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Science translational medicine  2013;5(206):10.1126/scitranslmed.3006998.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder that is often associated with autoimmune syndromes (1). Despite the connection between ILD and autoimmunity, it remains unclear whether ILD can develop from an autoimmune response that specifically targets the lung parenchyma. Here, we utilized a severe form of autoimmune disease, Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1 (APS1), to establish a strong link between an autoimmune response to the lung-specific protein BPIFB1 and clinical ILD. Screening of a large cohort of APS1 patients revealed autoantibodies to BPIFB1 in 9.6% of APS1 subjects overall and in 100% of APS1 subjects with ILD. Further investigation of ILD outside the APS1 disorder revealed BPIFB1 autoantibodies specifically present in 14.6% of patients with connective tissue disease-associated ILD and in 12.0% of patients with idiopathic ILD. Utilizing the animal model for APS1 to examine the mechanism of ILD pathogenesis, we found that Aire−/− mice harbor autoantibodies to a similar lung antigen named BPIFB9 that are a marker for ILD, and determined that a defect in thymic tolerance is responsible for the production of BPIFB9 autoantibodies and the development of ILD. Importantly, we also found that immunoreactivity targeting BPIFB1 independent of a defect in Aire also leads to ILD, consistent with our discovery of BPIFB1 autoantibodies in non-APS1 patients. Overall, our results demonstrate that autoimmunity targeting the lung-specific antigen BPIFB1 may be important to the pathogenesis of ILD in patients with APS1 and in subsets of patients with non-APS1 ILD, demonstrating the role of lung-specific autoimmunity in the genesis of ILD.
PMCID: PMC3882146  PMID: 24107778
2.  Protein microarray analysis reveals BAFF-binding autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(12):5135-5145.
Autoantibodies against cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors inhibit normal immunity and are implicated in inflammatory autoimmune disease and diseases of immune deficiency. In an effort to evaluate serum from autoimmune and immunodeficient patients for Abs against cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in a high-throughput and unbiased manner, we constructed a multiplex protein microarray for detection of serum factor–binding Abs and used the microarray to detect autoantibody targets in SLE. We designed a nitrocellulose-surface microarray containing human cytokines, chemokines, and other circulating proteins and demonstrated that the array permitted specific detection of serum factor–binding probes. We used the arrays to detect previously described autoantibodies against cytokines in samples from individuals with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 and chronic mycobacterial infection. Serum profiling from individuals with SLE revealed that among several targets, elevated IgG autoantibody reactivity to B cell–activating factor (BAFF) was associated with SLE compared with control samples. BAFF reactivity correlated with the severity of disease-associated features, including IFN-α–driven SLE pathology. Our results showed that serum factor protein microarrays facilitate detection of autoantibody reactivity to serum factors in human samples and that BAFF-reactive autoantibodies may be associated with an elevated inflammatory disease state within the spectrum of SLE.
PMCID: PMC3859403  PMID: 24270423

Results 1-3 (3)