PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-4 (4)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women 
Nutrients  2015;7(1):584-594.
Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.
doi:10.3390/nu7010584
PMCID: PMC4303855  PMID: 25594441
maternal diet; nutrition; pregnancy; HIV; anthropometry; Malawi; cluster analysis
2.  Patterns of body composition among HIV-infected, pregnant Malawians and the effects of famine season1 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(2):10.1007/s10995-012-0970-6.
We describe change in weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) in 1130 pregnant HIV-infected women with CD4 counts > 200 as part of the BAN Study (www.thebanstudy.org), a randomized, controlled clinical trialto evaluate antiretroviral and nutrition interventions to reducemother-to-child transmission of HIV during breast feeding. In a longitudinal analysis, we found a linear increase in weight with a mean rate of weight gain of 0.27 kgs/wk, from baseline (12 to 30 wks gestation) until the last follow-up visit (32 to 38 wks). Analysis of weight gain showed that 17.1% of the intervals between visits resulted in a weight loss. In unadjusted models, MUAC and AMA increased and AFA declined during late pregnancy. Based on multivariable regression analysis, exposure to the famine season resulted in larger losses in AMA [−0.08, 95%CI: −0.14, −0.02; p=0.01] while AFA losses occurred irrespective of season [−0.55, 95%: −0.95, −0.14, p=0.01]. CD4 was associated with AFA [0.21, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.41, p=.04]. Age was positively associated with MUAC and AMA. Wealth index was positively associated with MUAC, AFA, and weight. While patterns of anthropometric measures among HIV-infected, pregnant women were found to be similar to those reported for uninfected women in sub-Saharan Africa, effects of the famine season among undernourished, Malawian women are of concern. Strategies to optimize nutrition during pregnancy for these women appear warranted.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0970-6
PMCID: PMC3837416  PMID: 22395817
3.  Maternal mid-upper arm circumference is associated with birth weight among HIV-infected Malawians 
We examined the relationship of maternal anthropometry to fetal growth and birth weight among 1005 HIV-infected women in Lilongwe, Malawi, who consented to enrollment in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) Study (www.thebanstudy.org). Anthropometric assessments of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), and arm fat area (AFA) were collected at the baseline visit between 12 and 30 weeks gestation and in up to 4 follow-up prenatal visits. In longitudinal analysis, fundal height increased monotonically at an estimated rate of 0.92 cm/week and was positively and negatively associated with AMA and AFA, respectively. These latter relationships varied over weeks of follow-up. Baseline MUAC, AMA, and AFA were positively associated with birth weight [MUAC: 31.84 grams per cm increment, 95% CI: 22.18, 41.49 (p<0.01); AMA: 6.88 g/cm2, 95% CI: 2.51, 11.26 (p<0.01); AFA: 6.97 g/cm2, 95% CI: 3.53, 10.41 (p<0.01)]. In addition, MUAC and AMA were both associated with decreased odds for LBW (<2500 g) [MUAC: OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94 (p<0.01); AMA: OR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99 (p<0.05)]. These findings support the use of MUAC as an efficient, cost effective screening tool for LBW in HIV-infected women, as in HIV-uninfected women.
doi:10.1177/0884533611435991
PMCID: PMC3753683  PMID: 22511656
4.  Maternal or Infant Antiretroviral Drugs to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission 
The New England journal of medicine  2010;362(24):2271-2281.
Background
We evaluated the efficacy of a maternal triple-drug antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine prophylaxis for 28 weeks during breast-feeding to reduce postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Malawi.
Methods
We randomly assigned 2369 HIV-1–positive, breast-feeding mothers with a CD4+ lymphocyte count of at least 250 cells per cubic millimeter and their infants to receive a maternal antiretroviral regimen, infant nevirapine, or no extended postnatal antiretroviral regimen (control group). All mothers and infants received perinatal prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine and 1 week of zidovudine plus lamivudine. We used the Kaplan–Meier method to estimate the cumulative risk of HIV-1 transmission or death by 28 weeks among infants who were HIV-1–negative 2 weeks after birth. Rates were compared with the use of the log-rank test.
Results
Among mother–infant pairs, 5.0% of infants were HIV-1–positive at 2 weeks of life. The estimated risk of HIV-1 transmission between 2 and 28 weeks was higher in the control group (5.7%) than in either the maternal-regimen group (2.9%, P = 0.009) or the infant-regimen group (1.7%, P<0.001). The estimated risk of infant HIV-1 infection or death between 2 and 28 weeks was 7.0% in the control group, 4.1% in the maternal-regimen group (P = 0.02), and 2.6% in the infant-regimen group (P<0.001). The proportion of women with neutropenia was higher among those receiving the antiretroviral regimen (6.2%) than among those in either the nevirapine group (2.6%) or the control group (2.3%). Among infants receiving nevirapine, 1.9% had a hypersensitivity reaction.
Conclusions
The use of either a maternal antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine for 28 weeks was effective in reducing HIV-1 transmission during breast-feeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00164736.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0911486
PMCID: PMC3440865  PMID: 20554982

Results 1-4 (4)