent before assessment of the sphincter of Oddi is undertaken.
PMCID: PMC2689403  PMID: 18286682
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction; Microlithiasis; Idiopathic pancreatitis
3.  CT colonography: Friend or foe of practicing endoscopists 
AIM: To investigate the perceived impact of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) on endoscopists’ current and future practice.
METHODS: A 21-question survey was mailed to 1570 randomly chosen American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) members. Participants reported socio-demographics, colonoscopy volume, percentage of colonoscopies performed for screening, and likelihood of integration of CTC into their practice.
RESULTS: A total of 367 ASGE members (23%) returned the questionnaire. Respondents were predominantly male (> 90%) and white (83%) with an average age of 49 years. Most respondents (58%) had no plans to incorporate CTC into daily practice and only 7% had already incorporated CTC into daily practice. Private practice respondents were the least likely to incorporate this modality into their daily practice (P = 0.047). Forty-three percent of participants were willing to take courses on CTC reading, particularly those with the highest volume of colonoscopy (P = 0.049). Forty percent of participants were unsure of CTC’s impact on future colonoscopy volume while 21% and 18% projected a decreased and increased volume, respectively. The estimated impact of CTC volume varied significantly by age (P = 0.002). Respondents > 60 years felt that CTC would increase colonoscopy, whereas those < 40 years thought CTC would ultimately decrease colonoscopy.
CONCLUSION: Practicing endoscopists are not enthusiastic about the incorporation of CTC into their daily practice and are unsure of its future impact on their practice.
PMCID: PMC2998846  PMID: 21160651
Computed tomographic colonography; Virtual colonoscopy; Endoscopy; Colonoscopy; Screening; Colorectal cancer
4.  A survey of ampullectomy practices 
AIM: To investigate the endoscopic ampullectomy practices of expert biliary endoscopists.
METHODS: An anonymous survey was mailed to 79 expert biliary endoscopists to assess ampullectomy practices.
RESULTS: Forty six (58%) biliary endoscopists returned the questionnaire. Of these, 63% were in academia and in practice for an average of 16.4 years (± 8.6). Endoscopists performed an average of 1.1 (± 0.8) ampullectomies per month. Prior to ampullectomy, endoscopic ultrasound was “always” utilized by 67% of respondents vs “sometimes” in 31% of respondents. Empiric biliary sphincterotomy was not utilized uniformly, only 26% “always” and 37% “sometimes” performed it prior to resection. Fifty three percent reported “never” performing empiric pancreatic sphincterotomy prior to ampullectomy. Practitioners with high endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography volumes were the most likely to perform a pancreatic sphincterotomy (OR = 10.9; P = 0.09). Participants overwhelmingly favored “always” placing a prophylactic pancreatic stent, with 86% placing it after ampullectomy rather than prior to resection (23%). Argon plasma coagulation was the favored adjunct modality (83%) for removal of residual adenomatous tissue. Practitioners uniformly (100%) preferred follow-up examination to be within 6 mo post-ampullectomy.
CONCLUSION: Among biliary experts, there is less variation in ampullectomy practices than is reflected in the literature.
PMCID: PMC2715973  PMID: 19630102
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Ampullectomy; Papillectomy; Ampulla of Vater, Common bile duct neoplasms; Adenoma
5.  Post-sphincterotomy bleeding: fully-covered metal stents for hemostasis 
F1000Research  2013;2:171.
Background/objectives: In endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, post-sphincterotomy bleeding (PSB) is a common complication of biliary sphincterotomy. Recently, the temporary placement of fully-covered metal stents (FCMS) into the biliary tree in order to achieve a tamponade effect has been described as an additional therapeutic option for PSB. The aim of this article is to review the literature on FCMS for hemostasis in PSB and update the treatment algorithm for this complication.
Methods: A PubMed literature search was conducted using the search terms post-sphincterotomy, bleeding, and stent. 33 articles were reviewed, along with their references, and four were found to describe the use of FCMS for hemostasis in PSB.
Results: A total of 21 patient cases were described in the four articles. All patients received FCMS for PSB hemostasis following the application and subsequent failure of traditional therapies (conventional pharmacologic injection, thermal or electrocoagulation, and mechanical therapy (balloon tamponade or endoclip)). Successful hemostasis was achieved in all patients through FCMS placement. No major complications were observed.   
Conclusion: These 21 cases demonstrate that FCMS are a viable therapeutic option for PSB.  It is reasonable to consider stent placement for patients in which traditional interventions fail in order to avoid the need for angiographic or surgical hemostasis.
PMCID: PMC3869479  PMID: 24555084
6.  A Randomized Trial of Rectal Indomethacin to Prevent Post-ERCP Pancreatitis 
The New England Journal of Medicine  2012;366(15):1414-1422.
Preliminary research suggests that rectally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may reduce the incidence of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
In this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, we assigned patients at elevated risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis to receive a single dose of rectal indomethacin or placebo immediately after ERCP. Patients were determined to be at high risk on the basis of validated patient- and procedure-related risk factors. The primary outcome was post-ERCP pancreatitis, which was defined as new upper abdominal pain, an elevation in pancreatic enzymes to at least three times the upper limit of the normal range 24 hours after the procedure, and hospitalization for at least 2 nights.
A total of 602 patients were enrolled and completed follow-up. The majority of patients (82%) had a clinical suspicion of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in 27 of 295 patients (9.2%) in the indomethacin group and in 52 of 307 patients (16.9%) in the placebo group (P = 0.005). Moderate-to-severe pancreatitis developed in 13 patients (4.4%) in the indomethacin group and in 27 patients (8.8%) in the placebo group (P = 0.03).
Among patients at high risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis, rectal indomethacin significantly reduced the incidence of the condition. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; number, NCT00820612.)
PMCID: PMC3339271  PMID: 22494121
7.  Radiation doses to ERCP patients are significantly lower with experienced endoscopists 
Gastrointestinal endoscopy  2010;72(1):58-65.
Patients undergoing ERCP receive nontrivial doses of radiation, which may increase their risk of developing cancer, especially young patients. Radiation doses to patients during ERCP correlate closely with fluoroscopy time.
The aim of this study was to determine whether endoscopist experience is associated with fluoroscopy time.
Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database.
Data from 69 providers from 6 countries.
9,052 entries of patients undergoing ERCP.
Main Outcome Measurements
Percent difference in fluoroscopy time associated with endoscopist experience and fellow involvement.
For procedure types that require less fluoroscopy time, compared with endoscopists who performed > 200 ERCPs in the preceding year, endoscopists who performed < 100 and 100 to 200 ERCPs had 104% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85%–124%) and 27% (95% CI, 20%–35%) increases in fluoroscopy time, respectively. Every 10 years of experience was associated with a 21% decrease in fluoroscopy time (95% CI, 19%–24%). For fluoroscopy-intense procedures, compared with endoscopists who performed > 200 ERCPs in the preceding year, endoscopists who performed < 100 and 100 to 200 ERCPs had 59% (95% CI, 39%–82%) and 11% (95% CI, 3%–20%) increases in fluoroscopy time, respectively. Every 10 years of experience was associated with a 20% decrease in fluoroscopy time (95% CI, 18%–24%).
Database used is a voluntary reporting system, which may not be generalizable. Data is self-reported and was not verified for accuracy.
Fluoroscopy time is shorter when ERCP is performed by endoscopists with more years of performing ERCP and a greater number of ERCPs in the preceding year. These findings may have important ramifications for radiation-induced cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC2906113  PMID: 20421102
8.  Prophylactic Pancreatic Duct Stents 
Gastroenterology & Hepatology  2008;4(4):251-253.
PMCID: PMC3093726  PMID: 21960906
9.  Does Rectal Indomethacin Eliminate the Need for Prophylactic Pancreatic Stent Placement in Patients Undergoing High-Risk ERCP? Post hoc Efficacy and Cost-Benefit Analyses Using Prospective Clinical Trial Data 
A recent large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that rectal indomethacin administration is effective in addition to pancreatic stent placement (PSP) for preventing post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) in high-risk cases. We performed a post hoc analysis of this RCT to explore whether rectal indomethacin can replace PSP in the prevention of PEP and to estimate the potential cost savings of such an approach.
We retrospectively classified RCT subjects into four prevention groups: (1) no prophylaxis, (2) PSP alone, (3) rectal indomethacin alone, and (4) the combination of PSP and indomethacin. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for imbalances in the prevalence of risk factors for PEP between the groups. Based on these adjusted PEP rates, we conducted an economic analysis comparing the costs associated with PEP prevention strategies employing rectal indomethacin alone, PSP alone, or the combination of both.
After adjusting for risk using two different logistic regression models, rectal indomethacin alone appeared to be more effective for preventing PEP than no prophylaxis, PSP alone, and the combination of indomethacin and PSP. Economic analysis revealed that indomethacin alone was a cost-saving strategy in 96% of Monte Carlo trials. A prevention strategy employing rectal indomethacin alone could save approximately $150 million annually in the United States compared with a strategy of PSP alone, and $85 million compared with a strategy of indomethacin and PSP.
This hypothesis-generating study suggests that prophylactic rectal indomethacin could replace PSP in patients undergoing high-risk ERCP, potentially improving clinical outcomes and reducing healthcare costs. A RCT comparing rectal indomethacin alone vs. indomethacin plus PSP is needed.
PMCID: PMC3947644  PMID: 23295278

Results 1-9 (9)