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1.  Increased hippocampal activation in mild cognitive impairment compared to normal aging and AD 
Neurology  2005;65(3):404-411.
To use fMRI to investigate whether hippocampal and entorhinal activation during learning is altered in the earliest phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Three groups of older individuals were studied: 10 cognitively intact controls, 9 individuals at the mild end of the spectrum of MCI, and 10 patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD). Subjects performed a face-name associative encoding task during fMRI scanning, and were tested for recognition of stimuli afterward. Data were analyzed using a functional-anatomic method in which medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions of interest were identified from each individual’s structural MRI, and fMRI activation was quantified within each region.
Significantly greater hippocampal activation was present in the MCI group compared to controls; there were no differences between these two groups in hippocampal or entorhinal volumes. In contrast, the AD group showed hippocampal and entorhinal hypoactivation and atrophy in comparison to controls. The subjects with MCI performed similarly to controls on the fMRI recognition memory task; patients with AD exhibited poorer performance. Across all 29 subjects, greater mean entorhinal activation was found in the subgroup of 13 carriers of the APOE ε4 allele than in the 16 noncarriers.
The authors hypothesize that there is a phase of increased medial temporal lobe activation early in the course of prodromal Alzheimer disease followed by a subsequent decrease as the disease progresses.
PMCID: PMC4335677  PMID: 16087905
2.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC4294222  PMID: 15007134
3.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC4294224  PMID: 14638964
4.  Sensitivity and specificity of decreased CSF asialotransferrin for eIF2B-related disorder 
Neurology  2008;70(23):2226-2232.
This is a study estimating diagnostic accuracy of CSF asialotransferrin to transferrin ratio measurement in eIF2B related disorders by using clinical evaluation and EIF2B mutation analysis as the reference standard. eIF2B-related disorder is a relatively common leukodystrophy with broad phenotypic variation that is caused by mutations in any of the five EIF2B genes. There is a need for a simple and clinically valid screening tool for physicians evaluating patients with an unclassified leukodystrophy.
CSF two-dimensional gel (2DG) electrophoresis analyses to measure asialotransferrin to transferrin ratios were performed in 60 subjects including 6 patients with documented EIF2B gene mutations, patients with other types of leukodystrophy, and patients with no leukodystrophy.
All six patients with mutation proven eIF2B-related disease showed low to nearly undetectable amounts of asialotransferrin in their CSF when compared to 54 unaffected controls by CSF 2DG analyses in this study. eIF2B-like patients, with clinically similar presentations but no mutations in EIF2B1-5, were distinguished from patients with mutations in EIF2B1-5 by this biomarker. Patients with mutations in EIF2B1-5 had asialotransferrin/transferrin ratio levels significantly different from the group as a whole (p < 0.001). Using 8% asialotransferrin/transferrin ratio as a cutoff, this biomarker has a 100% sensitivity (95% CI = 52–100%) and 94% specificity (95% CI = 84–99%).
Decreased asialotransferrin/transferrin ratio in the CSF of patients with eIF2B-related disorder is highly sensitive and specific. This rapid (<48 hours) and inexpensive diagnostic tool for eIF2B-related disorders has the potential to identify patients with likely eIF2B-related disorder for mutation analysis.
PMCID: PMC4147953  PMID: 18519871
5.  Long-term outcome in PCNSL patients treated with high-dose methotrexate and deferred radiation 
Neurology  2008;70(5):401-402.
PMCID: PMC4118737  PMID: 18227422
primary brain tumor; lymphoma; methotrexate chemotherapy; clinical trial
6.  Weight-supported treadmill vs over-ground training for walking after acute incomplete SCI 
Neurology  2006;66(4):484-493.
To compare the efficacy of step training with body weight support on a treadmill (BWSTT) with over-ground practice to the efficacy of a defined over-ground mobility therapy (CONT) in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) admitted for inpatient rehabilitation.
A total of 146 subjects from six regional centers within 8 weeks of SCI were entered in a single-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trial (MRCT). Subjects were graded on the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (ASIA) as B, C, or D with levels from C5 to L3 and had a Functional Independence Measure for locomotion (FIM-L) score <4. They received 12 weeks of equal time of BWSTT or CONT. Primary outcomes were FIM-L for ASIA B and C subjects and walking speed for ASIA C and D subjects 6 months after SCI.
No significant differences were found at entry between treatment groups or at 6 months for FIM-L (n = 108) or walking speed and distance (n = 72). In the upper motor neuron (UMN) subjects, 35% of ASIA B, 92% of ASIA C, and all ASIA D subjects walked independently. Velocities for UMN ASIA C and D subjects were not significantly different for BWSTT (1.1 ± 0.6 m/s, n = 30) and CONT (1.1 ± 0.7, n = 25) groups.
The physical therapy strategies of body weight support on a treadmill and defined overground mobility therapy did not produce different outcomes. This finding was partly due to the unexpectedly high percentage of American Spinal Injury Association C subjects who achieved functional walking speeds, irrespective of treatment. The results provide new insight into disability after incomplete spinal cord injury and affirm the importance of the multicenter, randomized clinical trial to test rehabilitation strategies.
PMCID: PMC4102098  PMID: 16505299
7.  Cold-Induced Defects of Sodium Channel Gating in Atypical Periodic Paralysis Plus Myotonia 
Neurology  2007;70(10):755-761.
Missense mutations of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.4) are an established cause of several clinically distinct forms of periodic paralysis and myotonia. The mechanistic basis for the phenotypic variability of these allelic disorders of muscle excitability remains unknown. An atypical phenotype with cold-induced hypokalemic paralysis and myotonia at warm temperatures was reported to segregate with the P1158S mutation.
This study extends the functional characterization of the P1158S mutation and tests the specific hypothesis that impairment of Na channel slow inactivation is a common feature of periodic paralysis.
Mutant NaV1.4 channels (P1158S) were transiently expressed in HEK cells and characterized by voltage-clamp studies of Na currents.
Wildtype and P1158S channels displayed comparable behavior at 37 °C, but upon cooling to 25 °C mutant channels activated at more negative potentials and slow inactivation was destabilized.
Consistent with other NaV1.4 mutations associated with a paralytic phenotype, the P1158S mutation disrupts slow inactivation. The unique temperature sensitivity of the channel defect may contribute to the unusual clinical phenotype.
PMCID: PMC4094148  PMID: 17898326
NaV1.4; channelopathy; skeletal muscle; human
8.  Emerging Subspecialties: Neurorehabilitation 
Neurology  2008;70(16):e52-e54.
PMCID: PMC4073631  PMID: 18413581
9.  Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies—Fifty years on 
Neurology  2013;81(3):281-291.
PMCID: PMC3959764  PMID: 23858410
10.  Lrrk2 R1441C parkinsonism is clinically similar to sporadic Parkinson disease 
Neurology  2008;70(16 0 2):1456-1460.
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are the most common cause of Parkinson disease (PD). Several dominantly inherited pathogenic substitutions have been identified in different domains of the Lrrk2 protein. Herein, we characterize the clinical and genetic features associated with Lrrk2 p.R1441C.
We identified 33 affected and 15 unaffected LRRK2 c.4321C>T (p.R1441C) mutation carriers through an international consortium originating from three continents. The age-specific cumulative incidence of PD was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
The clinical presentation of Lrrk2 p.R1441C carriers was similar to sporadic PD and Lrrk2 p.G2019S parkinsonism. The mean age at onset for parkinsonism was 60 years, range 30 –79 years; fewer than 20% of the patients had symptoms before the age 50 years, while by 75 years >90% of them had developed symptoms. Haplotype analysis suggests four independent founders for the p.R1441C mutation.
The distribution in age at onset and clinical features in Lrrk2 p.R1441C patients are similar to idiopathic and Lrrk2 p.G2019S parkinsonism. Several independent founders of the p.R1441C substitution suggest this site is prone to recurrent mutagenesis.
PMCID: PMC3906630  PMID: 18337586
11.  Associations of job demands and intelligence with cognitive performance among men in late life 
Neurology  2007;70(19 0 2):10.1212/01.wnl.0000295506.58497.7e.
To examine the association of job characteristics and intelligence to cognitive status in members of the National Academy of Sciences–National Research Council Twins Registry of World War II veterans.
Participants (n = 1,036) included individuals with an assessment of intelligence based on Armed Services testing in early adulthood. In late adulthood, these individuals completed the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) and occupational history as part of an epidemiologic study of aging and dementia. Occupational history was coded to produce a matrix of job characteristics. Based on factor analysis, job characteristics were interpreted as reflecting general intellectual demands (GI), human interaction and communication (HC), physical activity (PA), and visual attention (VA).
Based on regression analysis of TICS-m score covarying for age, intelligence, and years of education, higher levels of GI and HC were independently associated with higher TICS-m performance, whereas higher PA was independently associated with lower performance. There was an interaction of GI and intelligence, indicating that individuals at the lower range of intellectual aptitude in early adulthood derived greater cognitive benefit from intellectually demanding work.
Intellectually demanding work was associated with greater benefit to cognitive performance in later life independent of related factors like education and intelligence. The fact that individuals with lower intellectual aptitude demonstrated a stronger positive association between work and higher cognitive performance during retirement suggests that behavior may enhance intellectual reserve, perhaps even years after peak intellectual activity.
PMCID: PMC3873817  PMID: 18077796
12.  High-frequency oscillations mirror disease activity in patients with epilepsy 
Neurology  2009;72(11):979-986.
High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be recorded in epileptic patients with clinical intracranial EEG. HFOs have been associated with seizure genesis because they occur in the seizure focus and during seizure onset. HFOs are also found interictally, partly co-occurring with epileptic spikes. We studied how HFOs are influenced by antiepileptic medication and seizure occurrence, to improve understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical meaning of HFOs.
Intracerebral depth EEG was partly sampled at 2,000 Hz in 42 patients with intractable focal epilepsy. Patients with five or more usable nights of recording were selected. A sample of slow-wave sleep from each night was analyzed, and HFOs (ripples: 80–250 Hz, fast ripples: 250–500 Hz) and spikes were identified on all artifact-free channels. The HFOs and spikes were compared before and after seizures with stable medication dose and during medication reduction with no intervening seizures.
Twelve patients with five to eight nights were included. After seizures, there was an increase in spikes, whereas HFO rates remained the same. Medication reduction was followed by an increase in HFO rates and mean duration.
Contrary to spikes, high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) do not increase after seizures, but do so after medication reduction, similarly to seizures. This implies that spikes and HFOs have different pathophysiologic mechanisms and that HFOs are more tightly linked to seizures than spikes. HFOs seem to play an important role in seizure genesis and can be a useful clinical marker for disease activity.
PMCID: PMC3797085  PMID: 19289737 CAMSID: cams3470
13.  Extent and distribution of white matter hyperintensities in normal aging, MCI, and AD 
Neurology  2006;67(12):2192-2198.
To analyze the extent and spatial distribution of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in brain regions from cognitively normal older individuals (CN) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD).
We studied 26 mild AD, 28 MCI, and 33 CN. MRI analysis included quantification of WMH volume, nonlinear mapping onto a common anatomic image, and spatial localization of each WMH voxel to create an anatomically precise frequency distribution map. Areas of greatest frequency of WMH from the WMH composite map were used to identify 10 anatomic regions involving periventricular areas and the corpus callosum (CC) for group comparisons.
Total WMH volumes were associated with age, extent of concurrent vascular risk factors, and diagnosis. After correcting for age, total WMH volumes remained significantly associated with diagnosis and extent of vascular risk. Regional WMH analyses revealed significant differences in WMH across regions that also differed significantly according to diagnosis. In post-hoc analyses, significant differences were seen between CN and AD in posterior periventricular regions and the splenium of the CC. MCI subjects had intermediate values at all regions. Repeated measures analysis including vascular risk factors in the model found a significant relationship between periventricular WMH and vascular risk that differed by region, but regional differences according to diagnosis remained significant and there was no interaction between diagnosis and vascular risk.
Differences in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) associated with increasing cognitive impairment appear related to both extent and spatial location. Multiple regression analysis of regional WMH, vascular risk factors, and diagnosis suggest that these spatial differences may result from the additive effects of vascular and degenerative injury. Posterior periventricular and corpus callosum extension of WMH associated with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease indicate involvement of strategic white matter bundles that may contribute to the cognitive deficits seen with these syndromes.
PMCID: PMC3776588  PMID: 17190943
14.  When two are worse than one 
Neurology  2006;67(8):1326-1327.
PMCID: PMC3768276  PMID: 17060553
15.  Thickening in the somatosensory cortex of patients with migraine 
Neurology  2007;69(21):1990-1995.
To examine morphologic changes in the somatosensory cortex (SSC) of patients with migraine.
Cortical thickness of the SSC of patients with migraine was measured in vivo and compared with age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The cohort was composed of 24 patients with migraine, subdivided into 12 patients who had migraine with aura, 12 patients who had migraine without aura, and 12 controls. Group and individual analyses were performed in the SSC and shown as average maps of significant changes in cortical thickness.
Migraineurs had on average thicker SSCs than the control group. The most significant thickness changes were noticed in the caudal SSC, where the trigeminal area, including head and face, is somatotopically represented.
Our findings indicate the presence of interictal structural changes in the somatosensory cortex (SSC) of migraineurs. The SSC plays a crucial role in the noxious and nonnoxious somatosensory processing. Thickening in the SSC is in line with diffusional abnormalities observed in the subcortical trigeminal somatosensory pathway of the same migraine cohort in a previous study. Repetitive migraine attacks may lead to, or be the result of, neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical structures of the trigeminal somatosensory system.
PMCID: PMC3757544  PMID: 18025393
Neurology  2012;78(3):224-225.
PMCID: PMC3754949  PMID: 22249499 CAMSID: cams3338
17.  Statin use and Parkinson’s disease in Denmark 
Neurology  2008;70(16 0 2):1418-1422.
To investigate whether statin (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor) use is associated with risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Denmark.
We identified 1,931 patients with a first time diagnosis of PD reported in hospital or outpatient clinic records between 2001– 2006. We density matched to these patients 9,651 population controls by birth year and sex relying on the Danish population register. For every participant, we identified pharmacy records of statin and anti-Parkinson drug prescriptions since 1995 and prior to index date from a prescription medication use database for all Danish residents. Whenever applicable, the index dates for cases and their corresponding controls were advanced to the date of first recorded prescription for anti-Parkinson drugs. In our primary analyses, we excluded all statin prescriptions 2-years before PD diagnosis.
In unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusting for matching factors and co-morbidities, we observed none to slightly inverse associations between PD diagnosis and statin prescription drug use. Inverse associations with statin use were only observed for short-term (≤1 yrs) statin users (2-year lag OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89); and suggested at higher intensity statin use (2-year lag OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.45–1.04). No associations were seen among longer-term users and no difference by sex, age, or type of statins used (lipophilic/hydrophilic).
We found little evidence for a neuroprotective role of statins in PD except for short-term or high intensity users. Yet, further investigations into the contributions of intensity, duration, and lag periods of statin use may still be warranted.
PMCID: PMC3690297  PMID: 18184918
18.  A Longitudinal Study of Drivers with Alzheimer Disease 
Neurology  2008;70(14):1171-1178.
The goal of this study was to define the natural progression of driving impairment in persons who initially have very mild to mild dementia.
We studied 128 older drivers, including 84 with early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 44 age-matched control subjects without cognitive impairment. Subjects underwent repeated assessments of their cognitive, neurological, visual and physical function over three years. Self-reports of driving accidents and traffic violations were supplemented by reports from family informants and state records. Within two weeks of the office evaluation, subjects were examined by a professional driving instructor on a standardized road test.
At baseline, AD subjects had experienced more accidents and performed more poorly on the road test, compared to controls. Over time, both groups declined in driving performance on the road test, with AD subjects declining more than controls. Survival analysis indicated that while the majority of subjects with AD passed the examination at baseline, greater severity of dementia, increased age, and lower education were associated with higher rates of failure and marginal performance.
This study confirms previous reports of potentially hazardous driving in persons with early AD, but also indicates that some individuals with very mild dementia can continue to drive safely for extended periods of time. Regular followup assessments, however, are warranted in those individuals.
PMCID: PMC3664938  PMID: 18216302
19.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3643891  PMID: 21321355
20.  Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene are associated with early-onset Parkinson disease 
Neurology  2007;69(12):1270-1277.
To evaluate the frequency of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutations in cases and controls enrolled in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson’s Disease (GEPD) study.
We sequenced all exons of the GBA gene in 278 Parkinson disease (PD) cases and 179 controls enrolled in GEPD, with a wide range of age at onset (AAO), and that included a subset of 178 Jewish cases and 85 Jewish controls. Cases and controls were recruited without knowledge of family history of PD, and cases were oversampled in the AAO < 50 years category.
13.7% of PD cases (38/278) carried GBA mutations, compared with 4.5% of controls (8/179) (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, 95% CI 1.5 to 7.4). The frequency of GBA mutations was 22.2% in 90 cases with AAO ≤ 50 years, compared with 9.7% in 185 cases with AAO > 50 years (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.3). Adjusting for age at the time of evaluation, sex, family history of PD, and Jewish ancestry, GBA carriers had a 1.7-year-earlier AAO of PD (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3, p < 0.04) than noncarriers. The average AAO of PD was 2.5 years earlier in carriers with an AAO ≤ 50 years compared with noncarriers (95% CI 0.6 to 4.5, p < 0.01) and this was not seen in the AAO > 50 years group. The frequency of GBA mutations was higher in a subset of 178 cases that reported four Jewish grandparents (16.9%) than in cases who did not report Jewish ancestry (8.0%) (p < 0.01). Nine different GBA mutations were identified in PD cases, including 84insGG, E326K, T369M, N370S, D409H, R496H, L444P, RecNciI, and a novel mutation, P175P.
This study suggests that the Glucocerebrosidase gene may be a susceptibility gene for Parkinson disease and that Glucocerebrosidase mutations may modify age at onset.
PMCID: PMC3624967  PMID: 17875915
21.  Corticobasal syndrome and primary progressive aphasia as manifestations of LRRK2 gene mutations 
Neurology  2007;70(7):521-527.
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are an important cause of familial and nonfamilia parkinsonism. Despite pleomorphic pathology, LRRK2 mutations are believed to manifest clinically as typical Parkinson disease (PD). However, most genetic screens have been limited to PD clinic populations.
To clinically characterize LRRK2 mutations in cases recruited from a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases.
We screened for the common G2019S mutation and several additional previously reported LRRK2 mutations in 434 individuals. A total of 254 patients recruited from neurodegenerative disease clinics and 180 neurodegenerative disease autopsy cases from the University of Pennsylvania brain bank were evaluated.
Eight cases were found to harbor a LRRK2 mutation. Among patients with a mutation, two presented with cognitive deficits leading to clinical diagnoses of corticobasal syndrome and primary progressive aphasia.
The clinical presentation of LRRK2-associated neurodegenerative disease may be more heterogeneous than previously assumed.
PMCID: PMC3619720  PMID: 17914064
Neurology  2008;70(22):2078-2080.
PMCID: PMC3600581  PMID: 18505983
23.  Lamotrigine in pregnancy 
Neurology  2007;70(22 Pt 2):2130-2136.
To characterize the magnitude and course of alterations in total and free lamotrigine (LTG) clearance (Cl) during pregnancy and the postpartum period, to assess the impact of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) on seizure frequency, to determine the ratio to individual target LTG concentration that is associated with increased seizure risk, and to evaluate maternal postpartum toxicity.
A cohort of women were enrolled before conception or during pregnancy in this prospective, observational study. Visits occurred every 1 to 3 months with review of seizure and medication diaries, examination, and blood sampling. Total and free LTG Cls were calculated. Individualized target concentrations were used for TDM. The ratio to target concentration (RTC) was compared between patients with and without increased seizures. A receiver operating characteristic curve determined the threshold RTC that best predicts increased seizure frequency.
Analysis of 305 samples in 53 pregnancies demonstrated increased total and free LTG Cl in all trimesters above nonpregnant baseline (p < 0.001), with peak increases of 94% and 89% in the third trimester. Free LTG Cl was higher in white compared with black women (p < 0.05). Increased seizure frequency (n = 36 women with epilepsy) in the second trimester was associated with a lower RTC (p < 0.001), and RTC < 0.65 was a significant predictor of seizure worsening. An empiric postpartum taper reduced the likelihood of maternal LTG toxicity (p < 0.05) (n = 27). Newborn outcomes were similar to the general population (n = 52).
These novel data contribute to a rational treatment plan and dosing paradigm for lamotrigine use during pregnancy, parturition, and the postpartum period.
PMCID: PMC3589527  PMID: 18046009
24.  Clinicopathologic differences among patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia 
Neurology  2007;69(11):1113-1121.
To characterize the presenting symptoms and signs of patients clinically diagnosed with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and who had different neuropathologic findings on autopsy.
This study reviewed all patients entered as clinical bvFTD in the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s database and who had both clinical and neuropathologic data from 2005 to 2011. Among the 107 patients identified, 95 had unambiguous pathologic findings, including 74 with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (bvFTD-FTLD) and 21 with Alzheimer disease (bvFTD-AD). The patients with bvFTD-FTLD were further subdivided into τ-positive (n = 23) or τ-negative (n = 51) histopathology subgroups. Presenting clinical signs and symptoms were compared between these neuropathologic groups.
The patients with bvFTD-FTLD were significantly more likely than patients with bvFTD-AD to have initially predominant personality changes and poor judgment/decision-making. In contrast, patients with bvFTD-AD were more likely than patients with bvFTD-FTLD to have memory difficulty and delusions/hallucinations and agitation. Within the bvFTD-FTLD group, the τ-positive subgroup had more patients with initial behavioral problems and personality change than the τ-negative subgroup, who, in turn, had more patients with initial cognitive impairment and speech problems.
During life, patients with AD pathology may be misdiagnosed with bvFTD if they have an early age at onset and prominent neuropsychiatric features despite having greater memory difficulties and more intact personality and executive functions than patients with bvFTD-FTLD. Among those with FTLD pathology, patients with τ-positive bvFTD were likely to present with behavior/personality changes. These findings offer clues for antemortem recognition of neuropathologic subtypes of bvFTD.
PMCID: PMC3545400  PMID: 17522386
25.  Clinical and neuropathologic variation in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease 
Neurology  2004;63(8):1376-1384.
Recently described neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID) shows considerable clinical heterogeneity.
To assess the spectrum of the clinical and neuropathological features in 10 NIFID cases.
Retrospective chart and comprehensive neuropathological review of these NIFID cases was conducted.
The mean age at onset was 40.8 (range 23 to 56) years, mean disease duration was 4.5 (range 2.7 to 13) years, and mean age at death was 45.3 (range 28 to 61) years. The most common presenting symptoms were behavioral and personality changes in 7 of 10 cases and, less often, memory loss, cognitive impairment, language deficits, and motor weakness. Extrapyramidal features were present in 8 of 10 patients. Language impairment, perseveration, executive dysfunction, hyperreflexia, and primitive reflexes were frequent signs, whereas a minority had buccofacial apraxia, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, upper motor neuron disease (MND), and limb dystonia. Frontotemporal and caudate atrophy were common. Histologic changes were extensive in many cortical areas, deep gray matter, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The hallmark lesions of NIFID were unique neuronal IF inclusions detected most robustly by antibodies to neurofilament triplet proteins and α-internexin.
NIFID is a neuropathologically distinct, clinically heterogeneous variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) that may include parkinsonism or MND. Neuronal IF inclusions are the neuropathological signatures of NIFID that distinguish it from all other FTD variants including FTD with MND and FTD tauopathies.
PMCID: PMC3516854  PMID: 15505152

Results 1-25 (250)