Senile plaques consisting of β-amyloid (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau are major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Elucidation of factors that modulate Aβ generation and tau hyperphosphorylation is crucial for AD intervention. Here we identify a novel mouse gene Fg01 that originated through retroposition of ribosomal protein S23. We demonstrate that FG01 protein reduces the levels of Aβ and tau phosphorylation by interacting with adenylate cyclases to activate cAMP/PKA and thus inhibit GSK-3 activity. The function of Fg01 is demonstrated in cells of various species including human, and in transgenic mice overexpressing FG01. Furthermore, the AD-like pathologies of triple transgenic AD mice were improved and levels of synaptic maker proteins increased after crossing them with Fg01 transgenic mice. Our studies reveal a new target/pathway for regulating AD pathologies and uncover a novel retrogene and its role in regulating protein kinase pathways.
To better understand associations between managed care penetration in healthcare markets and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) adoption.
We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data to identify men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2001 and 2007 who were treated with radiation therapy (n=55,162). We categorized managed care penetration in Health Service Areas (HSAs) as low (<3%), intermediate (3–10%), and high (>10%); and assessed our main outcomes (i.e., probability of IMRT adoption, which is the ability of a healthcare market to deliver IMRT, and IMRT utilization in HSA markets) using a Cox proportional-hazards model and Poisson regression model, respectively.
Compared to markets with low managed care penetration, populations in highly penetrated HSAs were more racially diverse (25% vs. 15% non-white, p<0.01), densely populated (2,110 vs. 145 people/square mile, p<0.01), and wealthier (median income $48,500 vs. $31,900, p<0.01). The probability of IMRT adoption was greatest in markets with the highest managed care penetration (e.g., 0.82 (high) vs. 0.72 (low) in 2007, p=0.05). Among adopting markets, the use of IMRT increased in all HSA categories. However, relative to markets with low managed care penetration, IMRT utilization was constrained in markets with the highest penetration (0.69 (high) vs. 0.76 (low) in 2007, p<0.01).
Markets with higher managed care penetration demonstrated a greater propensity for acquiring IMRT technology. However, after adopting IMRT, more highly penetrated markets had roughly 7% slower growth in utilization over the study period. These findings provide insight into the implications of delivery system reforms for cancer-related technologies.
intensity-modulated radiotherapy; managed care; health service area
Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a small peptide that plays an important role in mucosal protection, cell proliferation, and cell migration. The aberrant expression of TFF3 is correlated with gastrointestinal inflammation, solid tumors, and other clinical diseases. The objective of this study was to identify the distribution characteristics of serum TFF3 in common clinical diseases.
Materials and Methods
A large prospective randomized study of 1,072 Chinese patients was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to examine the serum TFF3 concentrations in patients with different diseases. A matched case-control study was conducted on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1–5. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed using renal tissues to determine the relationship between the severity of CKD and the serum and urine concentrations of TFF3 peptides.
The mean serum concentrations of TFF3 in patients with CKD, metastatic and secondary carcinoma (MC) and acute gastroenteritis (AG) (200.9 ng/ml, 95.7 ng/ml and 71.7 ng/ml, respectively) were significantly higher than those in patients with other common clinical diseases. A positive correlation tendency was observed between the serum TFF3 concentrations and the severity of CKD. The mean serum TFF3 values for CKD stages 1–5 were 23.6 ng/ml, 29.9 ng/ml, 54.9 ng/ml, 85.0 ng/ml and 176.6 ng/ml, respectively. The same trend was observed in the urine TFF3 concentrations and the CKD stages. The creatinine(Cr)-corrected concentrations of TFF3 in urine were 367.1 ng/mg·Cr, 910.6 ng/mg·Cr, 1,149.0 ng/mg·Cr, 1,610.0 ng/mg·Cr and 3,475.0 ng/mg·Cr for CKD stages 1–5, respectively. IHC revealed that TFF3 expression was concentrated in tubular epithelial cells.
The influence of kidney injuries must be fully considered when performing clinical TFF3 research. Further studies on TFF3 in CKD will contribute to our understanding of its pathological roles and mechanisms in other diseases.
In pursuit of effective therapeutic agents for the ER-negative breast cancer, we previously demonstrated that bexarotene reduced mammary tumor development by 75% in ErbB2 mice. To further improve the effectiveness of breast cancer prevention, we have now investigated the effects of a combinatorial therapy consisting of two cancer preventive drugs. Based on the hypothesis, rexinoid LG100268 plus tamoxifen would more effectively prevent the development of both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer. We treated p53-null mammary gland mice with tamoxifen and LG100268 individually and in combination. By 60 weeks of age, vehicle treated mice developed tumors in 52% of transplanted mammary glands while mice treated with tamoxifen and LG100268 developed tumors in only 13% of transplanted mammary glands. To further define the mechanistic effects of this combinatorial treatment, we investigated the effects of tamoxifen and LG100268 on mammary tissue biomarkers. In mammary tissue harvested before tumor development, the proliferation markers Ki67 and cyclin D1 were significantly reduced in mice treated with the combination therapy. In addition, the rexinoid target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1 were induced in both the rexinoid and combination treatment groups, while expression remained constant in tamoxifen group. These results show that tamoxifen-LG100268 combinatorial treatment is more effective at preventing mammary tumors than either agent alone. In addition these studies have identified relevant tissue biomarkers that can be used to demonstrate the effect of these agents on mammary tissue. These results support the development of clinical trials of anti-estrogen and rexinoid combinatorial therapy for the prevention of high risk breast cancer patients.
P53 null mammary gland model; Rexinoid; ER-positive and negative Breast cancer
Saponin 1 is a triterpeniod saponin extracted from Anemone taipaiensis, a traditional Chinese medicine against rheumatism and phlebitis. It has also been shown to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity against human leukemia (HL-60 cells) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2 cells). Herein we investigated the effect of saponin 1 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) U251MG and U87MG cells. Saponin 1 induced significant growth inhibition in both glioblastoma cell lines, with a 50% inhibitory concentration at 24 h of 7.4 µg/ml in U251MG cells and 8.6 µg/ml in U87MG cells, respectively. Nuclear fluorescent staining and electron microscopy showed that saponin 1 caused characteristic apoptotic morphological changes in the GBM cell lines. Saponin 1-induced apoptosis was also verified by DNA ladder electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Additionally, immunocytochemistry and western blotting analyses revealed a time-dependent decrease in the expression and nuclear location of NF-κB following saponin 1 treatment. Western blotting data indicated a significant decreased expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family members,(e.g., survivin and XIAP) by saponin 1. Moreover, saponin 1 caused a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and initiated apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the GBM cell lines. These findings indicate that saponin 1 inhibits cell growth of GBM cells at least partially by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting survival signaling mediated by NF-κB. In addition, in vivo study also demonstrated an obvious inhibition of saponin 1 treatment on the tumor growth of U251MG and U87MG cells-produced xenograft tumors in nude mice. Given the minimal toxicities of saponin 1 in non-neoplastic astrocytes, our results suggest that saponin 1 exhibits significant in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for GBM.
STAMP2 is a counterregulator of inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether activation of STAMP2 improves insulin resistance by regulating macrophage polarization in adipose tissues. The diabetic ApoE−/−/LDLR−/− mouse model was induced by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin. Samples were obtained from epididymal, subcutaneous and brown adipose tissues. Infiltration of M1/M2 macrophages and inflammatory cytokines were investigated by immunohistochemistry. We then used gene overexpression to investigate the effect of STAMP2 on macrophages infiltration and polarization and inflammatory cytokines expression. Our results showed that infiltration of macrophages, the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were enhanced and STAMP2 was downregulated in adipose tissues of diabetic ApoE−/−/LDLR−/− mice compared with control mice. STAMP2 gene overexpression could significantly reduce macrophages infiltration, the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in epididymal and brown adipose tissues, improving insulin resistance. Our results suggested that STAMP2 gene overexpression may improve insulin resistance via regulating macrophage polarization in visceral and brown adipose tissues.
The recent experience with the emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus has highlighted the value of free and open access to influenza virus genome sequence data integrated with information about viral characteristics related to antiviral drug resistance and virulence. The Influenza Research Database (IRD, www.fludb.org) is a free, publicly accessible resource funded by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) through the Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRC) program. The IRD provides a comprehensive, integrated database, and analysis resource for influenza sequence, surveillance, and research data. It also provides user-friendly interfaces for data retrieval and visualization, comparative genomics analysis, and personal log in-protected “workbench” spaces for saving data sets and analysis results. IRD integrates genomic, proteomic, immune epitope, and surveillance data from a variety of sources, including public databases, computational algorithms, external research groups, and the scientific literature. The goal of the IRD is to provide a resource that helps researchers identify root causes of virus pathogenicity and host range restriction, and facilitates the development of vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics.
To better understand the associations between certificate of need regulations and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dissemination.
Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data, we identified men (66 years or older) treated with radiotherapy for prostate cancer diagnosed between 2001 and 2007. Based on data from the American Health Planning Association, we sorted Health Service Areas (HSAs) according to the stringency of certificate of need regulations (low vs. high) in that market. We assessed our outcomes (i.e., the probability of IMRT adoption and IMRT utilization in HSAs) using Cox proportional-hazards and Poisson regression models, respectively.
Low and high stringency markets were similar in terms of racial composition (80% vs. 85% white, p=0.08), population density (1,085 vs. 558 people/square mile, p=0.08), and income (median: $38,683 vs. 40,309, p=0.44), but low stringency markets had more patients with stage T1 disease (45% vs. 36%, p<0.01). The probability of IMRT adoption across the two groups of HSAs was similar (p=0.65). However, among adopting HSAs, those with high stringency consistently had greater use of IMRT (p<0.01).
Certificate of need regulations fail to create significant barriers to entry for IMRT. Among HSAs that acquire IMRT, high stringency markets demonstrate a greater propensity for using IMRT. These findings raise questions regarding the ability of certificate of need regulations to control technology dissemination.
intensity-modulated radiotherapy; certificate of need; adoption; utilization; health service area
β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a key factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its physiological function is largely undetermined. APP has been found to regulate retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF), which plays a crucial role in mediating neuronal survival and differentiation. Herein, we reveal the mechanism underlying APP-mediated NGF trafficking, by demonstrating a direct interaction between APP and the two NGF receptors, TrkA and p75NTR. Downregulation of APP leads to reduced cell surface levels of TrkA/p75NTR and increased endocytosis of TrkA/p75NTR and NGF. In addition, APP-deficient cells manifest defects in neurite outgrowth and are more susceptible to Aβ-induced neuronal death at physiological levels of NGF. However, APP-deficient cells show better responses to NGF-stimulated differentiation and survival than control cells. This may be attributed to increased receptor endocytosis and enhanced activation of Akt and MAPK upon NGF stimulation in APP-deficient cells. Together, our results suggest that APP mediates endocytosis of NGF receptors through direct interaction, thereby regulating endocytosis of NGF and NGF-induced downstream signaling pathways for neuronal survival and differentiation.
Bupleurum polysaccharides (BPs), isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium, possesses immunomodulatory activity, particularly on inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on host cell membrane. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the therapeutic efficacy of BPs on suppression of LPS’s pathogenecity could be associated with the modulating of TLR4 signaling pathway.
LPS stimulated expression and activation of factors in the TLR4 signaling system, including TLR4, CD14, IRAK4, TRAF6, NF-κB, and JNK, determined using immunocytochemical and/or Western blot assays. BPs significantly inhibited these effects of LPS. LPS increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p40, and IFN-β) and NO production, evaluated using ELISA and Griess reaction assays, respectively. BPs antagonized these effects of LPS. Interestingly, BPs alone augmented secretion of some pro-inflammatory cytokines of non-LPS stimulated macrophages and enhanced phagocytic activity towards fluorescent E.coli bioparticles. In a rat model of acute lung injury (ALI) with pulmonary hemorrhage and inflammation, BPs ameliorated lung injuries and suppressed TLR4 expression.
The therapeutic properties of BPs in alleviating inflammatory diseases could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. A key neuropathological event in AD is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. The production and clearance of Aβ in the brain are regulated by a large group of genes. The expression levels of these genes must be fine-tuned in the brain to keep Aβ at a balanced amount under physiological condition. Misregulation of AD genes has been found to either increase AD risk or accelerate the disease progression. In recent years, important progress has been made in uncovering the regulatory elements and transcriptional factors that guide the expression of these genes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation for the known AD genes and the misregualtion that leads to AD susceptibility.
Alzheimer’s disease; Transcription factors; Transcriptional regulatory element; Polymorphism; Amyloid-β
The CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc scores are used to predict thrombo-embolic/stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Nevertheless, limited data are available regarding the association between these risk stratification for stroke and left atrial (LA) remodeling status of AF patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between these scores and LA remodeling status assessed quantificationally by echocardiography in AF patients.
One hundred AF patients were divided into 3 groups based on the CHA2DS2-VASc/CHADS2 score: the score of 0 (low stroke risk), the score of 1 (moderate stroke risk) and the score of ≥2 (high stroke risk). All patients were performed through conventional and velocity vector imaging echocardiography. Echocardiographic parameters: maximum LA volume index (LAVImax), LA total emptying fraction (LAEFt) and LA mean strain were obtained to assess quantificationally LA remodeling status.
On categorizing with CHA2DS2-VASc, the score of 1 group showed augment in LAVImax and attenuation in LA mean strain derived from VVI, compared with the score of 0 group (LAVImax: 40.27±21.91 vs. 26.79±7.87, p=0.002; LA mean strain: 15.18±6.36 vs. 22±8.54, p=0.001). On categorizing with the CHADS2 score, similar trends were seen between the score of ≥2 and 1 groups (LAVImax: 43.72±13.77 vs. 31.41±9.50, p<0.001; LA mean strain: 11.01±5.31 vs. 18.63±7.00, p<0.001). With multivariate logistic regression, LAVImax (odds ratio: 0.92 , 95% C=I: 0.85 to 0.98, p= 0.01) and LA mean strain reflecting LA remodeling (odds ratio: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.19, p=0.01) were strongly predictive of the CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0.
The superiority of the CHADS2 score may lay in identifying LA remodeling of AF patients with high stroke risk. Whereas, the CHA2DS2-VASc score was better than the CHADS2 score at identifying LA remodeling of AF patients presenting low stroke risk.
Bone marrow stem cell treatment has been proven a promising therapeutic strategy and showed significant results given the strong immune modulating properties. We have investigated the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation through liver puncture in two patients with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.
The procedure was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. In 2011, in three young patients, type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnosis was confirmed, with the presence of positive antibodies and ketoacidosis. Two patients was treated with autologous bone marrow stem cell stimulated with filgrastim and transplantation, through liver puncture, as immune modulators. One patients was treated with conventional treatment and participate in this experiment as a control group. The families of the patients signed the informed consent. No specific statistical analysis was performed.
The patients had less than 8 years old, diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for less than 60 days, body mass index less than 22 kg/m2, normal complete blood count, coagulation and renal function, no lesions in target organs, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level less than 13.70%, c-peptide level less than 0.67 ng/ml, positive results of Islets Cells Antibody (ICA), Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) and insulin antibody.
In two patients treated, the follow up at 12 months showed negative value in ICA, GAD and anti insulin antibody levels, with an increased levels of c peptide and decreased levels of blood glucose and HbA1c.
Treatment with autologous bone marrow stem cells is easy and effective as it reversed the production and effect of anti pancreatic islet antibody and significantly resulted in an increased c-peptide concentration.
type 1 diabetes; bone marrow transplantation; bone marrow stem cells
Publications regarding the associations of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) G2258A and T597C polymorphisms with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) susceptibility are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between TLR2 G2258A and T597C polymorphisms with PTB susceptibility.
A systematic search was performed for published studies on the relationship between TLR2 polymorphisms and PTB susceptibility. Information was gathered from each eligible study, and statistically analyzed.
6 eligible studies, totaling 1301 cases and 1217 controls on G2258A genotypes, and 8 studies, totaling 2175 cases and 2069 controls on T597C genotypes, were included in the analysis. TLR2 2258G allele and 2258GG genotype were found to be associated with decreased PTB susceptibility (A vs. G: OR = 3.02, 95% CI: 2.22–4.12, P<0.001, GA+AA vs. GG: OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.49–4.87, P = 0.001). In the subgroup analyses, the 2258G allele and 2258GG genotype also exhibited a protective effect of PTB risk in Asians (A vs. G: OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.91–4.55, P<0.001; GA+AA vs. GG: OR = 3.59, 95% CI: 2.23–5.78, P<0.001), while no associations were observed in Caucasians. No significant associations between T597C polymorphism and PTB were found in the allele model (C vs. T: OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.86–1.04, P = 0.28), co-dominant model (CC vs. TT: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.92–1.40, P = 0.25; CT vs. TT: OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.80–1.06, P = 0.28), recessive model (CC vs. TT+TC: OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.80–1.16, P = 0.69), or dominant model (TC+CC vs. TT: OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.76–1.15, P = 0.51). The associations of T597C polymorphism with PTB susceptibility, in the ethnic-specific analyses, were still not significant.
TLR2 2258G allele may provide protective effects against PTB susceptibility, particularly among Asians, whereas TLR2 T597C polymorphism might not be associated with PTB susceptibility.
Reproductive behaviors have manifold consequences on evolutionary processes. Here, we explore mechanisms underlying female reproductive choice in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a species in which females have evolved the ability to produce their own self-fertilizing sperm, thereby allowing these "hermaphrodites" the strategic choice to self-reproduce or outcross with males. We report that hermaphrodites of the wild-type laboratory reference strain N2 favor self-reproduction, whereas a wild isolate CB4856 (HW) favors outcrossing. To characterize underlying neural mechanisms, we show that N2 hermaphrodites deficient in mechanosensation or chemosensation (e.g., mec-3 and osm-6 mutants) exhibit high mating frequency, implicating hermaphrodite perception of males as a requirement for low mating frequency. Within chemosensory networks, we find opposing roles for different sets of neurons that express the cyclic GMP-gated nucleotide channel, suggesting both positive and negative sensory-mediated regulation of hermaphrodite mating frequency. We also show that the ability to self-reproduce negatively regulates hermaphrodite mating. To map genetic variation, we created recombinant inbred lines and identified two QTL that explain a large portion of N2 × HW variation in hermaphrodite mating frequency. Intriguingly, we further show that ∼40 wild isolates representing C. elegans global diversity exhibit extensive and continuous variation in hermaphrodite reproductive outcome. Together, our findings demonstrate that C. elegans hermaphrodites actively regulate the choice between selfing and crossing, highlight the existence of natural variation in hermaphrodite choice, and lay the groundwork for molecular dissection of this evolutionarily important trait.
QTL; genetic basis of; hermaphrodite reproductive strategy; natural variation; neural signaling
Hybridization between genetically diverged organisms is known as an important avenue that drives plant genome evolution. The possible outcomes of hybridization would be the occurrences of genetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids. It remained under-investigated however whether pollination by alien pollens of a closely related but sexually "incompatible" species could evoke genomic changes and to what extent it may result in phenotypic novelties in the derived progenies.
In this study, we have re-sequenced the genomes of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Matsumae and one of its derived introgressant RZ35 that was obtained from an introgressive hybridization between Matsumae and Zizanialatifolia Griseb. in general, 131 millions 90 base pair (bp) paired-end reads were generated which covered 13.2 and 21.9 folds of the Matsumae and RZ35 genomes, respectively. Relative to Matsumae, a total of 41,724 homozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 17,839 homozygous insertions/deletions (indels) were identified in RZ35, of which 3,797 SNPs were nonsynonymous mutations. Furthermore, rampant mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) was found in the RZ35 genome. The results of pathogen inoculation revealed that RZ35 exhibited enhanced resistance to blast relative to Matsumae. Notably, one nonsynonymous mutation was found in the known blast resistance gene Pid3/Pi25 and real-time quantitative (q) RT-PCR analysis revealed constitutive up-regulation of its expression, suggesting both altered function and expression of Pid3/Pi25 may be responsible for the enhanced resistance to rice blast by RZ35.
Our results demonstrate that introgressive hybridization by Zizania has provoked genomewide, extensive genomic changes in the rice genome, and some of which have resulted in important phenotypic novelties. These findings suggest that introgressive hybridization by alien pollens of even a sexually incompatible species may represent a potent means to generate novel genetic diversities, and which may have played relevant roles in plant evolution and can be manipulated for crop improvements.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of all lung cancer. With a variety of biological functions, Prohibitin1 (PHB1) has been proved tumor-associated. But there are conflicting data regarding the involvement of PHB1 in tumorigenesis and few studies regarding the role of PHB1 in lung cancer. The studies reported herein used a combination of clinical observations and molecular methods to investigate the possible role of PHB1 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. PHB1 expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis. Flow cytometric analysis was used to determine the surface expression profiles of PHB1 in lung cell lines. The results showed that PHB1 expression were generally increased in lung cancer tissues when compared with matched noncancerous tissues and closely related with tumor differentiation and lymph node invasion. PHB1 expression levels was also increased in three lung cancer cell lines (SK-MES-1, NCI-H157 and NCI-H292) as compared with BEAS-2B cells. Moreover, there were various subcellular localization of PHB1 in different lung cancer cells and the presence of PHB1 on the surface of lung cancer cells was significantly reduced. In conclusion, PHB1 expression is increased in NSCLC and the up-regulation of PHB1 is associated with clinically aggressive phenotype. The different subcellular localization of PHB1 in NSCLC cells and the loss of the membrane-associated PHB1 probably related to the tumorigenesis and progression of NSCLC and suggests that PHB1 may play different roles in various types of NSCLC.
Prohibitin 1; up-regulation; subcellular localization; non-small cell lung cancer
To investigate the pathologic mechanisms of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in lung injury and atherosclerosis, ApoE−/− or wild-type mice were intraperitoneally administered saline, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), or LPS plus TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor), respectively, twice a week for 4 weeks. Serum autoantibody of antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), and cytokines of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 (IL-1β) were assessed by ELISA. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Perl's stains for lung pathomorphology as well as HE staining for atherosclerosis were employed. TLR4 in macrophages was detected by double immunofluorescent staining. While protein expressions of TLR4, nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), and B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) were examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that serum autoantibody (ANA and anti-dsDNA), cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β), lung inflammation, and intima-media thickness in brachiocephalic artery were obviously increased after LPS challenge in both genotypes, but to a lesser extent in wild-type strains. And those alterations were alleviated by coadministration of LPS and TAK-242. Mechanistically, upregulation of TLR4, NF-κb, and BAFF was involved. We concluded that TLR4/NF-κb/BAFF in macrophages might be a possible common autoimmune pathway that caused lung injury and atherosclerosis. TLR4 signal will be a therapeutic target in atherosclerosis and immune-mediated lung injury.
Portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) is strongly correlated to a poor prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we uncovered a causative link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and development of PVTT. Mechanistically, elevated TGF-β activity, associated with the persistent presence of HBV in the liver tissue, suppresses the expression of microRNA-34a, leading to enhanced production of chemokine CCL22, which recruits regulatory T (Treg) cells to facilitate immune escape. These findings strongly suggest that HBV infection and activity of the TGF-β-miR-34a-CCL22 axis serve as potent etiological factors to predispose HCC patients for the development of PVTT, possibly through the creation of an immune-subversive microenvironment to favor colonization of disseminated HCC cells in the portal venous system.
Hantaan virus (HTNV) could cause a severe lethal hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. Despite a limited understanding of the pathogenesis of HFRS, the importance of host-related immune responses in the pathogenesis of HFRS has been widely recognized. CD100/Sema4D has been demonstrated to play an important role in physiological and pathological immune responses, but the functional role of CD100 in infectious diseases has only been inadequately reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological significance of CD100 in patients after HTNV infection.
Blood samples were collected from 99 hospitalized patients in Tangdu Hospital and 27 health controls. The level of soluble CD100 (sCD100) in plasma were quantified by ELISA and the relationship between sCD100 and the disease course or severity were analyzed. The expressions of membrane CD100 on various subpopulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The results showed that sCD100 level in acute phase of HFRS was significantly higher in patients than that in healthy controls (P<0.0001) and the sCD100 level declined in convalescent phase. Multivariate model analysis showed that platelet count, white blood cell count, serum creatinine level and blood urea nitrogen level were associated with sCD100 levels and contributed independently to the elevated sCD100 levels. The expression of membrane CD100 on PBMCs decreased in the acute phase of HFRS patients compared with that of the normal controls and recovered in the convalescent phase.
We reported the elevated level of plasma sCD100 in HFRS patients and the elevated level might be a result from the shedding of membrane CD100 on PBMC. The elevated level of sCD100 was associated with disease severity, suggesting that sCD100 might be a cause or a consequence of progression of HFRS. The underlying mechanisms should be explored further.
Human tissue kallikrein (hTK) plays an essential role in the physiological and pathological mechanisms of blood vessels. This study aimed to determine whether angiogenesis induced by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) transduced with the adenovirus-mediated hTK gene could improve blood flow in rat hindlimb ischemia in vivo and to establish a promising mechanism in vitro.
EPCs transduced with adenovirus encoding hTK-162 (i.e., Ad/hTK-transduced EPCs or Ad/GFP-transduced EPCs) were administered to Wister rats with hindlimb ischemia through therapeutic neovascularization. Muscular capillary density (MCD), blood flow (BF), and the number of myofibers were measured at days 7, 14, and 21 after treatment. Expressions of integrin αvβ3 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were detected on the surface of EPCs.
MCD, BF, and the number of myofibers in rats with Ad/hTK-transduced EPCs remarkably increased at day 21 after treatment compared with rats with Ad/GFP-transduced EPCs or the control group (P<0.01). Expressions of integrin αvβ3 and eNOS protein on the surface of EPCs also increased in rats with Ad/hTK-transduced EPCs. The levels of integrin αvβ3 expression were reduced by PI3K and eNOS blockade, and the inhibitor of integrin αvβ3 abrogated the migration and adhesion of hTK-transduced EPCs (P<0.05).
hTK gene delivery in vivo improves the natural angiogenic response to ischemia. The ability of hTK gene-transduced EPCs can be enhanced in vitro, in which integrin αvβ3 plays a role in the process.
Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder. At present there are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis and therapy is mostly limited to behavioral interventions. Stem cell transplantation may offer a unique treatment strategy for autism due to immune and neural dysregulation observed in this disease. This non-randomized, open-label, single center phase I/II trial investigated the safety and efficacy of combined transplantation of human cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNCs) and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) in treating children with autism.
37 subjects diagnosed with autism were enrolled into this study and divided into three groups: CBMNC group (14 subjects, received CBMNC transplantation and rehabilitation therapy), Combination group (9 subjects, received both CBMNC and UCMSC transplantation and rehabilitation therapy), and Control group (14 subjects, received only rehabilitation therapy). Transplantations included four stem cell infusions through intravenous and intrathecal injections once a week. Treatment safety was evaluated with laboratory examinations and clinical assessment of adverse effects. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) were adopted to assess the therapeutic efficacy at baseline (pre-treatment) and following treatment.
There were no significant safety issues related to the treatment and no observed severe adverse effects. Statistically significant differences were shown on CARS, ABC scores and CGI evaluation in the two treatment groups compared to the control at 24 weeks post-treatment (p < 0.05).
Transplantation of CBMNCs demonstrated efficacy compared to the control group; however, the combination of CBMNCs and UCMSCs showed larger therapeutic effects than the CBMNC transplantation alone. There were no safety issues noted during infusion and the whole monitoring period.
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343511, Title “Safety and Efficacy of Stem Cell Therapy in Patients with Autism”.
Autism; Cord blood mononuclear cell; Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell; Cell transplantation
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent tumors worldwide. Interferon-α (IFN-α) has been widely used in the treatment of HCC, but patients eventually develop resistance. ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like protein transcriptionally regulated by IFN-α which shows antivirus and antitumor activities. However, the exact role of ISG15 is unknown. In the present study, we showed that IFN-α significantly induced ISG15 expression but failed to induce HepG2 cell apoptosis, whereas transient overexpression of ISG15 dramatically increased HepG2 cell apoptosis. ISG15 overexpression increased overall protein ubiquitination, which was not observed in cells with IFN-α-induced ISG15 expression, suggesting that IFN-α treatment not only induced the expression of ISG15 but also inhibited ISG15-mediated ubiquitination. The tumor suppressor p53 and p21 proteins are the key regulators of cell survival and death in response to stress signals such as DNA damage. We showed that p53 or p21 is only up regulated in HepG2 cells ectopically expressing ISG15, but not in the presence of IFN-α-induced ISG15. Our results suggest that ISG15 overexpression could be developed into a powerful gene-therapeutic tool for treating IFN-α-resistant HCC.