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author:("kantar, A. M.")
1.  A Trichodorus (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) Nematode from Thrips (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(3):302-308.
A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Canada to Blaine, WA, by a USDA-APHIS-PPQ port inspector. Nematodes were attached to the abdomen of the female insect and sent to us in saline. Seven nematodes (five females, two males) were measured and these and others were processed for permanent slides. An adult female and a female juvenile were prepared for PCR. Morphologically these nematodes belonged to the Trichodorus sparsus group, and the 28S rDNA D2-D3 sequence showed greatest similarity to Trichodorus paragiennensis (94%) and T. giennensis (93%), with greatest morphological similarity to the latter species. Among other morphological differences, the innermost uterus width is wider than in related species. Trichodorus spp. are normally found in soil, so this is the first population seen in the atypical habitat of an insect. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Trichodorus sp. are presented, but a putative new species name is not currently advisable because of relatively poor condition of specimens. Ecological associations are also discussed.
PMCID: PMC4176414  PMID: 25276005
ecology; large subunit ribosomal DNA; stubby root nematode; systematics; taxonomy; virus vector
2.  Molecular and Morphological Characterization of the Corn Cyst Nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Greece 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(1):58-66.
The corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae was detected in soil from an organic maize field in northern Greece. In greenhouse studies, reproduction of H. zeae was detected on maize plants (Zeae mays) using soil high in organic matter; the field was under winter fallow at the time of sampling. Maize plants were grown in a greenhouse with soil from the affected field used as inoculum. Females appeared after six weeks incubation, and abundant cysts were present after 12 weeks. Morphological and molecular diagnosis confirmed the presence of H. zeae in the field. Cysts were identified on the basis of cyst shape and characteristics of the cyst terminal cone, including nature of fenestration, presence of bullae, cyst wall pattern, and fenestral diameter. Second-stage juveniles were identified by body and stylet length, the shape of stylet knobs, shape and length of the tail and hyaline tail terminus, and by the number of lateral lines. Molecular analysis included amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1&2 rDNA) 28S large ribosomal subunit (LSU) D2-D3 expansion segment, and partial 18S small ribosomal subunit (SSU). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of ITS rDNA exhibited several unique enzyme patterns that may be diagnostically useful for H. zeae. These findings are in agreement with prior analysis of H. zeae populations from the U.S. and India. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from ITS rDNA are congruent with previous analyses that placed H. zeae in a clade with H. turcomanica, H. salixophila and species of the Humuli group. Phylogenetic trees based upon heat shock protein (Hsp90) coding sequence were in general agreement with a prior study using the same marker. This study represents the first record of H. zeae in Greece and the second report of this nematode in Europe.
PMCID: PMC3593258  PMID: 23482617
Corn cyst nematode; Heterodera zeae; ITS rDNA; restriction fragment length polymorphism; maize
3.  Molecular rDNA phylogeny of Telotylenchidae Siddiqi, 1960 and evaluation of tail termini 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(4):359-369.
Three stunt nematode species, Tylenchorhynchus leviterminalis, T. dubius and T. claytoni were characterized with segments of small subunit 18S and large subunit 28S rDNA sequence and placed in molecular phylogenetic context with other polyphyletic taxa of Telotylenchidae. Based upon comparably sized phylogenetic breadth of outgroups and ingroups, the 28S rDNA contained three times the number of phylogenetically informative alignment characters relative to the alignment total compared to the larger 18S dataset even though there were fewer than half the number of taxa represented. Tail shapes and hyaline termini were characterized for taxa within these subfamily trees, and variability discussed for some related species. In 18S trees, similar terminal tail thickness was found in a well-supported clade of three Tylenchorhynchus: broad-tailed T. leviterminalis branched outside relatively narrow-tailed T. claytoni and T. nudus. Terminal tail thickness within Merliniinae, Telotylenchinae and related taxa showed a mosaic distribution. Thick-tailed Trophurus, Macrotrophurus and putative Paratrophurus did not group together in the 18S tree. Extremely thickened tail termini arose at least once in Amplimerlinius and Pratylenchoides among ten species of Merliniinae plus three Pratylenchoides, and three times within twelve taxa of Telotylenchinae and Trophurinae. Conflicting generic and family nomenclature based on characters such as pharyngeal overlap are discussed in light of current molecular phylogeny. Contrary to some expectations from current taxonomy, Telotylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus cf. robustus did not cluster with three Tylenchorhynchus spp. Two putative species of Neodolichorhynchus failed to group together, and two populations of Scutylenchus quadrifer demonstrated as much or greater genetic distance between them than among three related species of Merlinius.
PMCID: PMC3380519  PMID: 22736870
character analysis; evolutionary convergence; morphology; nomenclature; phylogeny; stunt nematode; systematics; tail; taxonomy; Tylenchorhynchus
4.  Morphological and Molecular Identification of Globodera pallida Associated with Potato in Idaho 
Journal of nematology  2007;39(2):133-144.
The identity of a newly discovered population of pale potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida associated with potato in eastern Idaho was established by morphological and molecular methods. Morphometrics of cysts and second-stage juveniles were generally within the expected ranges for G. pallida with some variations noted. The Idaho population and paratype material from Epworth, Lincolnshire, England, both showed variations in tail shape, with bluntly rounded to finely pointed tail termini. Compared to literature values for the paratypes, second-stage juveniles of the Idaho population had a somewhat shorter mean body length, and cysts had a slightly higher mean distance from the anus to the nearest edge of the fenestra. PCR-RFLP of the rDNA ITS region, sequence-specific multiplex PCR and DNA sequence comparisons all confirmed the identity of the Idaho population as G. pallida. The ITS rDNA sequence of the Idaho isolate was identical to those from York, England, and the Netherlands. Species-specific primers that can positively identify the tobacco cyst nematode Globodera tabacum were also developed, providing a new assay for distinguishing this species from G. pallida and the golden potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.
PMCID: PMC2586493  PMID: 19259482
Globodera; detection; diagnosis; molecular biology; morphology; Nicotiana tabacum; PCR; potato; rDNA; RFLP; Solanumtuberosum; taxonomy
5.  Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a New Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Ginger (Zingiber sp.) 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(3):343-353.
A root-knot nematode Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. was discovered on roots of ginger (Zingiber spp.) intercepted from Thailand in October 2002 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service at the port of San Francisco. Comparison by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to five other morphologically related species (M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. microcephala, M. megatyla, and M. enterolobii) revealed that the new species differs from these by one or more of the following: body, tail and hyaline tail length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles; stylet length and shape of spicules in males; perineal pattern, stylet length and shape of knobs in females. The distinctive perineal pattern is oval to rectangular, with smooth to moderately wavy and coarse striae, and with characteristic radial structures present underneath the pattern area; the dorsal arch is high, sometimes round to rectangular, and striae in and around the anal area form a thick network-like pattern interrupted by lateral lines and large phasmids. Second-stage juveniles have a long, slender tail and long, gradually tapering hyaline tail region ending in a rounded terminus. Male spicules commonly have an acutely angled shaft with a bidentate terminus. Molecular data from the ribosomal large subunit D3 expansion segment revealed four haplotypes, two of which were unique and distinguish M. thailandica n. sp. from M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.
PMCID: PMC2620980  PMID: 19262883
ginger; intergenic spacer (IGS); internal transcribed spacer (ITS1); large subunit (LSU); Meloidogyne; morphology; new species; ribosomal DNA; root-knot nematode; scanning electron microscopy; taxonomy; Thailand
6.  Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of a Meloidogyne hapla Population Damaging Coffee (Coffea arabica) in Maui, Hawaii 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(2):136-145.
An unusual population of Meloidogyne hapla, earlier thought to be an undescribed species, was found causing large galls, without adventitious roots, and substantial damage to coffee in Maui, Hawaii. Only in Brazil had similar damage to coffee been reported by this species. Unlike M. exigua from South and Central America, this population reproduced well on coffee cv. Mokka and M. incognita-susceptible tomato but poorly on tomato with the Mi resistance gene. Characterization included SEM images, esterase isozymes, and five DNA sequences: i) the D3 segment of the large subunit (LSU-D3 or 28S) rDNA, ii) internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) rDNA, iii) intergenic spacer (IGS) rDNA, iv) the mitochondrial interval from cytochrome oxidase (CO II) to 16S mtDNA, and v) the nuclear gene Hsp90. Sequences for ITS-1, IGS, and COII were similar to other M. hapla populations, but within species ITS-1 variability was not less than among species. One LSU-D3 haplotype was similar to a previously analyzed population with two minor haplotypes. Hsp90 exhibited some variation between Maryland and Hawaiian populations distinct from other species. Females were narrow with wide vulval slits, large interphasmidial distances, and more posterior excretory pores; 20% of perineal patterns had atypical perivulval lines. Males had a low b ratio (<12 µm). Juveniles had a short distance between stylet and dorsal gland orifice. Juvenile body length was short (<355 µm) and was different between summer and winter populations.
PMCID: PMC2620964  PMID: 19262853
climate; Coffea arabica; Coffea robusta; detection; identification; India; Meloidogyne exigua; M. incognita; M. javanica; M. konaensis; molecular diagnostics; nematode; netherlands; resistance; taxonomy
7.  Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Longidorus americanum n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae), a Needle Nematode Parasitizing Pine in Georgia 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(1):94-104.
We describe and illustrate a new needle nematode, Longidorus americanum n. sp., associated with patches of severely stunted and chlorotic loblolly pine, (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in seedbeds at the Flint River Nursery (Byromville, GA). It is characterized by having females with a body length of 5.4-9.0 mm; lip region slightly swollen, anteriorly flattened, giving the anterior end a truncate appearance; long odontostyle (124-165 µm); vulva at 44%-52% of body length; and tail conoid, bluntly rounded to almost hemispherical. Males are rare but present, and in general shorter than females. The new species is morphologically similar to L. biformis, L. paravineacola, L. saginus, and L. tarjani but differs from these species either by the body, odontostyle and total stylet length, or by head and tail shape. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other Longidorus species. Phylogenetic relationships of Longidorus americanum n. sp. with other longidorids based on analysis of this DNA fragment are presented. Additional information regarding the distribution of this species within the region is required.
PMCID: PMC2620944  PMID: 19262848
DNA sequencing; Georgia; loblolly pine; Longidorus americanum n. sp.; molecular data; morphology; new species; neddle nematode; phylogenetics; SEM; taxonomy
8.  Morphological, Molecular, and Differential-Host Characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Peach in Florida 
Journal of Nematology  2004;36(1):20-35.
A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either by the body length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles, body length and shape of spicules in males, and its distinctive female perineal pattern. This pattern has a high to narrowly rounded arch with coarsely broken and network-like striae in and around anal area, faint lateral lines interrupting transverse striae, a sunken vulva and anus, and large distinct phasmids. Molecular data from ribosomal IGS illustrate that M. floridensis n. sp. is different from the mitotic species M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Data from RAPDs confirm it and suggest that this new species lies in an intermediate phylogenetic position between the previous species and the meiotic species M. hapla, M. fallax, and M. chitwoodi. Differential host tests based on annual crops and on Prunus accessions are reported.
PMCID: PMC2620741  PMID: 19262784
esterase phenotype; Florida; host range; meiotic parthenogenesis; Meloidogyne; morphology; new species; peach; rootknot nematode; scanning electron microscopy; taxonomy

Results 1-8 (8)